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Encyclopedia > Broadband Internet access
A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish.
A WildBlue Satellite Internet dish.

Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just "broadband", is high speed Internet access—typically contrasted with dial-up access over modem. Image File history File links Summary This is a dish for Wild Blue Satellite Internet service. ... Image File history File links Summary This is a dish for Wild Blue Satellite Internet service. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... Dial-up access is a form of Internet access via telephone line. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ...


Dial-up modems are generally only capable of a maximum bitrate of 56 kbit/s (kilobits per second) and require the full use of a telephone line—whereas broadband technologies supply at least double this speed and generally without disrupting telephone use. In telecommunications and computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable Rbit) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. ... This article is about the unit of information. ...


Although various minimum speeds have been used in definitions of broadband, ranging up from 64 kbit/s up to 1.0 Mbit/s, the OECD Broadband Statistics report is typical in counting only download speeds equal to or faster than 256 kbit/s as broadband, and the US FCC use 200 kbit/s in their definition. Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City...


Speeds are defined in terms of maximum download because several common consumer broadband technologies such as ADSL are "asymmetric" - supporting much slower upload speeds than download. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ...


"Broadband penetration" is now treated as a key economic indicator. [1] [2] An economic indicator (or business indicator) is a statistic about the economy. ...

Contents

Overview

Broadband transmission rates
Connection Transmission Speed
DS-1 (Tier 1) 1.544 Mbit/s
E-1 2.048 Mbit/s
DS-3 (Tier 3) 44.736 Mbit/s
OC-3 155.52 Mbit/s
OC-12 622.08 Mbit/s
OC-48 2.488 Gbit/s
OC-192 9.953 Gbit/s
OC-768 39.813 Gbit/s
OC-1536 79.6 Gbit/s
OC-3072 159.2 Gbit/s

Broadband is often called high-speed Internet, because it usually has a high rate of data transmission. In general, any connection to the customer of 256 kbit/s (0.256 Mbit/s) or more is considered broadband Internet. The International Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) recommendation I.113 has defined broadband as a transmission capacity that is faster than primary rate ISDN, at 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s. The FCC definition of broadband is 200 kbit/s (0.2 Mbit/s) in one direction, and advanced broadband is at least 200 kbit/s in both directions. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has defined broadband as 256 kbit/s in at least one direction and this bit rate is the most common baseline that is marketed as "broadband" around the world. There is no specific bitrate defined by the industry, however, and "broadband" can mean lower-bitrate transmission methods. Some Internet Service Providers (ISPs) use this to their advantage in marketing lower-bitrate connections as broadband. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In telecommunications, T-carrier is the generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier systems originally developed by Bell Labs and used in North America and Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... FCC redirects here. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... In telecommunications and computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable Rbit) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. ... Broadband in telecommunications is a term that refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. ... “ISP” redirects here. ... “ISP” redirects here. ...


In practice, the advertised bandwidth is not always reliably available to the customer; ISPs often allow a greater number of subscribers than their backbone connection can handle, under the assumption that most users will not be using their full connection capacity very frequently. This aggregation strategy works more often than not, so users can typically burst to their full bandwidth most of the time; however, peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing systems, often requiring extended durations of high bandwidth, stress these assumptions, and can cause major problems for ISPs who have excessively overbooked their capacity. For more on this topic, see traffic shaping. As takeup for these introductory products increases, telcos are starting to offer higher bit rate services. For existing connections, this most of the time simply involves reconfiguring the existing equipment at each end of the connection. A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... “ISP” redirects here. ... Traffic shaping (also known as packet shaping) is an attempt to control computer network traffic in order to optimize or guarantee performance, low latency, and/or bandwidth by delaying packets[1]. Traffic shaping deals with concepts of classification, queue disciplines, enforcing policies, congestion management, quality of service (QoS), and fairness. ... A telephone company (or telco) provides telecommunications services such as telephony and data communications. ...


As the bandwidth delivered to end users increases, the market expects that video on demand services streamed over the Internet will become more popular, though at the present time such services generally require specialized networks. The data rates on most broadband services still do not suffice to provide good quality video, as MPEG-2 video requires about 6 Mbit/s for good results. Adequate video for some purposes becomes possible at lower data rates, with rates of 768 kbit/s and 384 kbit/s used for some video conferencing applications, and rates as low as 100 kbit/s used for videophones using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The MPEG-4 format delivers high-quality video at 2 Mbit/s, at the high end of cable modem and ADSL performance. Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Groupware | Telecommunications stubs ... It has been suggested that Visiophone be merged into this article or section. ... H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. ...


Increased bandwidth has already made an impact on newsgroups: postings to groups such as alt.binaries.* have grown from JPEG files to entire CD and DVD images. According to NTL, the level of traffic on their network increased from a daily inbound news feed of 150 gigabytes of data per day and 1 terabyte of data out each day in 2001 to 500 gigabytes of data inbound and over 4 terabytes out each day in 2002.[citation needed] A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... JPG redirects here. ... CD redirects here. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... A disk image is a computer file containing the complete contents and structure of a data storage device. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Virgin Media, Telewest and Virgin. ...


Technology

The standard broadband technologies in most areas are DSL and cable modems. Newer technologies in use include VDSL and pushing optical fiber connections closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fiber-optic communication, while only recently being used in fiber to the premises and fiber to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling Broadband Internet access by making transmission of information over larger distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In a few areas not served by cable or ADSL, community organizations have begun to install Wi-Fi networks, and in some cities and towns local governments are installing municipal Wi-Fi networks. As of 2006, high speed mobile Internet access has become available at the consumer level in some countries, using the HSDPA and EV-DO technologies. The newest technology being deployed for mobile and stationary broadband access is WiMAX. DSL redirects here. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... It has been suggested that VDSL2 be merged into this article or section. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber. ... // Fiber to the premises (FTTP) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run directly onto the customers premises. ... Fiber To The Curb (FTTC) refers to a telecomunications system based on fiber-optic cables run to a platform that serves several customers. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ), also unofficially known as Wireless Fidelity, is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ... Evolution Data Only,Evolution Data Optimized, often abbreviated as EVDO, EV-DO, EvDO, 1xEV-DO or 1xEvDO is a wireless radio broadband data protocol being adopted by many CDMA mobile phone providers in Japan, Korea, the United States and Canada, as part of the CDMA2000 standard. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ...


Multilinking Modems

It is possible to roughly double dial-up capability with multilinking technology. What is required are two modems, two phone lines, two dial-up accounts, and ISP support for multilinking, or special software at the user end. This option was popular with some high-end users before ISDN, DSL and other technologies became available.


Dual Analog Lines

Diamond and other vendors had created dual phone line modems with bonding capability. The speed of dual line modems is faster than 90 kbit/s. To use this modem, the ISP should support line bonding. The Internet and phone charge will be twice the ordinary dial-up charge.


Load Balancing

Load Balancing takes two internet connections and feeds them into your network as one double speed, more resilient internet connection. By choosing two independent internet providers the load balancing hardware will automatically use the line with least load which means should one line fail, the second one automatically takes up the slack.


ISDN

Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is one of the oldest high-speed digital access methods for consumers and businesses to connect to the Internet. It is a telephone data service standard. Its use in the United States peaked in the late 1990s prior to the availability of DSL and cable modem technologies. Broadband service is usually compared to ISDN-BRI because this was the standard high-speed access technology that formed a baseline for the challenges faced by the early broadband providers. These providers sought to compete against ISDN by offering faster and cheaper services to consumers. ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... DSL may refer to: Damn Small Linux Dark and Shattered Lands, a MUD based loosely on Forgotten Realms and Dragonlance books. ...


A basic rate ISDN line (known as ISDN-BRI) is an ISDN line with 2 data "bearer" channels (DS0 - 64 kbit/s each). Using ISDN terminal adapters (erroneously called modems), it is possible to bond together 2 or more separate ISDN-BRI lines to reach speeds of 256 kbit/s or more. The ISDN channel bonding technology has been used for video conference applications and high-speed data transmission. ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog...


Primary rate ISDN, known as ISDN-PRI, is an ISDN line with 23 DS0 channels and total speed of 1,544 kbit/s (US standard). ISDN E1 (European standard) line is an ISDN lines with 30 DS0 channels and total speed of 2,048 kbit/s. Because ISDN is a telephone-based product, a lot of the terminology and physical aspects of the line are shared by the ISDN-PRI used for voice services. An ISDN line can therefore be "provisioned" for voice or data and many different options, depending on the equipment being used at any particular installation, and depending on the offerings of the telephone company's central office switch. Most ISDN-PRI's are used for telephone voice communication using large PBX systems, rather than for data. One obvious exception is that ISP's usually have ISDN-PRI's for handling ISDN data and modem calls. In voice telecommunication, provisioning means to provide telecommunications services to a user or customer. ... In the field of telecommunications, a central office or telephone exchange houses equipment that is commonly known as simply a switch, which is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... PBX redirects here. ... ISP may mean: Internet service provider, an organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...


It is mainly of historical interest that many of the earlier ISDN data lines used 56 kbit/s rather than 64 kbit/s "B" channels of data. This caused ISDN-BRI to be offered at both 128 kbit/s and 112 kbit/s rates, depending on the central office's switching equipment.


Advantages:

  1. Constant data speed at 64 kbit/s for each DS0 channel.
  2. Two way high speed symmetric data transmission, unlike ADSL.
  3. One of the data channels can be used for phone conversation without disturbing the data transmission through the other data channel. When a phone call is ended, the bearer channel can immediately dial and re-connect itself to the data call.
  4. Call setup is very quick.
  5. Low latency
  6. ISDN Voice clarity is unmatched by other phone services.
  7. Caller ID is almost always available for no additional fee.
  8. Maximum distance from the central office is much greater than it is for DSL.
  9. When using ISDN-BRI, there is the possibility of using the low-bandwidth 16 kbit/s "D" channel for packet data and for always on capabilities.

Disadvantages: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ... For the protein involved in the synthesis of major histocompatibility complex II, see CLIP (protein). ... In the field of telecommunications, a central office or telephone exchange houses equipment that is commonly known as simply a switch, which is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ...

  1. ISDN offerings are dwindling in the marketplace due to the widespread use of faster and cheaper alternatives.
  2. ISDN routers, terminal adapters ("modems"), and telephones are more expensive than ordinary POTS equipment, like dial-up modems.
  3. ISDN provisioning can be complicated due to the great number of options available.
  4. ISDN users must dial in to a provider that offers ISDN Internet service, which means that the call could be disconnected.
  5. ISDN is billed as a phone line, to which is added the bill for Internet ISDN access.
  6. "Always on" data connections are not available in all locations.
  7. Some telephone companies charge unusual fees for ISDN, including call setup fees, per minute fees, and higher rates than normal for other services.

POTS may mean: Plain old telephone service (aka Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) or Post Office Telephone Service or Post Office Telephone System) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the... In voice telecommunication, provisioning means to provide telecommunications services to a user or customer. ...

T-1/DS-1

These are highly-regulated services traditionally intended for businesses, that are managed through Public Service Commissions (PSCs) in each state, must be fully defined in PSC tariff documents, and have management rules dating back to the early 1980s which still refer to teletypes as potential connection devices. As such, T-1 services have very strict and rigid service requirements which drive up the provider's maintenance costs and may require them to have a technician on standby 24 hours a day to repair the line if it malfunctions. (In comparison, ISDN and DSL are not regulated by the PSCs at all.) Due to the expensive and regulated nature of T-1 lines, they are normally installed under the provisions of a written agreement, the contract term being typically one to three years. However, there are usually few restrictions to an end-user's use of a T-1, uptime and bandwidth speed may be guaranteed, quality of service may be supported, and blocks of static IP addresses are commonly included. The Public Service Commission (PSC), Singapore, is constituted under Part IX of the Constitution of Singapore and its constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore. ... Tariffs are the prices charged to consumers by telecommunications service providers. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Uptime is a measure of the time a computer system has been up and running. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to control mechanisms that can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Since a T-1 was originally conceived for voice transmission, and voice T-1's are still widely used in businesses, it can be confusing to the uninitiated subscriber. It is often best to refer to the type of T-1 being considered, using the appropriate "data" or "voice" prefix to differentiate between the two. A voice T-1 would terminate at a phone company's central office (CO) for connection to the PSTN; a data T-1 terminates at a point of presence (POP) or datacenter. The T-1 line which is between a customer's premises and the POP or CO is called the local loop. The owner of the local loop need not be the owner of the network at the POP where your T-1 connects to the Internet, and so a T-1 subscriber may have contracts with these two organizations separately. In the field of telecommunications, a central office or telephone exchange houses equipment that is commonly known as simply a switch, which is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concatenation of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concatenation of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... A point-of-presence (POP) is an artificial demarcation or interface point between communications entities. ... A data center is a facility used for housing a large amount of electronic equipment, typically computers and communications equipment. ... In telecommunications, the local loop is the wiring between the central office (telephone exchange in British English) and the customers premises demarcation point. ...


The nomenclature for a T-1 varies widely, cited in some circles a DS-1, a T1.5, a T1, or a DS1. Some of these try to distinguish amongst the different aspects of the line, considering the data standard a DS-1, and the physical structure of the trunk line a T-1 or T-1.5. They are also called leased lines, but that terminology is usually for data speeds under 1.5 Mbit/s. At times, a T-1 can be included in the term "leased line" or excluded from it. Whatever it is called, it is inherently related to other high-speed access methods, which include T-3, SONET OC-3, and other T-carrier and Optical Carriers. Additionally, a T-1 might be aggregated with more than one T-1, producing an nxT-1, such as 4xT-1 which has exactly 4 times the bandwidth of a T-1. In telecommunication, the term trunk has the following meanings: In a communications network, a single transmission channel between two points that are switching centers or nodes, or both. ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations together. ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations together. ... Two Network Interface Units, one with a single card, the other with two In telecommunications, T-carrier is the generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier systems originally developed by Bell Labs and used in North America and Japan. ... Synchronous Optical Networking, commonly known as SONET, is a standard for communicating digital information over optical fiber. ... Optical Carrier levels are used for the categories of bandwidth in a SONET fiber optic network. ... Two Network Interface Units, one with a single card, the other with two In telecommunications, T-carrier is the generic designator for any of several digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier systems originally developed by Bell Labs and used in North America and Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


When a T-1 is installed, there are a number of choices to be made: in the carrier chosen, the location of the demarc, the type of channel service unit (CSU) or data service unit (DSU) used, the WAN IP router used, the types of speeds chosen, etc. Specialized WAN routers are used with T-1 lines that route Internet or VPN data onto the T-1 line from the subscriber's packet-based (TCP/IP) network using customer premises equipment (CPE). The CPE typical consists of a CSU/DSU that converts the DS-1 data stream of the T-1 to a TCP/IP packet data stream for use in the customer's Ethernet LAN. It is noteworthy that many T-1 providers optionally maintain and/or sell the CPE as part of the service contract, which can affect the demarcation point and the ownership of the router, CSU, or DSU. In telephone networks, the demarcation point is the point at which the telephone carriers local loop network ends and connects with the telephone system or wiring at the customers premeses. ... In telecommunications, a channel service unit (CSU) is a line bridging device that (a) is used to perform loop-back testing, (b) may perform bit stuffing, (c) may also provide a framing and formatting pattern compatible with the network, and (d) is the last signal regeneration point, on the loop... In telecommunication, the term data service unit (DSU) has the following meanings: 1. ... Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ... Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. ... This article describes the computer networking device. ... A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, communicating over a public network. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Customer premises (or provided) equipment (CPE): Terminal and associated equipment and inside wiring located at a subscribers premises and connected with a carriers communication channel(s) at the demarcation point (demarc) . In other words, CPE is an acronym meaning customer premises equipment. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Lan can stand for several things: A local area network Lan (airline) formerly LanChile Lan Peru Län, a kind of administrative division used in Sweden Lan Mandragoran, a fictional character in the Wheel of Time fantasy series by Robert Jordan. ... In telephone networks, the demarcation point is the point at which the telephone carriers local loop network ends and connects with the telephone system or wiring at the customers premeses. ...


Although a T-1 has a maximum of 1.544 Mbit/s, a fractional T-1 might be offered which only uses an integer multiple of 128 kbit/s for bandwidth. In this manner, a customer might only purchase 1/12th or 1/3 of a T-1, which would be 128 kbit/s and 512 kbit/s, respectively. A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations together. ...


T-1 and fractional T-1 data lines are symmetric, meaning that their upload and download speeds are the same. A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations together. ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ...


Wired Ethernet

Where available, this method of broadband connection to the Internet would indicate that the Internet access is very fast. However, just because Ethernet is offered doesn't mean that the full 10, 100, or 1000 Mbit/s connection is able to be utilized for direct Internet access. In a college dormitory for example, the 100 Mbit/s Ethernet access might be fully available to on-campus networks, but Internet access speeds might be closer to 4xT-1 speed (6 Mbit/s). If you are sharing a broadband connection with others in a building, the access speed of the leased line into the building would of course govern the end-user's speed. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations together. ...


However, in certain locations, true Ethernet broadband access might be available. This would most commonly be the case at a POP or a datacenter, and not at a typical residence or business. When Ethernet Internet access is offered, it could be fiber-optic or copper twisted pair, and the speed will conform to standard Ethernet speeds of up to 10 Gbit/s. The primary advantage is that no special hardware is needed for Ethernet. Ethernet also has a very low latency. A point-of-presence (POP) is an artificial demarcation or interface point between communications entities. ... A data center is a facility used for housing a large amount of electronic equipment, typically computers and communications equipment. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ...


Rural broadband

One of the great challenges of broadband is to provide service to potential customers in areas of low population density, such as to farmers and ranchers. In cities where the population density is high, it is easy for a service provider to recover equipment costs, but each rural customer may require expensive equipment to get connected. A similar problem existed a century ago when electrical power was invented. Cities were the first to receive electric lighting, as early as 1880, while in the United States some remote rural areas were still not electrified until the 1940s, and even then only with the help of federally funded programs like the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Several rural broadband solutions exist, though each has its own pitfalls and limitations. Some choices are better than others, but are dependent on how proactive the local phone company is about upgrading their rural technology.


Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISPs) are rapidly becoming a popular broadband option for rural areas. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Satellite Internet

Main article: Satellite Internet

This employs a satellite in geostationary orbit to relay data from the satellite company to each customer. Satellite Internet is usually among the most expensive ways of gaining broadband Internet access, but in rural areas it may only compete with cellular broadband. However, costs have been coming down in recent years to the point that it is becoming more competitive with other high-speed options. A Wild Blue Satellite Internet dish. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Geostationary orbit A geostationary orbit (GEO) is a geosynchronous orbit directly above the Earths equator (0° latitude), with orbital eccentricity of zero. ...


Satellite Internet also has a high latency problem caused by the signal having to travel 35,000 km (22,000 miles) out into space to the satellite and back to Earth again. The signal delay can be as much as 500 milliseconds to 900 milliseconds, which makes this service unsuitable for applications requiring real-time user input such as certain multiplayer Internet games and first-person shooters played over the connection. Despite this, it is still possible for many games to still be played, but the scope is limited to real-time strategy or turn-based games. The functionality of live interactive access to a distant computer can also be subject to the problems caused by high latency. These problems are more than tolerable for just basic email access and web browsing and in most cases are barely noticeable. Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... Online gaming redirects here. ... ... A real-time strategy (RTS) video game is one that is distinctly not turn-based. ... A turn-based game, also known as turn-based strategy, is a game where each participant plays in turn. ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ...


There is no simple way to get around this problem. The delay is primarily due to the speed of light being only 300,000 km/second (186,000 miles per second). Even if all other signaling delays could be eliminated it still takes the electromagnetic wave 233 milliseconds to travel from ground to the satellite and back to the ground, a total of 70,000 km (44,000 miles) to travel from you to the satellite company. The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ...


Since the satellite is usually being used for two-way communications, the total distance increases to 140,000 km (88,000 miles), which takes a radio wave 466 ms to travel. Factoring in normal delays from other network sources gives a typical connection latency of 500-700 ms. This is far worse latency than even most dial-up modem users' experience, at typically only 150-200 ms total latency.


Most satellite Internet providers also have a FAP (Fair Access Policy). Perhaps one of the largest cons against satellite Internet, these FAPs usually throttle a user's throughput to dial-up speeds after a certain "invisible wall" is hit (usually around 200 MB a day). This FAP usually lasts for 24 hours after the wall is hit, and a user's throughput is restored to whatever tier they paid for. This makes bandwidth-intensive activities nearly impossible to complete in a reasonable amount of time (examples include P2P and newsgroup binary downloading). Internet service providers often implement a so-called Fair Access Policy to prevent users of a broadband connection to overuse bandwidth. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ...


Advantages

  1. True global broadband Internet access availability
  2. Mobile connection to the Internet (with some providers)

Disadvantages

  1. Very high latency compared to other broadband services, especially 2-way satellite service
  2. Unreliable: drop-outs are common during travel, inclement weather, and during sunspot activity
  3. The narrow-beam highly directional antenna must be accurately pointed to the satellite orbiting overhead
  4. The Fair Access Policy limits heavy usage
  5. VPN use is discouraged, problematic, and/or restricted with satellite broadband, although available at a price
  6. One-way satellite service requires the use of a modem or other data uplink connection
  7. VoIP is not supported.
  8. Satellite dishes are huge. Although most of them employ plastic to reduce weight, they are typically between 80 and 120 cm (30 to 48 inches) in diameter.

Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ... A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, communicating over a public network. ... IP Telephony, also called Internet telephony, is the technology that makes it possible to have a telephone conversation over the Internet or a dedicated Internet Protocol (IP) network instead of dedicated voice transmission lines. ... A Satellite dish antenna A satellite dish is a type of parabolic reflector antenna designed with the specific purpose of transmitting signals to and/or receiving from satellites. ...

Cellular Broadband

Cellular telephones are becoming more and more capable as Internet browsers. The widespread use of cellular phones in most areas has allowed cellular telephone networks to expand quickly into broadband Internet service networks. Since the cellular phone towers are already in place, cellular broadband access is rapidly becoming a popular means to access the Internet, with or without a cell phone. Cellular redirects here. ...


Most of the cell phones sold today have some kind of support for Internet access. Broadband access is mainly concentrated in the cities at this time (2007), but all of the major U.S. carriers intend to expand the broadband offerings they have. New broadband technologies such as the 3G EVDO Rev. 0 and Rev. A are being deployed for CDMA phones, and HSDPA for GSM phones in the US. Currently (2007), GSM phones in the US are most often on a low-speed EDGE system, however, but HSDPA should catch up soon. 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... EVDO, thrid generation CDMA1X data transfer. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ... Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows it to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ...


This means that for now, nationwide broadband cellular in the U.S. is only offered by carriers that use EVDO or HSDPA, offering customers a typical 400-700 kbit/s download speed. With cellular speed ratings, the companies always specify a range of typical speeds due to the fact that congested cellular networks mean lower data download speeds. They do not highlight the fact that the technology is capable of 2.4 Mbit/s burst download rates, because this is nowhere near what can ever be expected. EVDO, thrid generation CDMA1X data transfer. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ...


Since cellular networks often cover large areas of the nation, many traveling people prefer cellular Internet access to other technologies such as WiFi wireless and satellite. Although some satellite services allow end-users to reposition their dish antenna, there are considerable drawbacks to pointing a large satellite dish on a mobile platform (such as an automobile or vessel). Cellular service can normally be received using a small omnidirectional antenna. Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ...


Because many people need to connect computer equipment to the Internet, and not just their cell phone, cellular broadband access is available with this in mind. A user with a single computer can access the Internet by tethering their cell phone to their laptop or PC, normally using a USB connection. There are also Cardbus, ExpressCard, and USB modems available that can perform a similar function but require no cell phone. Some of these modem cards are compatible with cellular broadband routers, which allow more than one computer to be connected to the Internet using one cellular connection. Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... ExpressCard is a hardware standard replacing PC cards (also known as PCMCIA cards), both developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... A basic residential gateway connects an ethernet network to a broadband connection. ...


Advantages

  1. The only broadband connection available on many cell phones and PDA's
  2. Mobile wireless connection to the Internet
  3. Available in all metropolitan areas, most large cities, and along major highways throughout the U.S. (See a map)
  4. No need to aim an antenna in most cases
  5. The antenna is extremely small compared to a satellite dish
  6. Lower latency compared to satellite Internet
  7. Higher availability than WiFi "Hot Spots"
  8. A traveler who already has cellular broadband will not need to pay different WiFi Hot Spot providers for access.

Disadvantages Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ... A Wild Blue Satellite Internet dish. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... Hotspots are venues that offer Wi-Fi access. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... Hotspots are venues that offer Wi-Fi access. ...

  1. Unreliable: drop-outs are common during travel and during inclement weather
  2. Not truly nationwide service
  3. Speed varies widely throughout the day, sometimes falling well below the 400 kbit/s target during peak times
  4. Asymmetric service: the upload rate is always much slower than the download rate.
  5. High latency compared to other broadband services

Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... This article is about the computer terms. ... Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated, and the moment one of its effects begins. ...

Remote DSL

This allows a service provider to set up DSL hardware out in the country in a weatherproof enclosure. However, setup costs can be quite high since the service provider may need to install fiber-optic cable to the remote location. Also, the remote site has the same distance limits as the metropolitan service, and can only serve an island of customers along the trunk line within a radius of about 2 km (7000 ft). In telecommunication, the term trunk has the following meanings: In a communications network, a single transmission channel between two points that are switching centers or nodes, or both. ...


DSL repeater

This is a very new technology which allows DSL to travel longer distances to remote customers. One version of the repeater is installed at approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) intervals along the trunk line, and strengthens and cleans up the DSL signal so it can travel another 3 km (10,000 ft).


Power-line Internet

This is a new service still in its infancy that may eventually permit broadband Internet data to travel down standard high-voltage power lines. However, the system has a number of complex issues, the primary one being that power lines are inherently a very noisy environment. Every time a device turns on or off, it introduces a pop or click into the line. Energy-saving devices often introduce noisy harmonics into the line. The system must be designed to deal with these natural signaling disruptions and work around them. Power line redirects here. ... In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. ...


Broadband over power lines (BPL), also known as Power line communication, has developed faster in Europe than in the US due to a historical difference in power system design philosophies. Nearly all large power grids transmit power at high voltages in order to reduce transmission losses, then near the customer use step-down transformers to reduce the voltage. Since BPL signals cannot readily pass through transformers, repeaters must be attached to the transformers. In the US, it is common for a small transformer hung from a utility pole to service a single house. In Europe, it is more common for a somewhat larger transformer to service 10 or 100 houses. For delivering power to customers, this difference in design makes little difference, but it means delivering BPL over the power grid of a typical US city will require an order of magnitude more repeaters than would be required in a comparable European city. For other uses, see Power band. ...


The second major issue is signal strength and operating frequency. The system is expected to use frequencies in the 10 to 30 MHz range, which has been used for decades by licensed amateur radio operators, as well as international shortwave broadcasters and a variety of communications systems (military, aeronautical, etc.). Power lines are unshielded and will act as transmitters for the signals they carry, and have the potential to completely wipe out the usefulness of the 10 to 30 MHz range for shortwave communications purposes. In telecommunications, and particularly in radio, signal strength transmitted signal is being received, measured, or predicted, at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... An amateur radio operator is an individual who, typically, uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other similar individuals on radio frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than...


Wireless ISP

This typically employs the current low-cost 802.11 Wi-Fi radio systems to link up remote locations over great distances, but can use other higher-power radio communications systems as well. ISP may mean: Internet service provider, an organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ... IEEE 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi (pronounced wye-fye, IPA: ), also unofficially known as Wireless Fidelity, is a wireless technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of wireless local area network products based on the IEEE 802. ...


Traditional 802.11b was licensed for omnidirectional service spanning only 100-150 meters (300-500 ft). By focusing the signal down to a narrow beam with a Yagi antenna it can instead operate reliably over a distance of many miles. A Yagi-Uda antenna. ...


Rural Wireless-ISP installations are typically not commercial in nature and are instead a patchwork of systems built up by hobbyists mounting antennas on radio masts and towers, agricultural storage silos, very tall trees, or whatever other tall objects are available. There are currently a number of companies that provide this service. A wireless Internet access provider map for USA is publicly available for WISPS. Masts of the Rugby VLF transmitter in England Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials in the UK) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. ... Bold text This article is about Storage Silos. ...


iBlast

iBlast was the brand name for a theoretical high-speed (7 Mbit/s), one-way digital data transmission technology from Digital TV station to users that was developed between June 2000 to October 2005.


Advantages:

  1. Low cost, high speed data transmission from TV station to users. This technology can be used for transmitting website / files from Internet.

Disadvantages:

  1. One way data transmission and should be combined with other method of data transmission from users to TV station.
  2. Privacy/security.
  3. Lack of 8VSB tuner built into many consumer electronic devices needed to receive the iBlast signal.

In the end, the disadvantages outweighed the advantages and the glut of fiberoptic capacity that ensued following the collapse of the Internet bubble drove the cost of transmission so low that an ancillary service such as this was unnecessary, and the company folded at the end of 2005. The partner television stations as well as over 500 additional television stations not part of the iBlast Network continue to transmit separate digital signals as mandated by the Telecommunications Act of 1996.


WorldSpace

WorldSpace is a digital satellite radio network based in Washington DC. It covers most of Asia and Europe plus all of Africa by satellite. Beside the digital audio, user can receive one way high speed digital data transmission (150 Kilobit/second) from the Satellite. WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ...


Advantages:

  1. Low cost (US$ 100) receiver that combine digital radio receiver and data receiver. This technology can be used for transmitting website / files from Internet.
  2. Access from remote places in Asia and Africa.

Disadvantages:

  1. One way data transmission and should be combined with other method of data transmission from users to Worldspace HQ,
  2. Privacy/security.

Broadband worldwide

See also List of countries by broadband users for June 2006 stats Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is becoming very long. ... These are lists of broadband Internet access. ...


Broadband subscribers per 100 inhabitants, by technology, June 2006 in the OECD (source) The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Newer data, dating December 2006, have been recently published by the OECD [3] but are not included on this chart.

Rank Country DSL Cable Other Total Total Subscribers
1 Denmark 17.4% 9.0% 2.8% 29.3% 1,590,539
2 Netherlands 17.2% 11.1% 0.5% 28.8% 4,705,829
3 Iceland 26.5% 0.0% 0.7% 27.3% 80,672
4 South Korea 13.2% 8.8% 4.5% 26.4% 12,770,911
5 Switzerland 16.9% 9.0% 0.4% 26.2% 1,945,358
6 Finland 21.7% 3.1% 0.2% 25.% 1,309,800
7 Norway 20.4% 3.8% 0.4% 24.6% 1,137,697
8 Sweden 14.4% 4.3% 4.0% 22.7% 2,046,222
9 Canada 10.8% 11.5% 0.1% 22.4% 7,161,872
10 United Kingdom 14.6% 4.9% 0.0% 19.4% 11,622,929
11 Belgium 11.9% 7.4% 0.0% 19.3% 2,025,112
12 United States 8.0% 9.8% 1.4% 19.2% 56,502,351
13 Japan 11.3% 2.7% 4.9% 19.0% 24,217,012
14 Luxembourg 16.0% 1.9% 0.0% 17.9% 81,303
15 Austria 11.2% 6.3% 0.2% 17.7% 1,460,000
16 France 16.7% 1.0% 0.0% 17.7% 11,105,000
17 Australia 13.9% 2.9% 0.6% 17.4% 3,518,100
18 Germany 14.7% 0.3% 0.1% 15.1% 12,444,600
19 Spain 10.5% 3.1% 0.1% 13.6% 5,917,082
20 Italy 12.6% 0.0% 0.6% 13.2% 7,697,249
21 Portugal 7.9% 5.0% 0.0% 12.9% 1,355,602
22 New Zealand 10.7% 0.5% 0.6% 11.7% 479,000
23 Czech Republic 3.9% 2.0% 3.5% 9.4% 962,000
24 Ireland 6.8% 1.0% 1.4% 9.2% 372,300
25 Hungary 4.8% 2.9% 0.1% 7.8% 791,555
26 Argentina[1] 3.7% 1.5% 0.1% 5.3% 2,058,109
27 Poland 3.9% 1.3% 0.1% 5.3% 2,032,700
28 Turkey 2.9% 0.0% 0.0% 3.0% 2,128,600
29 Slovak Republic 2.2% 0.5% 0.2% 2.9% 155,659
30 Mexico 2.1% 0.7% 0.0% 2.8% 2,950,988
31 Greece 2.7% 0.0% 0.0% 2.7% 298,222

See also

Broadband technologies

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber. ... This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per... Plain old telephone service, or POTS, are the services available from analogue telephones prior to the introduction of electronic telephone exchanges into the public switched telephone network. ... Baseband is an adjective that describes signals and systems whose range of frequencies is measured from 0 to a maximum bandwidth or highest signal frequency; it is sometimes used as a noun for a band of frequencies starting at 0. ... Narrowband (narrow bandwidth) refers to a signal which occupies only a small amount of space on the radio spectrum -- the opposite of broadband or wideband. ... In telecommunications, the local loop is the wiring between the central office (telephone exchange in British English) and the customers premises demarcation point. ... // In telecommunications It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Return channel. ...

Broadband implementations

  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), digital data transmission over the wires used in the local loop of a telephone network
  • Local Multipoint Distribution Service, broadband wireless access technology that uses microwave signals operating between the 26 GHz and 29 GHz bands
  • WiMAX, a standards-based wireless technology that provides high-throughput broadband connections over long distances
  • Power line communication, wireline technology using the current electricity networks
  • Satellite Internet access
  • Cable modem, designed to modulate a data signal over cable television infrastructure
  • Fiber to the premises, based on fiber-optic cables and associated optical electronics
  • High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), a new mobile telephony protocol, sometimes referred to as a 3.5G (or "3½G") technology
  • Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO), is a wireless radio broadband data standard adopted by many CDMA mobile phone service providers

DSL redirects here. ... Local Multipoint Distribution Service is a broadband wireless access technology that uses microwave signals operating between the 26GHz and 29GHz bands. ... Official WiMax logo WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... For other uses, see Power band. ... Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... // Fiber to the premises (FTTP) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run directly onto the customers premises. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA, also known as High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access) is a 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. ... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ...

Future broadband implementations

  • White Spaces Coalition a group of technology companies aiming to deliver broadband internet access via unused analog television frequencies

The White Spaces Coalition consists of eight large technology companies that plan on delivering high speed (broadband) internet access to consumers via existing unused analog television frequencies. ...

Broadband applications

Broadband telephony is the utilisation of broadband connections to deliver voice calls. ... Narahari Prakash Reddy S/O Eshwar Reddy Working as software engineer in Wipro technologies Limited, Bangalore ...

External links

  • Beginners guide to broadband
  • Broadband News
  • Making User-Centric Broadband in Access a Reality, Alcatel, June 13, 2005, Strategy White Paper
  • Corporate vs. Community Internet, AlterNet, June 14, 2005, - on the clash between US cities' attempts to expand municipal broadband and corporate attempts to defend their markets
  • Marshall University Center for Business and Economic Research, comprehensive study of the economics of broadband internet access
  • Broadband Research in Canada, academic research on broadband usage, Ryerson University
  • Wireless Broadband Solutions in Malaysia
  • Broadband Satellite Internet

Alcatel SA is a global company, headquartered in France that provides hardware, software and services to telecommunications service providers and enterprises. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AlterNet, a project of the non-profit Independent Media Institute, is a progressive news website that was launched in 1998 and receives over 2 million visitors per month. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

References

  1. ^ "La banda ancha se desarrolla en forma despareja en el país", La Nación. Retrieved on 2007-10-19. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Broadband Internet Access Service Providers - EZ ISP Info (416 words)
Although the technical definition of broadband denotes communications that use a wide range of frequencies or channels, the commonly usage of the term broadband internet access simply means an internet connection faster than 56 Kbps.
Notably, dial-up access is not broadband internet service.
Wireless internet access is another option for broadband internet.
FCC Strategic Goals: Broadband (258 words)
Broadband is changing how we communicate with each other, how and where we work, how we educate our children, and how we entertain ourselves.
Broadband is particularly critical in rural areas, where advanced communications can shrink the distances that isolate remote communities.
Congress recognized the importance of broadband in Section 706 of the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which directs the FCC to “encourage the deployment on a reasonable and timely basis of advanced telecommunications capability to all Americans.” The Commission’s goals are to:
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