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Encyclopedia > Brittany
Brittany
Bretagne
—  Province of France  —
Flag of Brittany
Flag
Coat of arms of Brittany
Coat of arms
Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language
Country Flag of France France
Largest settlements
Area
 - Total 34,034 km² (13,137 sq mi)
Population (July 2006 estimate)
 - Total 4,300,500
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Brittany (in Breton: Breizh pronounced [bʁejs]; in French: Bretagne, [bʁətaɲ] ; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent kingdom and duchy, and a province of France. It is also, more generally, the name of the cultural area whose limits correspond to the old province and independent duchy. Brittany is one of the six Celtic nations. It was at one time called "Lesser Britain". (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Brittany or Bretagne can refer to: Brittany (French Bretagne), a peninsula in north-west France, and an historical duchy and province of France Bretagne, the administrative région of France Brittany spaniel, a breed of dog Brittany is also a female name (variants include Britnee, Britney, Brittney). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brittany. ... Flag of Brittany. ... from the French Wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... This article is about The place Lorient in France. ... Quimper (Kemper in Breton, Corspotium in Latin) is a commune of Brittany in northwestern France. ... In the old city centre Harbour to cathedral Vannes (Breton: Gwened) is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. ... A street in Redon Redon is a town and commune in Brittany, France. ... Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg) is a commune France, situated in Côtes-dArmor and in the Brittany région. ... Saint-Nazaire is also a commune of the Gard département of France. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Image File history File links Fr-Bretagne. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ...

The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region.
The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region.

The historical province of Brittany was split between two modern-day régions of France. 80% of Brittany has become the région of Bretagne, while the remaining 20% of Brittany (Loire-Atlantique département with its préfecture Nantes, one of the former capitals of the duchy of Brittany) has been grouped with other historical provinces (Anjou, Maine, and so on) to create the région of Pays-de-la-Loire (that is "lands of the Loire"). For the reasons behind the splitting-up of Brittany, and the current debate regarding reunification, see the Bretagne article. Image File history File links Flag_of_Brittany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brittany. ... Flag of Brittany. ... In defining Breton nationalism, it is important to differentiate between: The nationalism of stateless people, such as Bretons or Galicians, who wish to aquire more power in the United Nations, and to obtain the right to self-rule, recognised by the UN, The nationalism of nation states, such as France... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Nantes Regional President Jacques Auxiette (PS) (since 2004) Departments Loire-Atlantique Mayenne Maine-et-Loire Sarthe Vendée Arrondissements 17 Cantons 192 Communes 1,503 Statistics Land area1 32,082 km² Population (Ranked 5th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Brittany occupies a large peninsula in the northwest of France, lying between the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,034 km² (13,137 sq mi). The historical province of Brittany is divided into five departments: to the west is Finistère, Côtes-d'Armor lies to the North, Ille-et-Vilaine is in the north-east, Loire-Atlantique is to the south-east and Morbihan lies in the middle. A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed in Breton) is a département of France, located in Brittany (Bretagne in French). ... Côtes-dArmor (French) / Aodoù-an-Arvor (Breton) is a département in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France. ... Ille-et-Vilaine is a département of France, located in Brittany (Bretagne in French) in the northwest corner of France. ... Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean. ... Morbihan (Mor-Bihan in Breton) is a department in the northwest of France named after the Morbihan (small sea in Breton), the enclosed sea that is the principal feature of the coastline. ...


In January 2006 the population of Brittany was estimated at 4,300,500 inhabitants. 72% of these live in the Bretagne région, while 28% of these live in the Pays-de-la-Loire région. At the 1999 census, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes (711,120 inhabitants), Rennes (521,188 inhabitants), and Brest (303,484 inhabitants). Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Brittany
Pointe du Raz
Pointe du Raz

Brittany's traditional and popular history is equally intertwined with the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, for the Breton and Gallo speaking regions respectively. Although much is remarked of Brittany's ancient Celtic links with Britain and for the sake of its western population, Brittany's modern or political history is stereotyped as merely a French, or "Gallo-Romance" matter. This is a misconception, since the Gallo section (part of Latin Europe) of Brittany reforged links with Britain, albeit as Normandy's "sidekick". The Hundred Years' War has obscured these facts, as well as the Romano-British nature of the Breton people (both Celtic and Romance.) This article concerns the History of Brittany. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 1. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... The Gallo-Romance branch of Romance languages includes French, Oïl languages, Catalan, and Occitan, among other languages. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ...


While the 1066 conquest of England gave control of that kingdom to Normandy via Normans in London, Brittany was imbued with junior status in Northern England via Bretons in Richmond. The relative positions of the Norman Dukes in London to Breton Dukes in Richmond during the Mediaeval period, was not unlike the Primacy of Canterbury above the Province of York, itself formerly superior to Scottish bishops (until cancelling the Treaty of Falaise disestablished York's control in Scotland, except Whithorn). The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... The Honour of Richmond was an honour created by Alain Le Roux, son of Eudes, Count of Penthièvre, grandson of Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany. ... // Within the Church of England, the primacy of Canterbury or primacy of England is the supremacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury (as Primate of All England) over the Archbishop of York. ... The Province of York consists of the following dioceses of the Church of England: Their archbishop is the Archbishop of York. ... The Treaty of Falais was an agreement made in December 1174 by the captive William 1 King of Scots, and the English King Henry II. Having been captured in Battle at Alnwick, William was being held in Falaise in Normandy, while Henry sent and army north and took several Scottish... Whithorn is a small burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown. ...


As the Normans encroached upon Wales, Bretons would simultaneously be influential in Scotland. Important Breton personages in Scottish history were Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, John of Brittany, Earl of Richmond, Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (FitzRandolph of Middleham), Brian FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan of Bedale (Viceroy of Scotland for Edward I of England). The pro-Bruce Randolph and pro-Balliol Alan families were illegitimate lines of the counts and dukes of Penthièvre, with permanent lodgings and responsibilities at Richmond Castle. Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond (future King Henry VII) spent quite some time living in Brittany (1471 - 1485). The Tudor dynasty was Welsh and Henry incorporated the White Greyhound of Richmond into his arms, while this animal (or the whippet) is still a favourite pet of Dalesmen to this day. As a result of the Valois Crown incorporating Brittany to France, the Tudors made Brittanys Richmond estate into a permanent appanage of the Royal Family, with Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset being the first bastard it was conferred upon. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Conan IV (1138 – February 20, 1171) was duke of Brittany, from 1156 to his death. ... Jean de Bretagne or John of Brittany (1266-1334) was English Earl of Richmond 1306-34. ... Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray (d. ... Middleham is a small market town in the North Yorkshire dales. ... Map sources for Bedale at grid reference SE2688 The centre of Bedale with St. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Robert I, King of Scots (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; ) was King of the Scots from 1306 until his death. ... King John, his crown and sceptre symbolically broken as depicted in the 1562 Forman Armorial, produced for Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Counts of Penthièvre. ... The 12th century Keep is 100 feet high The Castle walls and towers seen from the Keep Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire, England, stands in a breathtaking position above the River Swale and close to the centre of the town of Richmond. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... For other uses, see Whippet (disambiguation). ... The Yorkshire Dales (also known as the Dales) is the name given to an upland area, in Northern England. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset (June 15, 1519 – June 18, 1536) was the son of Henry VIII and his teenaged mistress, Elizabeth Blount, the only bastard that Henry acknowledged. ...


Support from the Vikings

Following the successful example of the Cornish-Viking alliance in 722 at the Battle of Hehil (modern day Padstow) which helped stop for a time the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Cornwall, the Bretons made friendly overtures to the Danish Vikings to help contain Frankish expansionist ideas, and in 865 AD the Vikings and Bretons united as one to defeat a Frankish army at the Battle of Brissarthe, near modern day Le Mans. Two Frankish kings, Robert the Strong and Ranulf were killed by the Vikings and the Franks were forced to acknowledge Brittany's independence from the Frankish kingdoms. As with Cornwall in 722, the Vikings tactically helped their Breton allies by making devastating pillaging raids on the Frankish kingdoms. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The Battle of Brissarthe was fought on 15 September 866 between the Franks and a joint Breton-Viking army near Brissarthe, Neustria. ... Le Mans is a city in France, located at the Sarthe River. ... Robert the Strong (died September 15, 866) was a count of Tours. ... Ranulf I (also Ramnulf, Rannulf, and Ranulph; 820 – 866) was a Count of Poitiers (from 835) and Duke of Aquitaine (from 852). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...


Sights

Megaliths at Carnac.
Megaliths at Carnac.

Brittany is famous for its megalithic monuments, which are scattered over the peninsula, the largest alignments are near Karnag/Carnac. The purpose of these monuments is still unknown, and many local people are reluctant to entertain speculation on the subject. The words dolmen (from "daol" table and "maen" stone) and menhir (from "maen" stone and "hir" long) are Breton and commonly used by either Breton or French people. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 632 KB) Summary Image taken by me on 2005/10/9 in the Kermario site, near Carnac, France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 632 KB) Summary Image taken by me on 2005/10/9 in the Kermario site, near Carnac, France. ... For other uses, see Carnac (disambiguation). ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... For other uses, see Carnac (disambiguation). ... Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... -1...


Brittany is also known for its calvaries, elaborately carved sculptures of crucifixion scenes, to be found at crossroads in villages and small towns, especially in Western Brittany. Golgotha redirects here. ...

The walled city of Saint-Malo was a former stronghold of corsairs.
The walled city of Saint-Malo was a former stronghold of corsairs.

Besides its numerous intact manors and châteaux, Brittany also has several old fortified towns. The walled city of Saint-Malo (Sant-Maloù), a popular tourist attraction, is also an important port linking Brittany with England and the Channel Islands. It also was the birthplace of the historian Louis Duchesne, acclaimed author Chateaubriand, famous corsair Surcouf and explorer Jacques Cartier. The town of Roscoff (Rosko) is served by ferry links with England and Ireland. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x882, 284 KB) Description Vue de la ville de Saint Malo en France Source Image:Saintmalo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1222x882, 284 KB) Description Vue de la ville de Saint Malo en France Source Image:Saintmalo. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ightham Mote For the London district, see Manor House, London. ... Château de Chenonceau in the Loire valley, France A rural château in France. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne (September 13, 1843 - April 21, 1922) was a French priest, philologist, and historian. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... , Coordinates , Administration Country Region Bretagne Department Finistère Arrondissement Morlaix Canton Saint-Pol-de-Léon Intercommunality CdC du Pays Léonard Mayor Joseph Seité (2001-2008) Statistics Elevation 0 m–58 m (avg. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ...


Significant urban centres include:

The island of Ushant (Breton: Enez Eusa, French: Ouessant) is the north-westernmost point of Brittany and France, and marks the entrance of the English Channel. Other islands off the coast of Brittany include: Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: Favet Neptunus eunti (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... This article is about The place Lorient in France. ... Quimper (Kemper in Breton, Corspotium in Latin) is a commune of Brittany in northwestern France. ... In the old city centre Harbour to cathedral Vannes (Breton: Gwened) is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. ... A street in Redon Redon is a town and commune in Brittany, France. ... Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg) is a commune France, situated in Côtes-dArmor and in the Brittany région. ... Saint-Nazaire is also a commune of the Gard département of France. ... The ÃŽle dOuessant (in English Ushant, in Breton Enez Eusa) is an island in the English Channel which marks the north-westernmost point of European France. ...

Seaside near the Crozon Peninsula.
Seaside near the Crozon Peninsula.[1]
  • Bréhat / enez Vriad
  • Batz / enez Vaz
  • Molène / Molenez
  • Sein / enez Sun
  • Glénan islands / inizi Glenan
  • Groix / enez Groe
  • Belle Île / ar Gerveur
  • Houat / Houad
  • Hoëdic / Edig
  • Île-aux-Moines / Enizenac'h
  • Île-d'Arz / an Arzh

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (1268 × 741 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Seaside view on the Presquîle de Crozon, Charles betz 20:02, 26 June 2007 (UTC), http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (1268 × 741 pixel, file size: 279 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Seaside view on the Presquîle de Crozon, Charles betz 20:02, 26 June 2007 (UTC), http://www. ... Crozon (Kraozon in Breton) is a commune in the département of Finistère, Bretagne, France. ... Bréhat is an island on the northern coast of Bretagne in the department of Côtes-dArmor. ... The Île de Batz (Enez Vaz in Breton) is an island off Roscoff in Brittany, France. ... Look up sein in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Glénan islands are located off the coast of France. ... Groix island. ... White dot: Location of Belle Île in France Red dot: Location of the city Le Palais on Belle Île Belle-Île or Belle-Île-en-Mer (ar Gerveur in Modern Breton)—Guedel in Old Breton—is a French island off the coast of Brittany in the département of Morbihan... Houat (Enez Houad in Breton) is a little island off the south coast of Brittany in the French département of Morbihan. ... Hoëdic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Île-aux-Moines (Enizenach in Breton) is a commune in the département of Morbihan, Bretagne, France. ... Île dArz is an island and commune in the département of Morbihan, in Brittany, France. ...

Language

Bilingual road signs can be seen in traditional Breton-speaking areas.
Bilingual road signs can be seen in traditional Breton-speaking areas.

French, the only official language of the French Republic, is today spoken throughout Brittany. The two regional languages have no official status with regards to the state, although they are supported by the regional authorities within the strict constitutional limits: Breton, strongest in the west but to be seen all over Brittany, is a Celtic language most closely related to Cornish, and Gallo, which is spoken in the east, is one of the Oïl languages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1037x1120, 741 KB) Directional road signs, bilingual in French and Breton, in the city of Kemper (Quimper) in Brittany Photo taken by Man vyi with Canon PowerShot A40 on 14/10/2003 File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1037x1120, 741 KB) Directional road signs, bilingual in French and Breton, in the city of Kemper (Quimper) in Brittany Photo taken by Man vyi with Canon PowerShot A40 on 14/10/2003 File links The following pages link to this file... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ...


From the very beginning of its history and despite the end of the independence of Brittany, Breton remained the language of the entire population of western Brittany, except for bishops and French administrators or officers. French laws and economic pressure led people to abandon their language to that of the ruler, but until the 1960s, Breton was spoken and understood by the majority of the western inhabitants. Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been very efficiently fought by the French administration and educational system ("It is forbidden to spit on the ground and to speak Breton") in the process of promoting French as the sole language of the country. According to an interview with Erwan Le Coadic, the development officer of the Breton Language Service, "Over the course of the twentieth century, the policies of the government in Paris were calculated to eradicate the use of Breton completely". While he says that there are signs that the "situation has now stabilized", he points to the "almost catastrophic decline" in the Breton language: "Fifty years ago, there were 1,300,000 people who spoke Breton; today there are just 300,000".[2]


Breton was traditionally spoken in the west (the "Breizh-Izel" or "Basse-Bretagne"), and Gallo in the east (the "pays Gallo", "Breizh-Uhzel" or "Haute-Bretagne"). The dividing line stretched from Plouha on the north coast to a point to the south-east of Vannes. French had, however, long been the main language of the towns. The Breton-speaking area formerly covered territory much further east than its current distribution. Basse-Bretagne (Breizh Izel in Breton) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language was traditionally spoken, and where the culture associated with this language is most prolific. ... Basse-Bretagne (Breizh Izel in Breton) denotes the parts of Brittany west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language was traditionally spoken, and where the culture associated with this language is most prolific. ...

Traditional coat of arms
Traditional coat of arms

In the Middle Ages, Gallo expanded into formerly Breton-speaking areas. Now restricted to a much reduced territory in the east of Brittany, Gallo finds itself under pressure from the dominant Francophone culture. It is also felt by some to be threatened by the Breton language revival which is gaining ground in territories that were never part of the main Breton-speaking area. // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ...


Privately funded Diwan ("Seed") schools, where classes are taught in Breton by the immersion method, play an important part in the revival of the Breton language. The issue of whether they should be funded by the State has long been, and remains, controversial. Some bilingual classes are also provided in ordinary schools.


Despite the resistance of French administration, bilingual (Breton and French) road signs may be seen in some areas, especially in the traditional Breton-speaking area. Signage in Gallo is much rarer.


A large influx of English-speaking immigrants and second-home owners in some villages sometimes adds to linguistic diversity. 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ...


Religion

Sculpted "calvaries" can be found in many villages.
Sculpted "calvaries" can be found in many villages.

The first Christian missionaries came to the region from Ireland and Great Britain. With more than 300 "saints" (only a few recognized by the Catholic Church), the region is strongly Catholic. Since the nineteenth century at least, Brittany has been known as one of the most devoutly Catholic regions in France, in contrast to many other more secularised areas (see "Bl. Julien Maunoir"). The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. As in other Celtic regions, the legacy of Celtic Christianity has left a rich tradition of local saints and monastic communities, often commemorated in place names beginning Lan, Lam, Plou or Lok. The patron saint of Brittany is Santez Anna Saint Anne, the Virgin's mother. But the most famous saint is Saint Ivo of Kermartin ('saint Yves' in French, 'sant Erwan' in Breton), a 13th century priest who devoted his life to the poor. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1277x1691, 273 KB) Description: Calvaire in Saint Jean Trolimon Source: Selbst fotografiertes Bild [S.moeller](Juli 2005) Date: 19. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1277x1691, 273 KB) Description: Calvaire in Saint Jean Trolimon Source: Selbst fotografiertes Bild [S.moeller](Juli 2005) Date: 19. ... Saints redirects here. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... This article is about the mother of the Virgin Mary. ... St. ...


Once a year, believers go on a "Pardon", the saint's feast day of the parish. It often begins with a procession followed by a mass in honour of the saint. There is always a secular side, with some food and craft stalls. The three most famous Pardons are: The Pardon at Kergoat, portrayed by Jules Breton A Pardon is a typically Breton form of pilgrimage and one of the most traditional demonstrations of popular Catholicism in Brittany. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...

  • from Sainte-Anne d'Auray/Santez-Anna-Wened, where a poor farmer in the 17th century explained how the saint had ordered him to build a chapel in her honour.
  • from Tréguier/Landreger, in honour of St Yves, the patron saint of the judges, advocates, and any profession involved in justice.
  • from Locronan/Lokorn, in honour of St Ronan, with a troménie (a procession, 12 km-long) and numerous people in traditional costume,

In Brittany, there is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh (tour of Brittany), where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one founder saint to another. The seven founder saints of Brittany are: Tréguier (Breton: Landreger) is a port town and commune of the Côtes-dArmor département, in Brittany, northwestern France. ... There are at least twelve saints called Saint Ronan. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Tro Breizh (Breton for Tour of Brittany) is a Catholic pilgrimage that links the towns of the seven founding saints of Brittany. ...

  • St Pol Aurelian, at Saint-Pol-de-Leon/Kastell-Paol,
  • St Tudual (sant Tudwal), at Tréguier/Landreger,
  • St Brieuc, at Saint-Brieuc/S-Brieg,
  • St Malo, at Saint-Malo/S-Maloù,
  • St Samson of Dol, at Dol,
  • St Patern, at Vannes/Gwened
  • St Corentin (sant Kaourintin), at Quimper/Kemper

Historically, the pilgrimage was made in one trip (a total distance of around 600 km). Nowadays, however, pilgrims complete the circuit over the course of several years. In 2002, the Tro Breizh included a special pilgrimage to Wales, symbolically making the reverse journey of the Welshmen Sant Paol, Sant Brieg, and Sant Samzun. Whoever does not make the pilgrimage at least once in his lifetime will be condemned to make it after his death, advancing only by the length of his coffin each seven years. Pol Aurelian (also Pol de Léon, Paulinus Aurelianus, or Paol) is a Celtic saint. ... The Welsh monk Saint Tudwal (died c. ... It has been suggested that Briavel be merged into this article or section. ... Saint Malo (also known as Maclou or Mach Low and, in Latin, as Maclovius or Machutus) was the mid-6th century founder of Saint-Malo in Brittany, France. ... Samson of Dol (born 486?) was a Christian religious figure of the fifth century. ... Saint Patern[1] (circa 440, born in Armorica) was a Breton saint. ... Saint Corentin (Corentinus; in Breton, Sant Kaourintin) (d. ... This article is about the country. ...


Some old pagan traditions and customs from the old Celtic religion have also been preserved in Brittany. The most powerful folk figure is the Ankou or the "Reaper of Death". Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being (the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death), he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest. Sometimes he is on foot but mostly he travels with a cart, the Karrig an Ankou, drawn by two oxen and a lean horse. Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live. The term ankou can also refer to Japanese sweet red bean paste. ...


Gastronomy

Although some white wine is produced near the Loire, the traditional drinks of Brittany are: For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ...

  • cider (Breton: sistr) - Brittany is the second largest cider-producing region in France;
  • a sort of mead made from wild honey called chouchen;
  • an apple eau de vie called lambig.

Some hogdys are also produced. Historically Brittany was a beer-producing region. However, as wine was increasingly imported from other regions of France, beer drinking and production slowly came to an end in the early to mid 20th century. In the 1970s, due to a regional comeback, new breweries started to open and there are now about 20 of them. Whisky is also produced by a handful of distilleries with excellent results. Another recent drink is kir Breton (crème de cassis and cider) which may be served as an apéritif. Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Chouchen is an alcoholic drink popular in Brittany. ... Eau de vie is a French term for a colourless brandy distilled from fermented fruit juice. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Kir Kir is a cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liquor) topped up with white wine. ... Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ... Campari apéritif. ...


Tourists often try a mix of bread and red wine.


Very thin, wide pancakes made from buckwheat flour are eaten with ham, eggs and other savoury fillings. They are usually called galettes (Breton galetes), except in the western parts of Brittany where they are called crêpes (Breton krampouezh). Thin crêpes made from wheat flour are eaten for dessert. Other pastries, such as kouign amann ("butter cake" in Breton) made from bread dough, butter and sugar, or far, a sort of sweet Yorkshire pudding, or clafoutis with prunes, are traditional. Two American-style pancakes A pancake is a batter cake fried in a pan or on a griddle with oil or butter. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... A galette is a savoury buckwheat crêpe, a type of pancake from the French region of Brittany. ... The base material for multiple crêpes A sweet crêpe opened up, with whipped cream and strawberry sauce on it A crêpe (pronounced IPA /kreɪp/, French /kʀɛp/) is a type of very thin raw fish usually made grown in the ocean or sea. ... Not to be confused with Desert. ... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... Kouign amann is a Breton cake. ... Sunday roast consisting of roast beef, roast potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Yorkshire Pudding Yorkshire pudding is an English savoury dish made from batter. ... Fig and blueberry Clafouti Clafouti, sometimes spelt clafoutis, is a custard-like baked French dessert that is typically made by baking fresh fruit (traditionally cherries) and a batter, somewhat similar to pancake batter, in a baking dish. ...


Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh sea food and fish, especially mussels and oysters. Among the sea food specialities is cotriade. Subclasses Pteriomorpha (marine mussels) Palaeoheterodonta (freshwater mussels) Heterodonta (zebra mussels) The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Cotriade is a fish stew from Brittany that is made with different kinds of fish, as well as potatoes. ...


Climate

Located on the west coast of France, Brittany has a warm, temperate climate. Rainfall occurs regularly - which has helped keep its countryside green and wooded, but sunny, cloudless days are also common. Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ...


In the summer months, temperatures in the region can reach 30 degrees Celsius, but remain comfortable compared to parts of France south of the Loire. Brittany generally has a moderate climate during both summer[3] and winter,[4] and rain is not uncomfortably common or rare. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ...


Brittany's most popular summer resorts are on the south coast (La Baule, Belle Île, Gulf of Morbihan), although the wilder and more exposed north coast also attracts summer tourists. La Baule-Escoublac, commonly referred to as La Baule, is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique département of France. ... White dot: Location of Belle ÃŽle in France Red dot: Location of the city Le Palais on Belle ÃŽle Belle-ÃŽle or Belle-ÃŽle-en-Mer (ar Gerveur in Modern Breton)—Guedel in Old Breton—is a French island off the coast of Brittany in the département of Morbihan... The Gulf of Morbihan in France is the scene of an extraordinary number of megalithic ruins: passage dolmens, stepped pyramids with underground dolmen chambers, stone circles, and giant menhirs, among others. ...


Transport

There are several airports in Brittany serving destinations in France and England. TGV train services link the region with cities such as Paris, Lyon, Marseille, and Lille in France. In addition there are ferry services that take passengers, vehicles and freight to Ireland, England and the Channel Islands. For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the French city. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ...


Brittany Ferries operates the following regular services: Current Brittany Ferries logo Brittany Ferries is a French ferry company that runs ships between France, the UK, Ireland and Spain. ...

Irish Ferries operates the following routes: This article is about the city in England. ... , Coordinates , Administration Country Region Bretagne Department Finistère Arrondissement Morlaix Canton Saint-Pol-de-Léon Intercommunality CdC du Pays Léonard Mayor Joseph Seité (2001-2008) Statistics Elevation 0 m–58 m (avg. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... , Coordinates , Administration Country Region Bretagne Department Finistère Arrondissement Morlaix Canton Saint-Pol-de-Léon Intercommunality CdC du Pays Léonard Mayor Joseph Seité (2001-2008) Statistics Elevation 0 m–58 m (avg. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ...

The name Rosslare may mean: the village of Rosslare Strand in County Wexford, Ireland the village of Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland the Rosslare Europort at Rosslare Harbour This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... , Coordinates , Administration Country Region Bretagne Department Finistère Arrondissement Morlaix Canton Saint-Pol-de-Léon Intercommunality CdC du Pays Léonard Mayor Joseph Seité (2001-2008) Statistics Elevation 0 m–58 m (avg. ...

See also

This article is about the Second World War battle for Brest. ... Bleimor (Breton language for Seawolf), more fully Urz Skatoued Bleimor, was a Breton Scouting organization, taken from the pseudonym used by Breton poet Jean-Pierre Calloch, who died during World War I. Bleimor was founded in Paris on January 9, 1946 by Pierre Géraud-Keraod (later founder of... // This is a list of places in the United Kingdom having standing links to local communities in other countries. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brittany.
The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brittany. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (648 words)
Brittany has remarkable stone calvaries, some built at the close of the 16th cent.
Brittany’s provincial parlement met at Rennes, and its provincial assembly remained powerful until the French Revolution.
However, its staunch Catholicism and conservatism soon transformed it into an anti-Revolutionary stronghold; the Chouans (anti-Revolutionary peasants) were never fully subdued, and in S Brittany and the neighboring Vendée the Revolutionary government resorted to ruthless reprisals.
Brittany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2142 words)
Brittany occupies a large peninsula in the northwest of France, lying between the English Channel to the north and the Bay of Biscay to the south.
In 2004 the population of Brittany is estimated at 4,198,500 inhabitants.
The megalithic alignments at Carnac testify to the organisation of the prehistoric population of Brittany
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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