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Encyclopedia > Brittle

A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i.e. it has little tendency to deform (or strain) before fracture. This fracture absorbs relatively little energy, even in materials of high strength. Materials are inputs to production or manufacturing. ... A fracture is the separation of a body into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress. ... Figure 1  Stress tensor In physics, stress is a measure of the internal distribution of force per unit area within a body that balances and reacts to the loads applied to it. ... In any branch of science dealing with materials and their behaviour, strain is the geometrical expression of deformation caused by the action of stress on a physical body. ... It has been suggested that Tensile strength be merged into this article or section. ...


When used in materials science, it is generally applied to materials that fail in tension rather than shear, or when there is little or no evidence of plastic deformation before failure. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is the multidisciplinary field relating the performance and function of matter in any and all applications to its micro, nano, and atomic-structure, and vice versa. ... Tension may mean: In physics, tension is a force related to the stretching of a string or a similar object. ... Shear stress is a stress state where the shape of a material tends to change (usually by sliding forces -- torque by transversely-acting forces) without particular volume change. ... In physics and materials science, plasticity is a property of a material to undergo a non-reversible change of shape in response to an applied force. ...


When a material has reached the limit of its strength, it usually has the option of either deformation or fracture. A naturally malleable metal can be made stronger by impeding the mechanisms of plastic deformation (reducing grain size, dispersion strengthening, work hardening, etc.), but if this is taken to an extreme, fracture becomes the more likely outcome, and the material can become brittle. Improving material toughness is therefore a balancing act. Malleability is a physical property of matter, signifying its capability of deformation, especially by hammering or rolling. ... A crystallite is a domain of solid-state matter that has the same structure as a single crystal. ... Work hardening is an increase in mechanical strength due to plastic deformation. ... In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. ...


This principle generalizes to other classes of material. Naturally brittle materials, such as ceramics (most famously glass), are difficult to toughen effectively. Most such techniques involve one of two mechanisms: to deflect the tip of a propagating crack, for instance by introducing natural weaknesses of limited extent, or to create carefully controlled residual stresses so that cracks from certain predictable sources will be forced closed, as in the case of toughened glass and pre-stressed concrete. Both mechanisms tend to soften the material somewhat, although most ceramics are quite hard to begin with. The least-brittle structural ceramics are silicon carbide (mainly by virtue of its high strength) and transformation-toughened zirconia. Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικος (keramikos, having to do with pottery). The term covers inorganic non-metallic materials whose formation is due to the action of heat. ... This article refers to the material. ... Figure 1  Stress tensor In physics, stress is a measure of the internal distribution of force per unit area within a body that balances and reacts to the loads applied to it. ... This article refers to the material. ... Prestressed concrete, invented by Frenchman Eugène Freyssinet in 1928, is a method for overcoming concretes natural weakness in tension. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as moissanite, is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon. ... Zirconia (ZrO2) is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ...


Supersonic fracture is crack motion faster than the speed of sound in a brittle material. This phenomenon was first discovered by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Metals Research in Stuttgart (Markus J. Buehler and Huajian Gao) and IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California (Farid F. Abraham). Supersonic fracture is crack motion faster than the speed of sound in a material. ... Markus J. Buehler, German material scientist and engineer. ... Huajian Gao is an American materials scientist and engineer. ... Farid F. Abraham, US scientist. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brittle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (342 words)
A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i.e.
Naturally brittle materials, such as ceramics (most famously glass), are difficult to toughen effectively.
Most such techniques involve one of two mechanisms: to deflect the tip of a propagating crack, for instance by introducing natural weaknesses of limited extent, or to create carefully controlled residual stresses so that cracks from certain predictable sources will be forced closed, as in the case of toughened glass and pre-stressed concrete.
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