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Encyclopedia > British monarchy
United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United Kingdom
The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... Wikipedia has several pages containing information relevant to the monarchies of the Commonwealth Realms: In alphabetical order: British monarchy Monarchy in Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy in Australia Monarchy in Canada Monarchy in Jamaica Monarchy in New Zealand Monarchy in the Solomon Islands Though the Cook Islands are not themselves a... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland take place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ...










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The British monarchy is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and holds the now constitutional position of head of state.[1] According to convention her powers are exercised upon the advice of her prime minister. She does however possess certain reserve powers which she may exercise at her own discretion. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, who has reigned since February 6, 1952. The heir apparent is her eldest son, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Along with the Queen's husband and consort, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, they undertake various public duties in accordance with their positions. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Tony Blair at PMQs Prime Ministers Questions (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada this convention... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British politician who has been Home Secretary since 28 June 2007 and is the current Member of Parliament for Redditch, since 1997. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... The British civil service is the permanent bureaucracy that supports the Government Ministers responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom, positions he has occupied since December 2005. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system—England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Scottish Government is an unofficial term often used to describe the Scottish Executive. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010, barring exceptional circumstances. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ... The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state of a country in certain exceptional circumstances. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... A prince consort, generally speaking, is the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself is a king. ... “Prince Philip” redirects here. ...


The current monarchy has its beginnings among the petty kingdoms of early medieval Britain. By the year 1000, these had resolved into the kingdoms of England and Scotland. Beginning in 1603, when the Scottish king inherited the English throne, both kingdoms were ruled by a single monarch, and in 1707 the kingdoms were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain and, essentially, the monarchy of the United Kingdom today. Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


The British monarch is Head of the Commonwealth and, besides reigning in the United Kingdom, separately serves as head of state for each of fifteen other Commonwealth countries. This developed from the former colonial relationship of these countries to Britain, but they are now independent and the monarchy of each is legally distinct. The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...

Contents

Origins

The current British monarchy can trace its ancestral lineage back to the Anglo-Saxon period, ultimately back to the kings of the Angles, and also back to the early Scottish kings. During the ninth century, Wessex came to dominate other kingdoms in England (especially as a result of the extinction of rival lines in England during the First Viking Age) and during the tenth century England was consolidated into a single realm. The Kingdom of Scotland dates its inception to 843 and the reign of Cináed I, during which the realms of the Picts and the Scots came under a single ruler. The English and Scots crowns were united in the person of a single monarch in 1603 when James VI of Scots acceded to the throne of England. The kingdoms themselves were joined in the Acts of Union 1707, to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ... The Angles were the dominant Germanic tribe in the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, and gave their name to the English. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


Modern status

International and domestic aspects

Sixteen states within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations are in a personal union relationship and are known as Commonwealth realms.[2][3][4][5] The UK is one of these, therefore the British Monarchy is part of one shared amongst former territories of the British Empire. Despite sharing the same person as their respective national monarch, each of the Commonwealth Realms is sovereign and independent of the others.[6] It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...

See also: Commonwealth Realm: Constitutional implications

The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...

Development of shared monarchy

Prior to 1926, the British Empire was structured such that the British Crown (i.e. the British government) ruled over the empire collectively, each of its dominions being subordinate to Britain. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 provided the dominions the right to be considered equal to Britain. This effectively created a system whereby a single monarch operated independently in each Commonwealth Realm rather than as part of a unitary British Crown ruling over Britain and all the dominions as one body. The monarchy thus ceased to be an exclusively British institution, although it is often still referred to as "British" for legal and historical reasons, as well as for convenience. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... In the Commonwealth of Nations, previously the British Empire, dominion is the term used to refer to a current or former territory of the shared Crown, other than the United Kingdom. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ...


The first indication of this shift in constitutional law was the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927 and the concept was further solidified by the Statute of Westminster, 1931. According to the latter, the United Kingdom shares a common monarch with the other Commonwealth Realms such that any change to the laws governing succession to the British throne require the unanimous consent of all the Realms. Thus neither the United Kingdom nor any other Realm can unilaterally change the rules of succession, unless they explicitly remove themselves from the shared monarch relationship. The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927 (17 Geo 5, c. ... ...


This situation resulted in a single monarch reigning separately in each Commonwealth realm. Thus, on all matters of State concerning the United Kingdom, the monarch is advised solely by British ministers. A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ...


Succession

Succession is governed by several enactments, the most important of which are the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701. The rules for succession are not fixed, but may be changed by an Act of Parliament. Succession to the British Throne has generally been according to the rules of male-preference primogeniture. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England (1 Will. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...


Succession is according to the rules of male-preference cognatic primogeniture, under which sons inherit before daughters, and under which elder children inherit before younger ones of the same sex. The Act of Settlement, however, restricts the succession to the natural (i.e. non-adopted) legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover (1630–1714), a granddaughter of James I. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...

The Sovereign is crowned at Westminster Abbey, as depicted in the above portrait of King Charles II.

The Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement also include certain religious restrictions, which were imposed because of the English people's mistrust of Roman Catholicism during the late seventeenth century. Most importantly, only individuals who are Protestants at the time of the succession may inherit the Crown. Moreover, a person who has at any time professed Roman Catholicism, or has ever married a Roman Catholic, is also prohibited from succeeding. One who is thus disabled from inheriting the Crown is deemed "naturally dead" for succession purposes; the disqualifications do not extend to the individual's descendants. In recent years, there have been some efforts to remove the religious restrictions (especially the specific rules relating to Roman Catholicism), but the provisions remain in effect. Image File history File links Charles_II_of_England. ... Image File history File links Charles_II_of_England. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian...


Upon a "demise in the Crown" (the death of a Sovereign) his or her heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. (Hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!") Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the Sovereign to be publicly proclaimed by an Accession Council that meets at St. James's Palace. After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the Sovereign is also crowned in Westminster Abbey, normally by the Archbishop of Canterbury. A coronation is not necessary for a Sovereign to rule; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was undoubtedly king during his short reign. The King is dead. ... In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20...


After an individual ascends the Throne, he or she continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to unilaterally abdicate; the only monarch to voluntarily abdicate, Edward VIII (1936), did so with the authorisation of a special Act of Parliament (His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936). Historically, however, numerous reigns ended due to irregular or extralegal procedures; several monarchs have been killed, deposed, or forced to abdicate, chiefly during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The last monarch involuntarily removed from power was James II, who fled the realm in 1688 during the Glorious Revolution; Parliament interpreted his flight as an abdication. Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... His Majestys Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 was the Act of the British Parliament that allowed King Edward VIII to abdicate the throne, and passed succession to Prince Albert, Duke of York. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ...


Regency

Under the Regency Act 1937 and Regency Act 1953, the powers of a monarch who has not reached the age of eighteen, or of a monarch who is physically or mentally incapacitated, must be exercised by a regent. A physical or mental incapacity must be certified by at least three of the following people: the Sovereign's spouse, the Lord Speaker, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, and the Master of the Rolls. The declaration of three or more of the same persons is also necessary to terminate the regency and to allow the monarch to resume power. The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ... In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness). ... The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, and the presiding judge of Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, and of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. ... The Master of the Rolls is the third most senior judge of England, the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain traditionally being first and the Lord Chief Justice second. ...


When a Regency is necessary, the next qualified individual in the line of succession becomes Regent; no special parliamentary vote or other confirmation procedure is necessary. The Regent must be aged at least twenty-one years (eighteen years in the case of the heir apparent or heir presumptive), be a British citizen, and be domiciled in the United Kingdom. However, special provisions were made for Queen Elizabeth II by the Regency Act 1953, which states that The Duke of Edinburgh (the Queen's husband) may act as Regent in certain circumstances. The only individual to have acted as Regent was the future George IV, who took over the government of the realm whilst his father, George III, was insane (1811–1820). Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... In astrology, domicile, rulership or house is the strongest essential dignity of a planet. ... The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ... “Prince Philip” redirects here. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... “George III” redirects here. ...


During a temporary physical infirmity or an absence from the kingdom, the Sovereign may temporarily delegate his or her functions to Counsellors of State, the Sovereign's spouse and the first four qualified people in the line of succession. The qualifications for Counsellors of State are the same as those for Regents. The present Counsellors of State are: The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince of Wales, Prince William of Wales, Prince Henry of Wales and The Duke of York. In the United Kingdom, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the Monarch, presently Queen Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness). ... “Prince Philip” redirects here. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... “Prince William” redirects here. ... Prince Henry of Wales (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984), commonly known as Prince Harry, is the youngest son of Charles, Prince of Wales and his first wife, the late Diana, Princess of Wales. ... The Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ...


Finances

Main article: Privy Purse

Parliament meets much of the Sovereign's official expenditure from public funds. The Civil List is the sum that covers most expenses, including those for staffing, state visits, public engagements, and official entertainment. The size of the Civil List is fixed by Parliament every ten years; however, any money saved may be carried forward to the next ten year period. Thus, the Sovereign's Civil List expenditure in 2003 was approximately £9.9 million. In addition, the Sovereign receives an annual Property Services Grant-in-Aid (£15.3 million for FY 2003–2004) to pay for the upkeep of the royal residences, as well as an annual Royal Travel Grant-in-Aid (£5.9 million for FY 2003–2004). The Civil List and the Grants-in-Aid are paid from public funds. In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ...


Formerly, the monarch met all official expenses from hereditary revenues, including the profits of the Crown Estate. In 1760, however, King George III agreed to surrender the hereditary revenues of the Crown in return for the Civil List; this arrangement still persists. In modern times, the profits surrendered from the Crown Estate have by far exceeded the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid provided to the monarch. For example, the Crown Estate produced over £170 million for the Treasury in the financial year 2003–2004, whereas parliamentary funding for the monarch was less than £40 million during the same period. The monarch continues to own the Crown Estate, but cannot sell it; instead, the estate must continue to pass from one Sovereign to the next. Crown land is a designated area belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it. ... “George III” redirects here. ...


Aside from the Crown Estate, the Sovereign also owns the Duchy of Lancaster. The Duchy is the monarch's private inherited property, unlike the Crown Estate, which belongs to the monarch in an official capacity. Like the Crown Estate, however, the Duchy is held in trust, and cannot be sold by the monarch. The revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster need not be surrendered to the Treasury; instead, they form a part of the Privy Purse, and are used for expenses not borne by the Civil List. The Duchy of Cornwall is a similar estate held in trust to meet the expenses of the monarch's eldest son. A not-so-nice duchy. ... In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Sovereign is subject to indirect taxes such as the value added tax (VAT), but is exempt from income tax and capital gains tax. Since 1993, however, the Queen has voluntarily paid taxes on personal income. As the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid are used solely for official expenditure, they are not taken into account when calculating taxes. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... A capital gains tax (abbreviated: CGT) is a tax charged on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of an asset that was purchased at a lower price. ...


Constitutional role

It has long been established in the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom that political power is ultimately exercised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, of which the Sovereign is a non-partisan component, along with the House of Lords and the House of Commons, and by the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Thus, as the modern British monarchy is a constitutional one, the Sovereign's role is in practice limited to non-partisan functions (such as being the fount of honour). This role has been recognised since the 19th century; Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy as the "dignified part" rather than the "efficient part" of government in The English Constitution (1867). In practice, political power is exercised today through Parliament and by the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The sovereign also holds the title of Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, although in practice the spiritual leadership of the Church is the responsibility of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877), IPA (see [[1]]), was a nineteenth century British economist. ... Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


Whenever necessary, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister; the appointment is formalised at a ceremony known as Kissing Hands. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the Sovereign must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Commons: usually, the leader of the party which has a majority in that House. If no party has a majority (an unusual occurrence given the United Kingdom's First Past the Post electoral system), two or more groups may form a coalition, whose agreed leader is then appointed Prime Minister. In a "hung parliament," in which no party or coalition holds a majority, the monarch obtains an increased degree of latitude in his or her choice of Prime Minister.[specify] Still, however, the individual most likely to command the support of the Commons, usually the leader of the largest party, must be appointed. Thus, for example, Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister soon after the February 1974 general election, even though his Labour Party did not have a majority. It has also been suggested that in the same situation, if a minority government tried to dissolve Parliament to call an election early to strengthen its position, the monarch could refuse, and instead allow opposition parties to form a coalition government. However, Harold Wilson's minority government elected in February 1974 successfully called an early election in October 1974 which gave it a majority. The term to Kiss Hands is used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of British governmental office-holders to their office. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ... Harold Wilson Edward Heath The United Kingdom general election of October 1974 took place on 10 October 1974. ...


The Sovereign appoints and dismisses Cabinet and other ministers on the Prime Minister's advice. Thus, in practice, the Prime Minister, and not the Sovereign, exercises control over the composition of the Cabinet. The monarch may, in theory, unilaterally dismiss a Prime Minister, but convention and precedent bar such an action. The last monarch to unilaterally remove a Prime Minister was William IV, who dismissed Lord Melbourne in 1834. In practice, a Prime Minister's term comes to an end only with death or resignation. (In some circumstances, the Prime Minister is required to resign; see Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.) William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ...


The monarch holds a weekly audience with the Prime Minister, as well as regular audiences with other members of the Cabinet. The monarch may express his or her views, but, as a constitutional ruler, must ultimately accept the Prime Minister's and Cabinet's decisions. Walter Bagehot, the nineteenth century constitutional writer, summarises this concept, "the Sovereign has, under a constitutional monarchy ... three rights — the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn."


Any member of the Cabinet who wishes to be absent from the United Kingdom for any reason, except for official visits to European Union or NATO member countries, must seek both the Prime Minister's and the Queen's approval to leave the country, and must at the same time inform "Her Majesty ... of the arrangements made for the administration of the Minister's Department during his or her absence".[7] NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


The monarch has a similar relationship with devolved governments of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Sovereign appoints the First Minister of Scotland, but on the nomination of the Scottish Parliament. The First Minister of Wales, on the other hand, is directly elected by the National Assembly for Wales. In Scottish matters, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Scottish Executive. However, as devolution is more limited in Wales, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom in Welsh matters. The Sovereign can struck any Northern Ireland law, though voted by the Assembly, if deemed unconstitutional, an assesment done by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The First Minister of Wales is the leader of Wales and of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ...


The Sovereign also plays the role of Head of State in the United Kingdom. Oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen, not to Parliament or to the nation. Moreover, God Save the Queen (or, if the Sovereign is male, God Save the King) is used as the British national anthem. The monarch's visage appears on postage stamps, on coins, and on banknotes issued by the Bank of England. Banknotes issued by other British banks, such as the Bank of Scotland and the Ulster Bank, do not depict the Sovereign. An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his monarch or country. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound Sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a Scottish commercial and clearing bank, operating throughout the world. ... Ulster Bank (Irish: Banc Uladh) is a large commercial bank, one of the Big Four in Ireland. ...


Royal Prerogative

Main article: Royal Prerogative

The executive authority of the government is theoretically and nominally vested in the Sovereign; the powers that belong to the Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative. The Royal Prerogative includes many powers (such as the powers to dissolve Parliament, regulate the civil service, issue passports, make treaties or send ambassadors) as well as certain duties (such as the duties to defend the realm and to maintain the Queen's peace). As the British monarchy is a constitutional one, however, the monarch acts within the constraints of convention and precedent, exercising the Royal Prerogative on the advice of ministers. The Prime Minister and ministers are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Commons, and through it, to the people. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal Prerogative; moreover, the Consent of the Crown must be obtained before either House may even debate a bill affecting the Sovereign's prerogatives or interests. Although the Royal Prerogative is extensive, it is not unlimited. For example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorisation of an Act of Parliament. The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... In English law, the Queens peace (or Kings peace, when a male is on the throne) is the peaceful, violence-free state that the realm should endure in at all times. ...


According to a parliamentary report, "The Crown cannot invent new prerogative powers."[8] On the contrary, many of the Crown prerogatives have been permanently transferred to Parliament in the past, and more may be in the future.


The Sovereign is one of the three components of Parliament; the others are the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It is the prerogative of the monarch to summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament. Each parliamentary session begins with the monarch's summons. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. Prorogation usually occurs about one year after a session begins, and formally concludes the session. Dissolution ends a parliamentary term (which lasts a maximum of five years), and is followed by general elections for all seats in the House of Commons. These powers, however, are always exercised on the Prime Minister's advice. The timing of a dissolution is affected by a variety of factors; the Prime Minister normally chooses the most politically opportune moment for his or her party. The Sovereign may theoretically refuse a dissolution, but the circumstances under which such an action would be warranted are unclear.[9] (See Lascelles Principles.) No parliamentary term may last more than five years; at the end of this period, a dissolution is automatic under the Parliament Act 1911. A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the... The Lascelles Principles are a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom describing the circumstances under which a monarch may refuse a request from a Prime Minister for the dissolution of Parliament. ... Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ...


All laws are enacted in the monarch's name. The words "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows," known as the enacting formula, form a part of each Act of Parliament. Before a bill can become law, the Royal Assent (the monarch's approval) is required. The Sovereign may, in theory, either grant the Royal Assent (make the bill law) or withhold the Royal Assent (veto the bill). In practice, however, the Royal Assent is always granted; the last monarch to withhold Assent was Anne, who rejected a Scots militia bill in 1708. An enacting formula, or enacting clause, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by some legislatures. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


The Royal Prerogative with respect to domestic affairs is extensive. The Crown is responsible for the appointment and dismissal of ministers, Privy Counsellors, members of various executive agencies, and other officials. Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the Prime Minister, or, for less important offices, by other ministers. In addition, the monarch is the head or commander in chief of the Armed Forces (the British Army, the Royal Navy, and the Royal Air Force). It is the Sovereign's prerogative to declare war, make peace, and direct the actions of the military, although the Prime Minister holds de facto decision-making power over the British armed forces. Many of the Sovereign's prerogative powers are exercised through the Privy Council. A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


The Royal Prerogative, in addition, extends to foreign affairs. The Sovereign may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of the United Kingdom; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The Sovereign also accredits British High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, all British passports are issued in the monarch's name. High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


Furthermore, the Sovereign is deemed the fount of justice, and is responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The Sovereign does not personally rule in judicial cases; instead, judicial functions are performed in his or her name. For instance, prosecutions are brought on the monarch's behalf, and courts derive their authority from the Crown. The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 allows civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the government); however, lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. The Sovereign also exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 (1947 c. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Similarly, the monarch is also the fount of honour, or the source of all honours and dignities in the United Kingdom. Thus, the Crown creates all peerages, appoints members of the orders of chivalry, grants knighthoods, and awards other honours. In practice, peerages and most other honours are granted on the advice of the Prime Minister. Some honours, however, are within the personal gift of the Sovereign, and are not granted on ministerial advice. Thus, the monarch alone appoints members of the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the Royal Victorian Order, and the Order of Merit. This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Queen Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ...


Finally, the Sovereign is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the officially established church in England. As such, the monarch has the power to appoint archbishops and bishops. The Prime Minister, however, chooses the appointee, though he or she must select from a list of nominees prepared by the Crown Nominations Commission. The Crown's role in the Church of England is titular; the most senior clergyman, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is seen as the spiritual leader of the Church and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The monarch is only an ordinary member, and not the head or leader, of the Church of Scotland; however, he or she does hold the power to appoint the Lord High Commissioner to the Church's General Assembly. The Sovereign plays no formal role in the Church in Wales and the Church of Ireland, neither of which is an established church. Henry VIII was the founder of the Church of England yet did not hold the title of Supreme Governor. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... The 2004 Assembly with Dr Alison Elliot as Moderator The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Churchs governing body. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ...


The Great Seal of the Realm is the device used to authenticate important official documents, including letters patent, proclamations, and writs of election. The Great Seal of the Realm is in the custody of the Lord Chancellor. For matters relating exclusively to Scotland or Northern Ireland, the Great Seal of Scotland or the Great Seal of Northern Ireland is used, as the case may be. The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... A proclamation (Lat. ... A writ of election is a writ issued by the government ordering the holding of a special election for a governmental office. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The Great Seal of Scotland allows the monarch to authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... The Great Seal of Northern Ireland is the seal used for Northern Ireland. ...


The monarch also has the power to claim any sturgeons, porpoises, whales, or dolphins that are either washed ashore, or captured within 3 miles of the British coast. This power comes from a statute from King Edward II in 1324. Today, if you purchase a sturgeon, you still request the honour as an act of loyalty to the crown.[10] Sturgeon is a term for a genus of fish (Acipenser) of which 26 species are known. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... A Fin Whale The term whale is ambiguous: it can refer to all cetaceans, to just the larger ones, or only to members of particular families within the order Cetacea. ... Genera See article below. ... Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – October, 1327), of Caernarvon, was king of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ...


History

English monarchy

Following the Viking raids and settlement of the ninth century, the kingdom of Wessex emerged as the dominant English kingdom. Alfred the Great secured Wessex and achieved dominance over western Mercia, but he did not become King of England; the nearest title he assumed was "King of the Anglo-Saxons". It was Alfred's successors of the tenth century who built the kingdom now recognised as England, though even by the reign of Edgar the Peaceful England was not beyond fracturing into its constituent parts. The eleventh century saw England become more stable, despite a number of wars with the Danes which resulted in a Danish monarchy for some years. When William, Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066 he became monarch of a kingdom with probably the strongest royal authority in Europe. The Norman Conquest was crucial in British history, in terms of both political and social change. The new monarch continued the centralization of power begun in the Anglo-Saxon period, while the Feudal System also continued to develop. For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: Ælfrēd //) (c. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... William I of England (c. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...

The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Norman Conquest.
The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Norman Conquest.

William I was succeeded by two of his sons: William II, and then Henry I. Henry made a controversial decision to name his daughter Matilda (his only surviving child) as his heir. Following Henry's death in 1135, one of William I's grandsons, Stephen, laid claim to the Throne, and took power with the support of most of the barons. Stephen's weak rule, however, allowed Matilda to challenge his reign; as a result, England soon descended into a period of disorder known as the Anarchy. Stephen maintained a precarious hold on power for the rest of his life; however, he agreed to a compromise under which he would be succeeded by Matilda's son Henry, who accordingly became the first monarch of the Angevin or Plantagenet dynasty as Henry II in 1154. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ... Empress Matilda (February, 1101 — September 10, 1167; Saxon form Maud or Maude) — was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Stephen (c. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ...


The reigns of most of the Angevin monarchs were marred by civil strife and conflicts between the monarch and the nobility. Henry II faced rebellions from his own sons, the future monarchs Richard I and John. Nevertheless, Henry did manage to achieve an expansion of his empire; most notable was the conquest of Ireland, which had previously consisted of a multitude of rival kingdoms. Henry granted Ireland to his younger son John who ruled as "Lord of Ireland". Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


Upon Henry's death, his elder son Richard succeeded to the throne; Richard, however, was absent from England for most of his reign, as he was fighting the Crusades in the Near East. When Richard died, John succeeded him, thereby uniting England and Ireland under a single monarch. John's reign was marked by conflict with the barons, who in 1215 coerced him into issuing the Magna Carta (Latin for "Great Charter") to guarantee the rights and liberties of the nobility. Soon afterwards, John repealed the charter, plunging England into a civil war known as the First Barons' War. The war came to an abrupt end after John died in 1216, leaving the Crown to his nine-year-old son Henry III. The barons, led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, again rebelled later in Henry's reign, beginning the Second Barons' War. The war, however, ended in a clear royalist victory, and in the execution of many rebels. The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The First Barons War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... The Second Barons War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons lead by Simon de Montfort, against the Royalist forces led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England). ...


The next monarch, Edward I, was far more successful in maintaining royal power, and was responsible for the conquest of Wales and the attempt to establish English domination in Scotland. However, gains in Scotland were reversed during the reign of his successor, Edward II, who was also occupied with a disastrous conflict with the nobility. Edward II was, in 1311, forced to relinquish many of his powers to a committee of baronial "ordainers"; however, military victories helped him regain control in 1322. Nevertheless, in 1327, Edward was deposed and executed by his wife Isabella and by his son, who became Edward III. The new monarch soon also claimed the French Crown, setting off the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Edward III's campaigns were largely successful, and culminated in the conquest of much French territory. Edward's reign was also marked by the further development of Parliament, which came to be divided into two Houses for the first time. In 1377, Edward III died, leaving the Crown to his ten year-old grandson Richard II. The new monarch, like many of his predecessors, conflicted with the nobles, especially by attempting to concentrate power in his own hands. In 1399, whilst he was away in Ireland, his cousin Henry Bolingbroke seized power; Richard was then forced to abdicate and was murdered. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born in Bordeaux and became his fathers successor when his elder brother died in infancy. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


Henry IV was the grandson of Edward III and the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; hence, his dynasty was known as the House of Lancaster. For most of his reign, Henry IV was forced to fight off plots and rebellions; his success was partly due to the military skill of his son, the future Henry V. Henry V's own reign, which began in 1413, was largely free from domestic strife, leaving the king free to pursue the Hundred Years' War in France. Henry V was victorious in his conquest; however, his sudden death in 1422 left his infant son Henry VI on the Throne, and gave the French an opportunity to overthrow English rule. The unpopularity of Henry's regents, and afterwards, Henry's own ineffectual leadership, led to the weakening of the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrians faced a challenge from the House of York, so called because its head, a descendant of Edward III, was Richard, Duke of York. Although the Duke of York died in battle in 1460, his eldest son Edward led the Yorkists to victory in 1461. The Wars of the Roses, nevertheless, continued intermittently during the reigns of the Yorkists Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III. Ultimately, the conflict culminated in success for the Lancastrian branch, led by Henry Tudor (Henry VII), in 1485, when Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... This article is about Richard, Duke of York, father of King Edward IV. For the article about Edward IVs son who was imprisoned in the Tower of London see: Richard, Duke of York (Prince in the Tower). ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Nominally, Richmond in practice, the Earl of Oxford Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed; Henry...

The above portrait of Elizabeth I was made in approximately 1588 to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (depicted in the background).
The above portrait of Elizabeth I was made in approximately 1588 to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (depicted in the background).

The end of the Wars of the Roses formed a major turning point in the history of the monarchy. Much of the nobility was either decimated on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, and many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown. Moreover, feudalism was dying, and the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Hence, the Tudor monarchs easily re-established absolute supremacy in the realm, and the conflicts with the nobility that had plagued previous monarchs came to an end. The power of the Crown reached its zenith during the reign of the second Tudor king, Henry VIII. Henry VIII's reign was one of great political change; England was transformed from a weak kingdom into one of the powers of Europe. Religious upheaval also occurred, as disputes with the Pope led the monarch to break away from the Roman Catholic Church and to establish the Church of England (the Anglican Church). Another important result of Henry VIII's reign was the annexation of Wales (which had been conquered centuries earlier, but had remained a separate dominion) to England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542. Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... For the modern navy of Spain, see Armada Española. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England...


Henry VIII's son and successor, the young Edward VI, continued with further religious reforms. Edward VI died in 1553, precipitating a succession crisis. He was wary of allowing his Catholic elder half-sister Mary to succeed to the Throne, and therefore drew up a will designating the Lady Jane Grey as his heiress, even though no woman had ever reigned over England. Jane's reign, however, lasted only nine days; with tremendous popular support, Mary deposed her, revoked her proclamation as Queen, and declared herself the lawful Sovereign. Mary I attempted to return England to Roman Catholicism, in the process burning numerous Protestants at the stake as heretics. Mary I died in 1558, to be succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I, who once again returned England to Protestantism. Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 – 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days in July 1553. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ...


Scottish monarchy

In Scotland, as in England, monarchies emerged after the withdrawal of Rome in the early fifth century. The three groups that lived in Scotland at this time were the Picts (who inhabited the kingdom of Pictavia), the Britons (who lived in several kingdoms in southern Scotland, including the Kingdom of Strathclyde), and the Gaels, or Scotti (who would later give their name to Scotland), of the Irish province of Dál Riata. Cináed I is traditionally viewed as the founder of united Scotland (or kingdom of Alba). The expansion of Scottish dominions continued over the next two centuries, as other territories such as Strathclyde were subjugated or obtained through dynastic marriage. A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Picts inhabited Pictavia or Pictland - Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth _ prior to the Scotticisation of the area. ... Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Gael (Ancient people) : A Gael is a member of a distinct culture existing in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man whose language is one that is Gaelic. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...


Early Scottish monarchs did not inherit the Crown directly; instead the custom of alternating segments was followed, as in Ireland and previously among the Picts. The monarchy alternated between two, sometimes three, branches of the House of Alpín. As a result, however, the rival dynastic lines clashed, often violently. The problems relating to succession were especially illustrated by the period from 942 to 1005, during which seven consecutive monarchs were either murdered or killed in battle. The rotation of the monarchy between different lines was abandoned after Máel Coluim II ascended the throne in 1005 having killed many rivals. Thus, when Donnchad I succeeded Máel Coluim II in 1034, he did so as tanist, with no opposition. Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (born 15 August 1001 died 14 August 1040)[1] was king of Alba. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1040, Donnchad suffered defeat in battle at the hands of Macbeth, the subject of William Shakespeare's famous play (The Tragedy of Macbeth). Later, in 1057, Donnchad's son Máel Coluim avenged his father's death by defeating and killing Macbeth. A few months later, after the murder of Macbeth's son Lulach, Máel Coluim ascended the throne as Máel Coluim III, becoming the first monarch of the House of Dunkeld. For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Lulach (Lulach mac Gilla Comgain) (c. ... The so-called House of Dunkeld is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the clear succession of Scottish kings from 1034 to 1040 and from 1058 to 1290. ...


From 1107, Scotland was briefly partitioned under the will of Edgar, who divided his dominions between his eldest surviving brother Alexander I (who ruled northern Scotland as a king) and his younger brother David (who ruled southern Scotland as an earl). After Alexander's death in 1124, David inherited his dominions, and Scotland became unified once more. David was succeeded by the ineffective Malcolm IV, and then by William the Lion, the longest-reigning King of Scots before the Union of the Crowns. William participated in a rebellion against King Henry II of England; however, the rebellion failed, and William was captured by the English. In exchange for his release, William was forced to acknowledge Henry as his feudal overlord. The English King Richard I agreed to terminate the arrangement in 1189, in return for a large sum of money needed for the Crusades. William died in 1214, and was succeeded by his son Alexander II. Alexander II, as well as his successor Alexander III, attempted to take over the Western Isles, which were still under the overlordship of Norway. During the reign of Alexander III, Norway launched an unsuccessful invasion of Scotland; the ensuing Treaty of Perth recognised Scottish control of the Western Isles and other disputed areas. Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (Alasdair mac Maíl Coluim) (c. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Malcolm IV (or Máel Coluim mac Eanric) (c. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ...

Robert I was crowned King of Scots in 1306 and later secured the nation's independence.

Alexander III's death in 1286 brought his three year-old Norwegian granddaughter Margaret to the throne. On her way to Scotland in 1290, however, Margaret died at sea, precipitating a major succession crisis, during which there were thirteen rival claimants. Several Scottish leaders appealed to King Edward I of England to settle the dispute. A court was set up with the Balliol and Bruce "factions" each nominating "assessors". Contrary to popular opinion, Edward did not choose John Balliol to be king. Balliol won the overwhelming support of the majority of assessors. However, Edward proceeded to treat Balliol as a vassal, and tried to exert considerable influence over Scottish affairs. In 1295, when Balliol renounced his allegiance to England, Edward I invaded and conquered Scotland. During the first ten years of the ensuing Wars of Scottish Independence, Scotland had no monarch present; however, it was informally led by William Wallace. After Wallace's judicial murder in 1305, Robert the Bruce took over and declared himself king. Robert's efforts culminated in success, and Scottish independence was acknowledged in 1328. However, only one year later, Robert died, and the English again invaded under the pretext of restoring John Balliol's rightful heir, Edward Balliol, to the throne. Nonetheless, during further military campaigns, Scotland once again won its independence under Robert the Bruce's son David II. ImageMetadata File history File links Robert_the_Bruce3. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Robert_the_Bruce3. ... Robert I may refer to: Robert I (c. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Margaret (1283–1290), known as the Maid of Norway, is traditionally considered to have been Queen of Scots from 1286 until her death although she never came to Scotland and was never inaugurated at Scone. ... In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... John Balliol and his wife. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... Edward Balliol (c. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ...


In 1371, David II was succeeded by Robert II, the first Scottish monarch from the House of Stewart (later Stuart). The reigns of both Robert II and his successor, Robert III, were marked by a general decline in royal power. When Robert III died in 1406, regents had to rule the country; the monarch, Robert III's son James I, had been taken captive by the English. Having paid a large ransom, James returned to Scotland in 1424; in order to restore his authority, he used ruthless measures, including the execution of several of his enemies. James II continued his father's policies by subduing influential noblemen. At the same time, however, the Estates of Scotland (the Scottish Parliament) became increasingly powerful, often openly defying the King. Parliamentary power reached its zenith during the reign of the ineffective King James III. As a result, James IV and his successors tended to avoid calling parliamentary sessions, thereby checking the power of the Estates. Robert the warrior and knight: the reverse side of Robert IIs Great Seal, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert III (circa 1340 – April 4, 1406), king of Scotland (reigned 1390 - 1406), the eldest son of King Robert II by his mistress, Elizabeth Mure, became legitimised with the formal marriage of his parents about 1349. ... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 – August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ...


In 1513, James IV launched an invasion of England, attempting to take advantage of the absence of the English King Henry VIII. His forces met with disaster at Flodden Field; the King, many senior noblemen, and over ten thousand soldiers were killed. As James IV's son and successor, James V, was an infant, the government was taken over by regents. After he reached adulthood, James ruled successfully until another disastrous war with the English in 1542. James's death in the same year left the Crown in the hands of his six-day-old daughter, Mary; once again, a regency was established. Mary, a Roman Catholic, reigned during a period of great religious upheaval in Scotland. Due to the efforts of reformers such as John Knox, a Protestant ascendancy was established. Mary caused considerable alarm by marrying a fellow Catholic, Lord Darnley, in 1565. After Lord Darnley's assassination in 1567, Mary contracted an even more unpopular marriage with the Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of Darnley's murder. The nobility rebelled against the Queen, forcing her to abdicate and to flee to England (where she was imprisoned and later executed by Elizabeth I). The Crown went to her infant son James VI, who was brought up as a Protestant. James VI would later become King of England upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I. Combatants England Scotland Commanders Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey James IV † Strength 26,000 approx 30,000 approx Casualties 1,500 dead 10,000 dead Western side of the battlefield, looking south-south-east from the monument erected in 1910. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, King Consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who became King James I of England. ... The Duke of Orkney James Hepburn, Duke of Orkney, Marquess of Fife, 4th Earl of Bothwell, usually just referred to as Bothwell (~1535 - April 14, 1578) was the third husband of Mary I of Scotland. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...


Personal Union and republican phase

James VI and I was the first monarch to rule over England, Scotland, and Ireland together.
James VI and I was the first monarch to rule over England, Scotland, and Ireland together.

Elizabeth's death in 1603 brought about the end of the rule of the House of Tudor; she had no children, so was succeeded by the Scottish monarch James VI whose maternal great-grandmother was Henry VIII's older sister. James VI ruled in England as James I after what was known as the "Union of the Crowns". Although England and Scotland were in personal union under one monarch - James I became the first monarch to style himself "King of Great Britain" in 1604[11] - they remained separate kingdoms. James belonged to the House of Stuart, a royal house whose monarchs experienced frequent conflicts with the English Parliament. The disputes frequently related to the issue of royal and parliamentary powers, especially the power to impose taxes. The conflict was especially pronounced during the reign of James I's successor Charles I, who provoked opposition by ruling without Parliament from 1629 to 1640 (the "Eleven Years Tyranny"), unilaterally levying taxes, and adopting controversial religious policies (many of which were offensive to the Scottish Presbyterians and the English Puritans). In about 1642, the conflict between King and Parliament reached its climax as the English Civil War began. The war culminated in the execution of the king, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic known as the Commonwealth of England. In 1653, however, Oliver Cromwell, the most prominent military and political leader in the nation, seized power and declared himself Lord Protector (effectively becoming a military dictator). Oliver Cromwell continued to rule until his death in 1658, when he was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell. The new Lord Protector had little interest in governing; he soon abdicated, allowing the brief re-establishment of the Commonwealth. The lack of clear leadership, however, led to civil and military unrest, and for a popular desire to restore the monarchy. The Restoration came about in 1660, when Charles I's son Charles II was declared king. The establishment of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was deemed illegal; Charles II was declared to have been the de jure king since his father's death in 1649. Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Eleven Years Tyranny refers to the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Charles II's reign was marked by the development of the first modern political parties in England. Charles had no legitimate children, and was due to be succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. There arose a parliamentary effort to exclude James from the line of succession; the "Abhorrers," who opposed it, became the Tory Party, whereas the "Petitioners," who supported it, became the Whig Party. The Exclusion Bill, however, failed; on several occasions, Charles II dissolved Parliament because he feared that the bill might pass. After the dissolution of the Parliament of 1681, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch until his death in 1685. The Catholic James II accordingly succeeded Charles (who himself converted to Catholicism on his deathbed). James pursued policy of offering religious tolerance to Roman Catholics, thereby drawing the ire of many of his Protestant subjects. Many opposed James's decisions to maintain a large standing army, to appoint Roman Catholics to high political and military offices, and to imprison Church of England clerics who challenged his policies (see Seven Bishops). As a result, a group of Protestant nobles and other notable citizens known as the Immortal Seven invited James II's daughter Mary II and her husband William of Orange to depose the king. William obliged, arriving in England on 5 November 1688 to great public support. Faced with the defection of many of his Protestant officials, James fled the realm on 23 December of the same year. On 12 February 1689, the Convention Parliament declared that James's flight constituted an abdication, and that William III and Mary II (not James II's Catholic son James Francis Edward Stuart) were joint Sovereigns of England and Ireland. The Scottish Estates soon followed suit. James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as...


James's overthrow is normally known as the Glorious Revolution, and was one of the most important events in the long evolution of parliamentary power. The Bill of Rights 1689 affirmed parliamentary supremacy, and declared that the English people held certain rights, including the freedom from taxes imposed without parliamentary consent. The Bill of Rights also required future monarchs to be Protestants, and provided that, after any children of William and Mary, Mary's sister Anne would inherit the Crown. Mary died childless in 1694, leaving William as the sole monarch. By 1700, a political crisis arose, as all of the Princess Anne's children had died, leaving Anne as the only individual left in the line of succession. Parliament, afraid that the former James II or his Roman Catholic relatives might attempt to reclaim the Throne, passed the Act of Settlement 1701, which placed William's distant Protestant cousin Sophia, Electress of Hanover, in the line of succession. Soon after the passage of the Act, William III died, leaving the Crown to his sister-in-law Anne. The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England (1 Will. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III. Her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII, was forcibly deposed in 1688; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III and Mary... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ...


After the Union of the Crowns

England and Scotland were united as Great Britain under Queen Anne.
England and Scotland were united as Great Britain under Queen Anne.

After Anne's accession, the succession issue quickly re-emerged; the Scottish Estates, infuriated that the English Parliament did not consult them on the choice of Sophia of Hanover, passed the Act of Security, threatening to end the personal union between England and Scotland. The Parliament of England retaliated with the Alien Act 1705, threatening to devastate the Scottish economy by cutting free trade. As a result, the Scottish Estates acquiesced to the Act of Union 1707, under which England and Scotland were united into a single Kingdom of Great Britain, with succession to be determined under the rules prescribed by the Act of Settlement. Image File history File links Queen Anne. ... Image File history File links Queen Anne. ... The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ... For the US Alien Act of 1798, see Alien and Sedition Acts. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ...


Accordingly, in 1714, Queen Anne was succeeded by the son of the deceased Sophia of Hanover, George I, who consolidated his position by defeating Jacobite rebellions in 1715 and 1719. The new monarch was much less active in government than many of his predecessors, preferring to devote much of his time to the affairs of his German kingdoms. Instead, George left much of his power to his ministers, especially to Sir Robert Walpole, who is often considered the first (unofficial) Prime Minister of Great Britain. The decline of the influence of the monarch and the rise of the power of the Prime Minister and Cabinet continued during the reign of the next monarch, George II, but was halted during that of George III. George III attempted to recover much of the power given up by his Hanoverian predecessors; he also acted to keep the Tories (who favoured royal control in government more than the Whigs) in power whenever possible. George III's reign was also important because of the union of Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom under the Act of Union 1800. At the same time, George III also dropped the claim to the French Throne, which had been nominally made by all English monarchs since Edward III. George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... “George III” redirects here. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ...

King George III asserted his political authority on several occasions, in contrast with his two Hanoverian predecessors.
King George III asserted his political authority on several occasions, in contrast with his two Hanoverian predecessors.

From 1811 to 1820, George III was insane, forcing his son, the future George IV, to rule as Prince Regent. During the Regency, and later during his own reign, George IV continued to maintain what remained of royal authority, instead of ceding it to Parliament and the Cabinet. His successor, William IV, attempted to do the same, but met with much less success. In 1834, William dismissed the Whig Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, over policy differences, and instead appointed a Tory, Sir Robert Peel. In the ensuing elections, however, the Whigs maintained a large majority in the House of Commons; they forced Peel to resign by blocking most of his legislation, thus leaving the King with no choice but to recall Lord Melbourne. Since 1834, no monarch has appointed or dismissed a Prime Minister contrary to the will of the House of Commons. William IV's reign was also marked by the passage of the Great Reform Act, which reformed parliamentary representation and abolished many rotten boroughs. The act, together with others passed later in the century, led to an expansion of the electoral franchise, and the rise of the House of Commons as the most important branch of Parliament. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1108, 130 KB)George III by Allan Ramsay, 1762. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1108, 130 KB)George III by Allan Ramsay, 1762. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ...


The final transition to a constitutional monarchy was made during the long reign of William IV's successor, Victoria. As a woman, Victoria could not rule Hanover; thus, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover came to an end. The Victorian Era was an historic one for the United Kingdom, and was marked by great cultural change, technological progress, and the establishment of the United Kingdom as one of the world's foremost powers. In recognition of British rule over India, Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1876. However, the reign was also marked by increased support for the republican movement, due in part to Victoria's permanent mourning and lengthy period of seclusion following the death of her husband in 1861. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Victoria's son, Edward VII, became the first monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1901. However, in 1917, the next monarch, George V, replaced "Saxe-Coburg-Gotha" with "Windsor" due to the anti-German sympathies aroused by the First World War. George V's reign was also marked by the separation of Ireland into Northern Ireland (which remained a part of the United Kingdom) and the Irish Free State (an independent nation) in 1922. Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Monarchy in Ireland

In the twelfth century Pope Adrian IV gave a papal bull authorizing King Henry II of England to take possession of Ireland. This was because the Irish Christian church at the time was not following the Roman Catholic Church and had various heretical beliefs. So the pope wanted the English monarch to annex Ireland and bring the Irish church into the Catholic Church. The pope granted Ireland to the king of England as a feudal territory nominally under papal overlordship. Adrian IV (also known as Hadrian IV), born Nicholas Breakspear ( 1100 - September 1, 1159) was pope from 1154 to 1159. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Around 1170 King Dermot MacMurrough of Leinster was deposed and his country taken by his archenemy King Rory O'Connor of Connaught. Dermot escaped to England and asked Henry for help. Henry refused but agreed to allow him to use a group of Anglo-Norman aristocrats and adventurers, led by Richard de Clare, the earl of Pembroke, to help him regain his throne. Dermot and his Anglo-Norman allies succeeded and he became King of Leinster again. As a reward Dermot let de Clare marry his daughter. Because of this when Dermot died in 1171 de Clare inherited his throne and became King of Leinster. This made Henry afraid that de Clare would make Ireland a rival Norman state or a place of refuge for Anglo-Saxons, so he took advantage of the papal bull giving him possession of Ireland and went to the island with his English armies and forced de Clare and the other Anglo-Norman aristocrats in Ireland and some of the Gaelic Irish chieftains to recognize him as their overlord. Henry was thus Lord of Ireland under nominal papal overlordship after this. Diarmait Mac Murchada (also known as Diarmait na nGall, Dermot of the Foreigners, Daimait MacMorchada), anglicized as Dermot MacMurrough (died 1 January 1171) was the King of Leinster, and is often considered to have been the most notorious traitor in Irish history. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (d. ... Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, Lord of Leicester, Justicar of Ireland (1130 – 20 April 1176), known as Strongbow, was a Cambro-Norman lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ireland. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House...


This remained the status of Ireland until 1541. By then King Henry VIII of England had broken with the Catholic Church and made England Protestant. This made the pope's granting of Ireland to the English monarch invalid. So he summoned a meeting of the Irish Parliament that year to change his title of sovereignty over the island. There his title was changed from Lord of Ireland to King of Ireland, thus making the island a kingdom in personal union with the kingdom of England. It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ...


Ireland continued to have this status until 1800, when the Act of Union merged the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland into one kingdom called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Ireland continued to be an integral part of the United Kingdom until 1922, when what is now the Republic of Ireland won independence as the Irish Free State. Ireland was a separate kingdom with the same monarch as Great Britain in a personal union from its independence in 1922 until 1949, when what had become Southern Ireland became a republic and severed all ties with the monarchy, while Northern Ireland remained within the Union, thus creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901...


After the Empire

Map of Commonwealth Realms.
Map of Commonwealth Realms.
Map of the British Empire in 1921.
Map of the British Empire in 1921.

Between the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 was passed, the unitary British Crown that operated over the entire empire was replaced by separate Crowns for each Dominion. Thus, the institution of the monarchy ceased to be exclusively British, the particular British monarchy only existing within the Crown's British jurisdiction - the UK. Reflecting this, while the George VI was one person, he was separately King of the United Kingdom, King of Australia, King of Canada, and so forth. This "division" was further enhanced with the subsequent patriation of each Realm's constitution from the UK over the ensuing decades. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB) Summary Map of the various kingdoms of the world that share Elizabeth II as their sovereign. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 37 KB) Summary Map of the various kingdoms of the world that share Elizabeth II as their sovereign. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a report of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The composition of the disambiguation links at the head of this article and the other Wikipedia articles on the monarchies of the Commonwealth Realms is under discussion at Talk:Commonwealth Realm monarchies (disambiguation). ...


Formerly every member of the British Commonwealth was a Commonwealth Realm. However, when India became a republic in 1950, it was decided that it should be permitted to remain in the Commonwealth, even though they would no longer share a common monarch with the other Commonwealth Realms. It was nevertheless decided that the British monarch would be acknowledged as "Head of the Commonwealth" in all Commonwealth member states, whether realms or not. The position is purely ceremonial, and is not accompanied by political power. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...

The reign of Queen Victoria was the longest in the history of the United Kingdom.

George V's death in 1936 was followed by the accession of the celebrated King Edward VIII, who caused a public scandal by announcing his desire to marry a divorced American woman, Wallis Simpson, even though the Church of England opposed the remarriage of divorcées. Accordingly, Edward announced his intention to abdicate; the Parliaments of the United Kingdom and of other Commonwealth realms granted his request. Edward VIII and any children by his new wife were to be excluded from the line of succession; instead, the Crown went to his brother, George VI. Image File history File links Queenvictoria. ... Image File history File links Queenvictoria. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... Wallis, The Duchess of Windsor (previously Wallis Simpson; previously Wallis Spencer; born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1895 or 1896 – 24 April 1986) was the American wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor. ... The Instrument of Abdication signed by Edward VIII Like King Henry VIII of England, whose wish to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s shook his kingdom, King Edward VIII created a crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he wished to marry Wallis Simpson. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...


The new monarch served as a rallying figure for the British people during the Second World War, making morale-boosting visits to the troops as well as to munitions factories and to areas bombed by Nazi Germany. George VI was also the last British monarch to hold the title "Emperor of India," a title relinquished when India became independent in 1947. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


George VI's death in 1952 was followed by the accession of the present monarch, Elizabeth II. Like her recent predecessors, Elizabeth II continues to function as a constitutional monarch. During her reign, there has been some support for the republican movement, especially due to negative publicity associated with the Royal Family (for instance, the divorce of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales). Nevertheless, a large majority of the British public supports the continuation of the monarchy. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... “Diana Spencer” redirects here. ...


Residences

Buckingham Palace, the monarch's principal residence.
Buckingham Palace, the monarch's principal residence.
Holyrood Palace, the monarch's principal Scottish residence

The Sovereign's primary official residence is Buckingham Palace in the City of Westminster. Buckingham Palace is the site of most state banquets, investitures, royal christenings, and other ceremonies. Moreover, visiting heads of state usually reside in Buckingham Palace. Another principal residence is Windsor Castle, the largest occupied castle in the world. Windsor Castle, located in Windsor, Berkshire, is used principally as a weekend retreat; the monarch also resides there during the Royal Ascot, an annual race meeting that forms a major part of the social calendar. The Sovereign's principal official residence in Scotland is the Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly called Holyrood Palace, in Edinburgh. The monarch stays at Holyrood Palace for at least one week each year, and when visiting Scotland on state occasions. Image File history File links Buckingham_Palace,_London,_England,_24Jan04. ... Image File history File links Buckingham_Palace,_London,_England,_24Jan04. ... Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland Photo taken by Finlay McWalter on 7th August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, Scotland Photo taken by Finlay McWalter on 7th August 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Windsor (IPA: usually , but also ) is a suburban town and tourist destination in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. ... Ascot Racecourse is a racecourse, located in the village of Ascot in the English county of Berkshire used for thoroughbred horse racing. ... The social season or Season has historically referred to the annual period when it is customary for members of the social and political elite of society to hold debutante balls, dinner parties, and large charity events, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... A 19th century view of Holyrood Palace from Calton Hill. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


There also exist a number of other palaces not used as residences by the monarch. The Palace of Westminster was originally the Sovereign's primary residence until 1530; although it is still officially a royal palace, it serves as the home to both Houses of Parliament. Thereafter, the Sovereign's principal London residence was the Palace of Whitehall, which was destroyed by fire in 1698, to be replaced by St. James's Palace. Although it was replaced as the monarch's primary residence by Buckingham Palace in 1837, St James's is still used for various official functions. For example, foreign ambassadors are accredited to the Court of St. James's, and the Palace is the site of the meeting of the Accession Council. However, St James's Palace is not one of the Sovereign's official residences; instead, it is used by other members of the Royal Family. Other residences used by the Royal Family include Clarence House (presently the home of the heir-apparent, The Prince of Wales) and Kensington Palace. “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... The Court of St Jamess is the popular name of the royal court of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... Clarence House, London Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated in The Mall. ... The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George[2]; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The south facade of the main block of Kensington Palace, seen through Jean Tijous wrought iron gates. ...


The aforementioned residences belong to the Crown; they are held in trust for future rulers, and cannot be sold by the monarch. However, the monarch does own certain homes in a private capacity. Sandringham House, a privately owned country house near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, is typically used from Christmas to the end of January. Similarly, during parts of August and September, the monarch resides in Balmoral Castle, a privately owned castle in Aberdeenshire in Scotland. Sandringham House is a country house on 8000 acres (32 km²) of land near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, which is privately owned by the British Royal Family. ... A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ... Sandringham is a village and civil parish in the north of the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Balmoral Castle. ... The traditional county of Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) borders Banffshire and Inverness-shire to the west, Perthshire, Angus and Kincardineshire to the south, and the North Sea to the north and east. ...


Style

The present Sovereign's full style and title is: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. The title Head of the Commonwealth is held by the Queen personally, and is not vested in the British Crown. (However, her father, George VI, was also recognised as such.) Pope Leo X first granted the title Defender of the Faith to King Henry VIII in 1521, rewarding him for his support of the Papacy during the early years of the Protestant Reformation, particularly for his book the Defence of the Seven Sacraments. However, Henry VIII later broke from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England; Pope Paul III revoked the grant, but Parliament passed a law authorising its continued use. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... The present British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the second to be recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in the 53 member states of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... The Defence of the Seven Sacraments (in Latin, Assertio Septem Sacramentorum) is a book, written by King Henry VIII of England in 1521. ... Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


The Sovereign is known as "His Majesty" or "Her Majesty", though, in certain formal circumstances, "Most Gracious Majesty" or "Most Excellent Majesty" is used instead. The form "Britannic Majesty" appears in international treaties and on passports to differentiate the British monarch from foreign rulers. Queens Consort (wives of Kings) and Queens Dowager (widows of Kings) are also entitled to the style "Majesty", but husbands of female monarchs are not. Thus, the husband of the present Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, is only styled Royal Highness. “Prince Philip” redirects here. ...


The monarch chooses his or her regnal name, which is not necessarily his or her first name - King George VI, King Edward VII and Queen Victoria did not use their first names. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ...


The ordinal used for the monarch only takes into account monarchs since the Norman conquest of England. If only one monarch has used a particular name, then no ordinal is used; for example, Queen Victoria is never known as "Victoria I". After the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, numbering was based solely on previous English monarchs, and not on Scottish ones. In 1953, however, Scottish nationalists challenged the right of the Queen to style herself "Elizabeth II", on the grounds that there had never before been an "Elizabeth I" in Scotland. In MacCormick v. Lord Advocate, the Scottish Court of Session ruled against the plaintiffs, finding that the Queen's title was a matter of her own choice and prerogative. Nevertheless, it was announced that future monarchs would use the higher of the English and Scottish ordinals. Retroactively applying this policy yields no change in numbering. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... MacCormick v. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ...


Traditionally, the signature of the monarch includes their regnal name (but not ordinal) followed by the letter "R", which stands for either rex or regina ("king" and "queen", respectively, in Latin). Hence, the present monarch's signature is "Elizabeth R". From 1877 until 1948, reigning monarchs also added the letter "I" to their signatures, standing for imperator ("emperor" in Latin), due to their status as Emperor or Empress of India. Queen Victoria, for example, signed her name, "Victoria RI". Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ...


Arms of Dominion

The Royal Standard is the Sovereign's official flag in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Royal Standard is the Sovereign's official flag in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
A slightly different form of the Royal Standard is used in Scotland.
A slightly different form of the Royal Standard is used in Scotland.

The coat of arms used by the Sovereign, known as the Arms of Dominion, are: Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). The supporters are the lion and the unicorn; the motto is Dieu et mon Droit (French for "God and my Right"). Ireland is represented even though most of the island is not a part of the United Kingdom, but instead forms the Republic of Ireland — only Northern Ireland remains part of the UK. Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_England. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Royal_Standard_of_Scotland. ... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... The Lion and the Unicorn are time-honoured symbols of the United Kingdom. ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


In Scotland, the monarch uses an alternative form of the Arms of Dominion in which quarters I and IV represent Scotland, II England, and III Ireland. The motto is Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin for "No-one provokes me with impunity"); the supporters are the unicorn and lion. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


The monarch's official flag in the United Kingdom is known as the Royal Standard, and depicts the Arms of Dominion. (The Royal Standard used in Scotland depicts the Scottish version of the arms.) This flag is only flown from buildings, vessels and vehicles in which the Sovereign is present; elsewhere, the Union Flag is flown. The Royal Standard is never flown at half-mast because there is always a sovereign: when one dies, his or her successor becomes the sovereign instantly. For other monarch’s standards, see Royal Standard (disambiguation). ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack and Butchers Apron) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


See also

United Kingdom

The Constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ... // This is a list of the monarchs of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed in the British Isles, namely: The Kingdom of Scotland, from 843 up to 1707; The Kingdom of... HRH The Prince of Wales, the Heir Apparent. ... Succession to the British Throne has generally been according to the rules of male-preference primogeniture. ... In relation to the British monarchy, the Demise of the Crown is the legal term for the end of a reign by a king or queen. ... Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland take place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ... Republicanism in the United Kingdom is a movement in the United Kingdom which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic that has a non-hereditary head of state. ... In Jersey the Lieutenant-Governor hosts a reception for the public at Government House to mark the Queens Official Birthday at which he announces recipients of Birthday Honours The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth...

Other realms

The composition of the disambiguation links at the head of this article and the other Wikipedia articles on the monarchies of the Commonwealth Realms is under discussion at Talk:Commonwealth Realm monarchies (disambiguation). ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... The Royal Arms of Jamaica, granted through Royal Warrant by King Charles II in 1661. ... The composition of the disambiguation links at the head of this article and the other Wikipedia articles on the monarchies of the Commonwealth Realms is under discussion at Talk:Commonwealth Realm monarchies (disambiguation). ...

Other

The Cook Islands are a constitutional monarchy within the Realm of New Zealand with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since 4 August 1965. ...

References

  • Smith, Robert & John S. Moore (eds). The Families: The Complete Genealogy. Pimlico/Random House, 2002.
  1. ^ Sarah Lyall (1997-09-05). Tradition and Personality Keep Elizabeth Far From Her Subjects. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  2. ^ Zines, The High Court and the Constitution, 4th ed. (1997) at 314: "The Queen as monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand is in a position resembling that of the King of Scotland and of England between 1603 and 1707 when two independent countries had a common sovereign"; the relationship between England and Scotland during those years is described as a personal union.
  3. ^ P. E. Corbett (1940). "The Status of the British Commonwealth in International Law". The University of Toronto Law Journal 3. 
  4. ^ F. R. Scott (January 1944). "The End of Dominion Status". The American Journal of International Law 38: 34–49. 
  5. ^ R v Foreign Secretary; Ex parte Indian Association, QB 892 at 928; as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999 HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998]
  6. ^ The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while "there is only one person who is the Sovereign within the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for example, is entirely independent and distinct from the Queen of Canada." R v Foreign Secretary; Ex parte Indian Association, QB 892 at 928; as referenced in High Court of Australia: Sue v Hill [1999 HCA 30; 23 June 1999; S179/1998 and B49/1998]
  7. ^ A Code Of Conduct And Guidance On Procedures For Ministers (Issued formally by the Prime Minister in July 2001)
  8. ^ Parliament Report on the powers of the Royal Prerogative
  9. ^ In 1926, Lord Byng of Vimy, Governor-General of Canada (representing the British crown in the Dominion of Canada), refused a request by the Prime Minister of Canada to dissolve a minority parliament, precipitating a constitutional crisis. See King-Byng Affair.)
  10. ^ 80 Facts About the Queen. The Official Website of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on August 31, 2006.
  11. ^ Velde, François (2006-07-12). Royal Arms, Styles, and Titles of Great Britain: Westminster, 20 Oct 1604.. Heraldica. Retrieved on August 31, 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords above it. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy (11 September 1862–6 June 1935) was a career British Army officer who served as commander of the Canadian army in World War I, and later became Governor General of Canada. ... The Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, normally simply known as the Governor General of Canada in French, Gouverneur(e) général(e) is the Canadian representative of the monarch (presently Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). ... Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The Realm of New Zealand is the territory in which the Queen in right of New Zealand is head of state. ... Motto Country Above Self Anthem O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Basseterre Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Cuthbert Sebastian  -  Prime Minister Dr. Denzil Douglas Independence  -  19 September 1983  Area  -  Total 261 km² (207th) 101 sq mi... Motto The Land, The People, The Light Anthem Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Castries Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Dame Pearlette Louisy  -  Prime Minister Sir John Compton Independence  -  22 February 1979  Area  -  Total 620 km... Motto: Pax et justitia (Latin: Peace and justice) Anthem: St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Government Parliamentary democracy Commonwealth Realm  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  - Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence From the United Kingdom   - Date 27 October 1979  Area... Image File history File links Personal_flag_of_Queen_Elizabeth_II.svg Personal flag used by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom when outside the Commonwealth Realms. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
British monarchy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9635 words)
The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories.
Thus, as the modern British monarchy is a constitutional one, the Sovereign's role is in practice limited to non-partisan functions (such as being the Fount of honour).
The war culminated in the execution of the king, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic known as the Commonwealth of England.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: British monarchy (1126 words)
The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power.
The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II (since the death of her father, King George VI on February 6 1952) and the Heir Apparent is Charles, Prince of Wales (son of the Queen, born November 14 1948).
Succession to the British throne is restricted by the Act of Settlement to Protestant descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, with male heirs having precedence over females, and those who have married a Roman Catholic excluded, though there have been moves to amend these restrictions in recent years.
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