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Encyclopedia > British military history
History of Britain

The History of Britain, until the last few hundred years, was one of struggle and competition between the separate nation-states that occupied various parts of the island of Great Britain. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 590 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stonehenge ...

By chronology

By nation Ancient Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... The British Isles in the year 802 Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the... Early Modern Britain is a term used to define the period in the history of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • History of England
  • History of Northern Ireland
  • History of Scotland
  • History of Wales

By topic England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... The area now known as Northern Ireland has had a diverse history. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages, the Norman Conquest, and wars against France; through the Early Modern period, wars against Spain and France, and the English Civil War, and the beginnings of the colonial British Empire in India, the USA and Canada; and into the Modern period with the wars of Marlborough and against Napoleon, the Crimean War and into the 20th century with the Boer War, World War I and World War II, the Cold War the Korean War; and, most recently, Northern Ireland, the Falklands War and military operations in the Balkans and the Middle East. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The History of British society demonstrates innumerable changes over the many centuries since prehistoric times, just as all human society has developed. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: IMP·C·IVLIVS·CAESAR·DIVVS¹) (b. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Viking is used to denote the ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors who originated in Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Marlborough on a Wednesday Market morning The town-centre of Marlborough Marlborough (pronounced Maulbruh - /ˈmɔːlbɹə/ in IPA) is a market town in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road, the old main road from London to Bath. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom France and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II, also known as the... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea, United States, United Kingdom Communist combatants: North Korea, Peoples Republic of China, Soviet Union Commanders Douglas MacArthur Kim Il-sung, (Peng Dehuai de facto) Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... Dieu et mon droit (motto) (French for God and my right)2 Northern Irelands location within the UK Languages English (De facto) 3, Irish, Ulster Scots 4 Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Peter Hain MP Area  - Total Ranked 4th... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 255 killed 777 wounded 1 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents


List of British military encounters

Prehistoric and ancient period

Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ...

Mediæval period

The Battle of Aylesford or Epsford or Aegelesthrep was fought in 455 AD between Saxon invaders and the native Romano-Britons near Aylesford in the English county of Kent. ... The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu) was an area of England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Lindisfarne Castle Lindisfarne (Grid reference NU125421, , ), also called Holy Island (variant spelling, Lindesfarne), is a tidal island off the north-east coast of England, which is connected to the mainland of Northumberland by a causeway and is cut off twice a day by tides — something well described by Sir Walter... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Battle of Edington (May 878) was a battle which took place near Edington in the county of Wiltshire in the south-west of England. ... The Battle of Cannington, in 878, took place at the fort of Cynwit, now recognised as being on Cannington Hill, near Bridgwater in Somerset, England. ... Combatants Norwegian Vikings Anglo-Saxon English Commanders Harald Hardrada Morcar of Northumbria and his brother Edwin, Earl of Mercia Strength 300 ships, 7,000 men 3,000 men Casualties Unknown, thought of to be very heavy 1,500 men On September 20, 1066, King Harald III of Norway and Tostig... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, small numbers of Scots Anglo-Saxon England Commanders Harald Hardråde† Harold Godwinson Strength 300 ships, 5000 men Unknown Casualties 276 ships, 4500 men Unknown The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is generally considered to mark the end of the Viking era. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in England and Normandy between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. ... The Revolt of 1173–1174 was a rebellion against Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine and rebel supporters. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... The Battle of Bouvines, July 27, 1214, was the first great international conflict of alliances among national forces in Europe. ... The First Barons War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John. ... The Second Barons War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons lead by Simon de Montfort, against the Royalist forces led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England). ... The early period of the First War of Scottish Independence lasted from the outbreak of the war in 1296 until the coronation of Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland in 1306. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... Combatants England Burgundy Brittany Portugal France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia The Hundred Years War is the name modern historians have given to what was a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France, and later Burgundy; beginning... Lancaster York For other uses see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation) The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) were collectively an intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ...

Early Colonial period

For the war between the Roman Republic and other Italian cities see Social War. ... The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ... The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between England and Scotland during the sixteenth century. ... Location within France The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, with Calais Hotel de Ville behind J.M.W. Turner: Calais Pier Calais (Dutch: ) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... The Nine Years War (Irish: Cogadh na Naoi mBliana) in Ireland took place from 1594 to 1603 and is also known as Tyrones Rebellion. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt, was the war of secession between the Netherlands and the Spanish king, that lasted from 1568 to 1648. ... The War between 1609 - 1613 the English and Indians in Jamestown was called the First Anglo-Powhatan War. ... The Second Anglo-Powhatan War began in 1644 as a last effort by the Indians to dislodge the Virginian settlers. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second... The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War... The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War... Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of the English Parliament in 1649. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Anglo-Spanish War, caused by commercial rivalry, was fought between the Spanish between 1654 and 1660. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... The Battle of Texel, 11–21 August 1673 by Willem van de Velde, the younger, painted 1683, depicts a battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... Attack King Philips War, 1675–1676, was the end result of the English rapacity for land in present-day southern New England. ... Bacons Rebellion, also known as the Virginia Rebellion, was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the Orleans War, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between... The first of the French and Indian Wars, King Williams War (1689–1697), was the North American theater of the War of the Grand Alliance (1688–1697) fought principally in Europe between the armies of France under Louis XIV and those of a coalition of European powers including England. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... Combatants Royal Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus Bonnie Prince Charlie Strength ca. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Queen Annes War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and Great Britain in North America for control of the continent and was the counterpart of War of the Spanish Succession in Europe. ... The War of the Quadruple Alliance was a minor European war fought between 1718 and 1720, mostly in Italy, between Spain on the one side, and the Quadruple Alliance of Austria, France, Great Britain, and the United Provinces. ... It has been suggested that War of Jenkins’ Ear be merged into this article or section. ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) became inevitable after Maria Theresa of Austria had succeeded her father Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in his Habsburg dominions in 1740, namely becoming Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, and Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. ... King Georges War is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the 1740-1748 War of the Austrian Succession. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants France and its Indian allies Britain and its Indian allies Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... The Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1763) was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indians during the French and Indian War. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst Henry Bouquet Pontiac Guyasuta Pontiacs Rebellion was a war launched in 1763 by North American Indians who were dissatisfied with British rule in the Great Lakes region and the Ohio Country after the British victory in the French and Indian War... The First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-1769) was a war in India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...

Colonial Period

Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, Netherlands, Spain, Native Americans Great Britain, German mercenaries, Loyalists, Native Americans Commanders George Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Nathanael Greene William Howe, Henry Clinton, Charles Cornwallis (more commanders) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence,[1] was a war between... The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the Great Britain and Maratha Empire in India. ... At the end of the 18th century, unrest was growing in the Netherlands. ... The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) was a conflict in India between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Mysore. ... The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792) was a war in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Russia, Sardinia France The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. ... The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798–1799) was a war in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company under Lord Wellesley. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798 in Irish), or 1798 rebellion as it is known locally, was an uprising in 1798, lasting several months, against the British dominated Kingdom of Ireland. ... Combatants Allies: • Great Britain/United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Sweden, • Russia, • and Others • France • Denmark-Norway • Poland Casualties Full list The Napoleonic Wars consisted of a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... The British invasions of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Invasiones Inglesas al Río de la Plata) were a series of unsuccessful British attempts at military control of the Spanish colonies located around the Río de la Plata basin in South America, between 1806 and 1807, as... The Anglo-Turkish War 1807-1809 took place as a part of Napoleonic Wars. ... The war between Great Britain and Russia took place in 1807-1812, during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Battle between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen in 1808 The Gunboat War (1807-1814) was the naval conflict between Denmark-Norway against the British navy during the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes, by Francisco de Goya (1814). ... Kandian Wars refers to the campaigns of the British expeditionary forces against the Kingdom of Kandy in Ceylon 1803 and 1815. ... The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805) was a second conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India. ... Vellore Mutiny (May 10, 1806) was the first instance of a mutiny by the Indian sepoys against the British East India Company. ... Anglo-Dutch Java War in 1810-1811 was a war between Great Britain and Netherlands fought entirely on Island of Java in colonial Indonesia The governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, Herman Willem Daendels (1762_1818), fortified the island of Java against possible British attack. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Strength United States Regular army : 99,000 Volunteers: 10,000* Rangers: 3,000 Militia: 458,000** Naval and marine: 20,000 Indigenous peoples New York Iroquois: 600 Northwestern allies: ? Southern allies: ? United Kingdom Regular army: 10,000+ Naval and marine: ? Canadian militia: 86,000+** Indigenous... The Gurkha War (1814-1816), also known as the Anglo-Nepalese War, was fought between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Nepal. ... Kandian Wars refers to the campaigns of the British expeditionary forces against the Kingdom of Kandy in Ceylon 1803 and 1815. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... Print of the Peterloo Massacre published by Richard Carlile The Peterloo Massacre of August 16, 1819 was the result of a cavalry charge into the crowd at a public meeting at St. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Republic of Canadas flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. ... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ... The First Anglo-Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between Great Britain and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British opium. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... A room at the Auckland War Memorial Museum commemorates those who died, both European and Maori, in the New Zealand Wars. ... The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849), resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh kingdom and absorption of the Punjab into lands controlled by the British East India Company. ... The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of... The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... The Pig War (also called the Pig Episode, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute) was a confrontation in 1859 between American and British authorities, resulting from a dispute over the boundary between the United States and Great Britain. ... The Anglo-Bhutanese War was an attack by British Indian Army forces in Bhutan in March, 1865. ... // The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... The Battle of Rorkes Drift The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between Britain and the Zulus, and signalled the end of the Zulus as an independent nation. ... The First Boer War also known as the Transvaal War, was fought from December 16, 1880 until March 23, 1881. ... The Gun War was an 1880-1881 conflict in the British territory of Basutoland (present-day Lesotho) in Southern Africa, fought between Cape Colony forces and rebellious Basotho chiefs over tribal rights. ... The Third Anglo-Burmese War or The Third Burmese war lasted from 1885 to 1887. ... Combatants British Empire Zanzibar Strength 900 soldiers of the Zanzibar regular army; a detachment of Royal Marines of unknown strength; HMS Philomel; HMS Thrush; HMS Sparrow; HMS Racoon; HMS St George 2,800; HHS Glasgow Casualties Approximately 100 Approximately 500 The Anglo-Zanzibar War was fought between the United Kingdom... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State, South African Republic Commanders Frederick Roberts later Lord Kitchener Christiaan Rudolf de Wet and Paul Kruger Casualties Military dead:22,000 Civilian dead:N/A Total dead:22,000 Military dead:6,500 Civilian dead:24,000 Total dead:30,500 The Second Boer... Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; Pinyin: Yìhétuán Qǐyì; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) or Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂 or 義和團匪亂) was a Chinese rebellion against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final... Combatants Great Britain and allies Aro confederacy Commanders L.T. Col. ...

Modern Period

Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Easter Proclamation, read by Pádraig Pearse outside the GPO at the start of the Easter Rising, 1916. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... // The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Triple Entente, Greece, Armenia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ismet Inonu Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak Papoulas Hatzianestis The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: Kurtuluş Savaşı), or sometimes referred to as birth of a nation was part of the political and military events that began with the... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War was the part of World War II that occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, 1937 to 1945. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom France and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II, also known as the... Combatants Iraq United Kingdom Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 1,200 The Anglo-Iraqi War was a short war fought between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist government, from April 18 to May 30, 1941. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women (plus thousands more volunteers) Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed 40,000 captured or surrendered An ELAS soldier... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea, United States, United Kingdom Communist combatants: North Korea, Peoples Republic of China, Soviet Union Commanders Douglas MacArthur Kim Il-sung, (Peng Dehuai de facto) Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ... This article is about the History of Cyprus. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Israel, France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... The Troubles is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. ... A cod fishing boat The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ... Combatants United Kingdom Argentina Casualties 255 killed 777 wounded 1 taken prisoner 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas) was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush Norman Schwarzkopf Colin Powell Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also called... The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (also refered to as: Bosnian Conflict, Aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bosnian Civil War) was an armed conflict which took place between March 1992 and November 1995. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Operation Palliser was a British Armed forces operation in Sierra Leone in 2000 under the command of Brigadier David Richards. ...

21st century

Combatants al-Qaeda, Taliban NATO, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Italy, Germany, Northern Alliance Commanders Osama bin Laden, Mohammed Omar Tommy Franks, David Fraser, Mohammed Fahim Casualties al-Qaeda dead: unknown Taliban dead: unknown Civilian dead: unknown Coalition military dead: 402 Northern Alliance dead: unknown US... Combatants Republic of Iraq (Saddam Hussein regime), Baath Loyalists, Iraqi insurgency Al Qaeda United States, United Kingdom, Multinational force in Iraq, New Iraqi Army, Kurdish forces Commanders Saddam Hussein Abu Musab al-Zarqawi† Moqtada al-Sadr Abu Ayyub al-Masri Mujahideen Shura Council Tommy Franks George Casey Strength 375... Iraqi militants celebrating orders being given to the surrounding Coalition forces to stand down, Fallujah, May 1 2004. ...

List of fortifications in Britain

Roman & ancient

Pieces of Hadrians Wall remain near Greenhead and along the route, though large sections have been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ...

Mediæval

// Castles in England is a link page for any castle in England. ... . The following is a partial list of Castles in Northern Ireland: County Antrim: Belfast Castle Carrickfergus Castle Dunluce Castle Dunseverick Castle Kinbane Castle County Armagh: Moyry Castle County Down: Audleystown Castle Clough Castle Dundrum Castle Greencastle Jordans Castle Kilclief Castle Killyleagh Castle Kirkistown Castle Narrow Water Castle Portaferry Castle... Castles in Scotland is a link page for any castle in Scotland. ... Castles in Wales is a link page for any castle in Wales. ...

1600s

The Royal Citadel at night The Royal Citadel of Plymouth was built in the late 1660s, overlooking the Plymouth Sound, on the site of the earlier Plymouth Fort that had been built in the time of Sir Francis Drake. ...

Georgian & Victorian

Fort Bovisand was built to defend Plymouth Sound from the mainland at the eastern entrance of Plymouth Breakwater. ... Crownhill Fort is a Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom fort built in 1872 in Crownhill as part of a ring of land defences for Plymouth. ... Martello towers are small defensive forts built by the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the Napoleonic Wars onwards. ... Fort Picklecombe stands on the extreme south eastern coast of the county of Cornwall, a couple of miles west of the city of Plymouth in south west England. ... Fort George, Ardersier, Highland, Scotland, is a large 18th century fortress near Inverness with perhaps the mightiest artillery fortifications in Europe. ...

World War II Stop Lines

A pillbox on the GHQ Line The GHQ Line was a defence line built in the United Kingdom during World War II to contain an expected German invasion. ... The Outer London Defence Ring was Londons last hope of stopping German Panzer tanks if they had advanced on London in 1940. ... The Taunton Stop Line was a World War II defensive line in southwest England. ...

List of British military institutions

See main article: British Armed Forces The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ...

The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... Her Majestys Royal Marines, also known as the Royal Marines (RM), are the United Kingdoms amphibious force and Naval Infantry. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... The Scottish Red Ensign, flown by ships of the Old Scots Navy The Royal Scottish Navy (or Old Scots Navy) was the navy of the Kingdom of Scotland from its foundation in the 11th century until its merger with the Royal Navy in 1707. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... In the United Kingdom the Territorial Army is a part of the British Army composed of reserve units, or part-time soldiers. ... WWI recruitment poster for Kitcheners Army. ... The Auxiliary Units (or Auxunits) were specially trained highly secret units created with the aim of resisting the expected invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany during World War II. Britain was the only country during the war to create such a resistance movement in advance of an invasion. ... A Home Guard is a part-time civilian reserve military force similar to a militia. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Royal Ordnance Factories (ROFs) was the collective name of the UK governments munitions factories in and after World War II. Until privatisation in 1987 they were the responsibility of the Ministry of Supply and later the Ministry of Defence. ... National Service in the 20th century referred primarily to conscription for military service. ... The Joint Services School for Linguists (JSSL) was founded in 1951 by the British armed services to provide language training, principally in Russian, and largely to selected conscripts undergoing National Service. ...

List of British military alliances

Scottish military alliances

Main article: Auld Alliance
(1165-1560)

The Auld Alliance was a military alliance between the countries of France, Norway, and Scotland. Though Norway never invoked the treaty, the Scots and the French did. The treaty stated that if any of the three nations was to be attacked by a third party, that the other two nations that belonged to the treaty would invade the aggressor. The effects of this military alliance happened many times in history. In 1336, at the beginning of the Hundred Years' War, the French king Philip VI provided military support for David II, who fled to France after being deposed by Edward III of England. The Auld Alliance can also be said to have inflamed the English invasion of Scotland, starting the First War of Scottish Independence. In 1346, under the terms of the Auld Alliance, Scotland invaded England in the interests of France. In 1421, at the Battle of Baugé, French and Scots forces dealt a crushing defeat to the English, for which the Scots were richly rewarded. In addition, in 1429 Scots came to the aid of Joan of Arc in her famous relief of Orléans; many went on to form the Garde Écossaise, the fiercely-loyal bodyguard of the French monarchy. Many Scottish mercenaries chose to settle in France, although they continued to consider themselves "Scots". However, when Scotland considered itself Protestant by the Treaty of Edinburgh, the treaty was considered void, since France was still Roman Catholic. The Auld Alliance was an alliance between Scotland, and France. ... Events November 23 - Pope Alexander III enters Rome. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Events End of the Kemmu restoration and beginning of the Muromachi period in Japan. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Events January 10 - Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, founds the European Order of the Golden Fleece February 12 - Battle of Rouvray (or of the Herrings). English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the Earl of Suffolks army at Orleans from attack by... The Treaty of Edinburgh was drawn up in 1560 by the Scottish Parliament in an attempt to formally end the Auld Alliance. ...


English military alliances

  • Anglo-Portuguese alliance (1386-)

The Anglo-Portuguese, signed in 1373, Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. Many times in history, this alliance has served England (and later Britain) because it was the stronger country, but also Portugal whenever it was the stronger country. This treaty largely influenced the British Iberia Peninsular War. The last time that this treaty effected British history was during the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the British Royal Navy. The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of South west Europe; That part of it once inhabited by the Iberians, who spoke the Iberian language. ... The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes, by Francisco de Goya (1814). ... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Portuguese: To die free rather than to be subjugated in peace) Official language Portuguese Capitals Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the autonomous government), Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court), Horta (Legislative Assembly) Other towns Praia da Vitória...

The War of the League of Cambrai (1508–16), sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The Kingdom of England participated in the alliance of the Holy League against France (1511–13). The Kingdom Scotland was part of the Franco-Venetian alliance (1513–16), while the Kingdom of England was against it. The Catholic League (or Holy League) was a coalition of various European powers that was formed by Pope Julius II in 1511, at the height of the War of the League of Cambrai, to defend the states of Italy against Louis XII of France and thus to strengthen Papal power. ... 1510 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Triple Alliance of 1668 consisted of England, Sweden, and the Republic of the United Provinces (the Netherlands). It was formed to halt the expansion of Louis XIV's France in the War of Devolution. The Triple Alliance of 1668 consisted of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... // Events January - The Triple Alliance of 1668 is formed. ...

The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of the United Provinces (the Netherlands), the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain and Sweden. The league was named the 'Grand Alliance' after England had joined it. The primary reason for the League's creation was to defend the Palatinate from France. This organization fought the War of the Grand Alliance against France from 1688 to 1697. The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ...


British military alliances

  • Anglo-Portuguese alliance (1704-)

The Anglo-Portuguese, signed in 1373, Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. Many times in history, this alliance has served England (and later Britain) because it was the stronger country, but also Portugal whenever it was the stronger country. This treaty largely influenced the British Iberia Peninsular War. The last time that this treaty effected British history was during the 1982 Falklands War the facilities of the Azores were again offered to the British Royal Navy. The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ...

The Triple Alliance was an agreement between United Kingdom, France and the Republic of the United Provinces (the Netherlands), against Spain, to prevent Spain from becoming a superpower in Europe. The Triple Alliance was an agreement between England, France and the Netherlands, against Spain, attempting to maintain the agreement of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. ...

The Triple Alliance of 1788 was an alliance between Great Britain, Prussia and the Republic of the United Provinces (the Netherlands) against France. The alliance was formed to keep France from becoming a superpower in Europe by taking over the Dutch colonies. The Triple Alliance of 1788 was an alliance between England, Prussia and the United Provinces. ...

  • Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). The alliance was renewed and extended twice, in 1905 and 1911 before its demise in 1921. It officially terminated on August 17, 1923. This alliance helped the British contain Russia and helped Britain's navy by providing coaling stations and repair facilities. The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... The title of Marquess of Lansdowne was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1784 for William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, the former Prime Minister. ... Count Hayashi Tadasu (1850-1913) studied in England with Kikuchi Dairoku at University College School, 1866-68, being one of fourteen young Japanese sent by the Tokugawa shogunate. ...

The Entente Cordiale (French for "friendly understanding") is a series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904, between the United Kingdom and France. It resolved differences concerning influence and control in various countries including Egypt, Morocco, Madagascar, Newfoundland, Siam (Thailand), West and Central Africa. The agreement also acknowledged the right of free passage through the Suez Canal. The year after its signing, Britain's sympathetic attitude toward France's position in Morocco helped to ward off a challenge from Germany to the status quo in the North African kingdom (the Tangier Crisis). The agreement also paved the way for the diplomatic and military cooperation that preceded World War I. The Entente Cordiale (French for friendly understanding) is a series of agreements signed on April 8, 1904, between the United Kingdom and France. ...

The Triple Entente was the alliance formed in 1907 between the United Kingdom, France and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente. France and Britain had already signed the Entente Cordiale in 1904, and France had signed the Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894. This alliance brought Britain into World War I. European military alliances in 1915. ...

NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Membership 10 member states 6 associate member states 5 observer countries 7 associate partner countries Formation - Signed Treaty of Brussels - 17 March 1948 The Western European Union (WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization, established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 with the... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971, whereby the five nations will consult each other in the event of external aggression or threat of attack against Malaysia or... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...

See also

The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the Battle of Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ... The History of Britain, until the last few hundred years, was one of struggle and competition between the separate nation-states that occupied various parts of the island of Great Britain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has a nuclear arsenal but is generally believed not to have any chemical or biological weapons. ... The history of the British Army spans three centuries and numerous European, colonial and world wars. ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a... This list of battles is organized geographically, by country in its present territory. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... Origins From medieval times, devices such as pennants and shield patterns though to the full development heraldry had been used to identify very senior ranks such as the monarch or other leaders of armies. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
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It is a sobering thought that seven out of the twenty correspondents despatched with the British Army to the Sudan failed to return.
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