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Encyclopedia > British literature

British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. By far the largest part of this literature is written in the English language, but there are also separate literatures in Latin, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Cornish, Manx, Jèrriais, Guernésiais and other languages. Northern Ireland is the only part of Ireland still part of the United Kingdom and it possesses literature in English, Ulster Scots and Irish. Irish writers have also played an important part in the development of English-language literature. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ...


UNIVERSITY OF SEX COLLEGE OF POSITION Literature in the Celtic languages of the islands is the oldest surviving vernacular literature in Europe. The Welsh literary tradition stretches from the 6th century to the 21st century. The oldest Welsh literature does not belong to the territory we know as Wales today, but rather to northern England and southern Scotland. But though it is dated to be from the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, it has survived only in 13th- and 14th century manuscript copies. Irish poetry represents a more or less unbroken tradition from the 6th century to the present day. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... A 1907 engraving of William Butler Yeats, one of Irelands best-known poets. ...

Contents

Latin literature

Chroniclers such as Bede, with his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, and Gildas were figures in the development of indigenous Latin literature, mostly ecclesiastical, in the centuries following the withdrawal of the Roman Empire. British Latin literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands originally written in Latin. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... Gildas (c. ...


Old English literature

Main article: Anglo-Saxon literature

The earliest form of English literature developed after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England after the withdrawal of the Romans and is known as Old English or Anglo-Saxon. The most famous work in Old English is the epic poem Beowulf. (The oldest surviving text in English is Cædmon's Hymn) The precise date of the manuscript is debated, but most estimates place it close to the year 1000. The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle, likely scribed around 1150, is one of the major sources of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Old English redirects here. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... For other uses, see Caedmon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Caedmon (disambiguation). ...


Chronicles contained a range of historical and literary accounts; one example is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


Late medieval literature in England

Latin literature circulated among the educated classes. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ...


Following the Norman Conquest, the development of Anglo-Norman literature in the Anglo-Norman realm introduced literary trends from Continental Europe such as the chanson de geste. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ...


In the later medieval period a new form of English now known as Middle English evolved. This is the earliest form which is comprehensible to modern readers and listeners, albeit not easily. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


The most significant Middle English author was the poet Geoffrey Chaucer who was active in the late 14th century. His main works were The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde. Chaucer redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ...


The multilingual audience for literature in the 14th century can be illustrated by the example of John Gower, who wrote in Latin, Middle English and Anglo-Norman. John Gower shooting the world, a sphere of earth, air, and water (from an edition of his works c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Religious literature, such as hagiographies enjoyed popularity. Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


Women writers such as Marie de France and Julian of Norwich were also active. Marie de France from an illuminated manuscript Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ... Julian of Norwich (c. ...

The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelled Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ...

Other medieval literatures

Wace, the earliest known Jersey poet, developed the Arthurian legend
Wace, the earliest known Jersey poet, developed the Arthurian legend

For a comparatively small country, Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches. The Irish literature that is best known outside the country is in English, but the Irish language also has the most significant body of written literature, both ancient and recent, in any Celtic language, in addition to a strong oral tradition of legends and poetry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1362x860, 901 KB) Memorial plaque to Wace, Jersey-born Norman poet, in the Royal Square, St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1362x860, 901 KB) Memorial plaque to Wace, Jersey-born Norman poet, in the Royal Square, St. ... Wace (c. ... World literature refers to literature from all over the world, including American literature, European literature, Latin American literature, Asian literature, African literature, Arabic literature and so on. ... Irish writing of 8th century For a comparatively small country, Ireland has made a disproportionate contribution to world literature in all its branches. ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... Orature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ...


In Medieval Welsh literature the period before 1100 is known as the period of Y Cynfeirdd ("The earliest poets") or Yr Hengerdd ("The old poetry"). It roughly dates from the birth of the Welsh language until the arrival of the Normans in Wales towards the end of the 11th century. Medieval Welsh literature is the medieval literature written in the Welsh language from before 1100 to the 16th century. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


Geoffrey of Monmouth's Latin Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain) spread Celtic motifs to a wider audience. Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ...


The Jersey poet Wace is considered the founder of Jersey literature and contributed to the development of the Arthurian legend in British literature. His Brut showed the interest of Norman patrons in the mythologising of the new English territories of the Anglo-Norman realm. His Roman de Rou placed the Dukes of Normandy within an epic context. Wace (c. ... Roman de Brut Roman de Brut or Brut is a verse literary history of England of 14,866 lines written in Anglo-Norman by Wace. ... As quoted on this monument in Saint Helier, Wace informs the reader of the Roman de Rou that he was born in Jersey Roman de Rou is a verse chronicle by Wace in Norman covering the history of the Dukes of Normandy from the time of Rollo of Normandy to... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ...


Since at least the 14th century, poetry in English has been written in Ireland and by Irish writers abroad. The earliest poem in English by a Welsh poet dates from about 1470.


Among the earliest Lowland Scots literature is Barbour's Brus (14th century). Whyntoun's Kronykil and Blind Harry's Wallace (15th century). From the 13th century much literature based around the royal court in Edinburgh and the University of St Andrews was produced by writers such as Henrysoun, Dunbar, Douglas and Lyndsay. Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... For the 19th-century U.S. senator from Virginia see John Strode Barbour Jr. ... Blind Harry (ca. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... Robert Henryson (or Robert Henderson) (c. ... William Dunbar (c. ... Gavin Douglas (c. ... Sir David Lyndsay (c. ...


In the Cornish language Passhyon agan Arloedh ("The Passion of our Lord"), a poem of 259 eight-line verses written in 1375, is one of the earliest surviving works of Cornish literature. The most important work of literature surviving from the Middle Cornish period is An Ordinale Kernewek ("The Cornish Ordinalia"), a 9000-line religious drama composed around the year 1400. The longest single surviving work of Cornish literature is Bywnans Meriasek (The Life of Meriasek), a play dated 1504, but probably copied from an earlier manuscript. For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ...

The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... English Jewish Literature: (This page is part of the History of the Jews in England) Contents // Categories: Stub | Jewish English history | English literature ...

Early modern English literature to 1660

Shakespeare's career straddled the change of Tudor and Stuart dynasties and encompassed English history and the emerging imperial idea of the 17th century
Shakespeare's career straddled the change of Tudor and Stuart dynasties and encompassed English history and the emerging imperial idea of the 17th century

The sonnet form and other Italian literary influences arrived in English literature. The sonnet was introduced into English by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century. Image File history File links Hw-shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Hw-shakespeare. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – October 6, 1542) was a poet and Ambassador in the service of Henry VIII. He first entered Henrys service in 1516 as Sewer Extraordinary, and the same year he began studying at St Johns College of the University of Cambridge. ...


In the later 16th century English poetry was characterised by elaboration of language and extensive allusion to classical myths. The most important poets of this era include Edmund Spenser and Sir Philip Sidney. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Philip Sidney. ...


The most important literary achievements of the English Renaissance were in drama (see English Renaissance theatre). William Shakespeare wrote over 35 plays in several genres, including tragedy, comedy, and history. Other leading playwrights of the time included Ben Jonson, and Christopher Marlowe. The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Shakespeare wrote tragedies from the beginning of his career: one of his earliest plays was the Roman tragedy Titus Andronicus, and he followed it a few years later with Romeo and Juliet. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English dramatist. ...


At the Reformation the translation of liturgy and Bible into vernacular languages provided new literary models. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer and the Authorized King James Version of the Bible have been influential. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... “King James Version” redirects here. ...


The major poets of the 17th century included John Donne and the other metaphysical poets, and John Milton, the author of the religious epic Paradise Lost. For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ...


English language literature from 1660 to the late 18th century

The position of Poet Laureate was formalised in this period. Augustan poetry is named for Caesar Augustus. ... Augustan literature is a style of English literature whose origins correspond roughly with the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II. In contemporary critical parlance, it refers to the literature of 1700 up to approximately 1760 (or, for some, 1789). ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ...


The publication of The Pilgrim's Progress in 1678 established John Bunyan as a notable writer of English literature. The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published, February, 1678) is a Christian allegory. ... John Bunyan. ...


The early 18th century is known as the Augustan Age of English literature. The poetry of the time was highly formal, as exemplified by the works of Alexander Pope. For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ...


Although the documented history of Irish theatre began at least as early as 1601, the earliest Irish dramatists of note were William Congreve, one of the most interesting writers of Restoration comedies, and Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, who were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage in the 18th century. William Congreve (January 24, 1670 – January 19, 1729) was an English playwright and poet. ... Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and... Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ...


The English novel developed during the 18th century, partly in response to an expansion of the middle-class reading public. One of the major early works in this genre was Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe. The 18th century novel tended to be loosely structured and semi-comic. Major novelists of the middle and later part of the century included Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, and Tobias Smollett, who was a great influence on Charles Dickens.[1] // Early novels in English See the article First novel in English. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... For other uses, see Robinson Crusoe (disambiguation). ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771) was a Scottish author, best known for his picaresque novels, such as Roderick Random and Peregrine Pickle. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ...


Although the epics of Celtic Ireland were written in prose and not verse, most people would probably consider that Irish fiction proper begins in the 18th century with the works of Jonathan Swift (especially Gulliver's Travels) and Oliver Goldsmith (especially The Vicar of Wakefield). Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ... Choosing the Wedding Gown by William Mulready, an illustration of Ch. ...

These works of literature have each been claimed as the first novel in English. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ...

Non English-language literatures from the 16th century to the 19th century

Robert Burns inspired many vernacular writers across the Isles
Robert Burns inspired many vernacular writers across the Isles

As the Norman nobles of Scotland assimilated to indigenous culture they commissioned Scots versions of popular continental romances, for example: Launcelot o the Laik and The Buik o Alexander. In the early 16th century, Gavin Douglas produced a Scots translation of the Aeneid. Chaucerian, classical and French literary language continued to influence Scots literature up until the Reformation. The Complaynt of Scotland shows the interplay of language and ideas between the kingdoms of Scotland and England in the years leading up to the Union of the Crowns. robert burns This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... robert burns This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... The Complaynt of Scotland is a book printed in 1549 and is an important work of the Scots language. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ...


The earliest datable text in Manx (preserved in 18th century manuscripts), a poetic history of the Isle of Man from the introduction of Christianity, dates to the 16th century at the latest. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The first book to be printed in Welsh was published in 1546. From the Reformation until the 19th century most literature in the Welsh language was religious in character.


The earliest surviving examples of Cornish prose are Pregothow Treger (The Tregear Homilies), a set of 66 sermons translated from English by John Tregear around 1555-1557. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by...


The Book of Common Prayer and Bible were translated into Manx in the 17th and 18th centuries. A tradition of carvals, religious songs or carols, developed. Religious literature was common, but secular writing much rarer. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A carol is a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character. ...


In Scotland, after the 17th century, anglicisation increased, though Lowland Scots was still spoken by the vast majority of the population. At the time, many of the oral ballads from the borders and the North East were written down. Writers of the period include Robert Sempill (c.1595-1665), Lady Wardlaw and Lady Grizel Baillie. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The English/Scottish border has a long and bloody history of conquest and reconquest, raid and counter-raid. ... Robert Sempill (the elder) (c. ... Lady Grizel Baillie (December 25, 1665–December 6, 1746), was a Scottish song-writer. ...


The first printed work in Manx dates from 1707: a translation of a Prayer Book catechism in English by Bishop Thomas Wilson. Codex Manesse, fol. ...


In the Scots-speaking areas of Ulster there was traditionally a considerable demand for the work of Scottish poets, often in locally printed editions. Alexander Montgomerie's The Cherrie and the Slae in 1700, shortly over a decade later an edition of poems by Sir David Lindsay, nine printings of Allan Ramsay's The Gentle shepherd between 1743 and 1793, and an edition of Robert Burns' poetry in 1787, the same year as the Edinburgh edition, followed by reprints in 1789, 1793 and 1800. Among other Scottish poets published in Ulster were James Hogg and Robert Tannahill. Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Alexander Montgomerie (1545? - 1610?) was a Scottish poet. ... Sir David Lyndsay (c. ... Allan Ramsay (October 15, 1686 - January 7, 1758), Scottish poet, was born at Leadhills, Lanarkshire to John Ramsay, superintendent of Lord Hopetouns lead-mines and his wife, Alice Bower, a native of Derbyshire. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... For the Texas Governor, see Jim Hogg James Hogg James Hogg (1770 - November 21, 1835) was a Scottish poet and novelist who wrote in both Scots and English. ... Robert Tannahill (June 3, 1774 - May 17, 1810) was a Scottish poet known as the Paisley Poet. He was born in Paisley to a weaving family and was apprenticed in the same trade from the age of 12. ...


In the 18th century, Scottish writers such as Ramsay, Robert Fergusson, Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott continued to use Lowland Scots. Scott introduced vernacular dialogue to his novels. The Habbie stanza was developed as a poetic form.   Statue of Fergusson on Edinburghs Royal Mile Robert Fergusson (September 5, 1750 - October 16, 1774), Scottish poet, son of Sir William Fergusson, a clerk in the British Linen Company, was born at Edinburgh. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... A popular stanza among Scottish poets. ...


The first printed Jèrriais literature appears in the first newspapers following the introduction of the printing press at the end of the 18th century. The earliest identified dated example of printed poetry in Jèrriais is a fragment by Matchi L'Gé (Matthew Le Geyt 1777 - 1849) dated 1795. Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ...


Some 60 to 70 volumes of Ulster rhyming weaver poetry were published between 1750 and 1850, the peak being in the decades 1810 to 1840. These weaver poets, such as James Orr, looked to Scotland for their cultural and literary models and were not simple imitators but clearly inheritors of the same literary tradition following the same poetic and orthographic practices; it is not always immediately possible to distinguish traditional Scots writing from Scotland and Ulster. Weaver Poets, Ryhming Weaver Poets and Ulster Weaver Poets were a collective group of poets belonging to an artistic movement who were both influenced by and contemporaries of Robbie Burns and the Romantic Movement. ... James Orr (1770-1816) was a poet or rhyming weaver from Ulster also known as the Bard of Ballycarry, who wrote in the English language and the Scots language. ...


The importance of translation in spreading the influence of English literature to other cultures of the islands can be exemplified by the abridged Manx version of Paradise Lost by John Milton published in 1796 by Thomas Christian. The influence also went the other way as Romanticism discovered inspiration in the literatures and legends of the Celtic countries of the islands. The Ossian hoax typifies the growth of this interest. For other uses, see Paradise Lost (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Romantics redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ...

George Métivier (1790-1881), Guernsey's "national poet"
George Métivier (1790-1881), Guernsey's "national poet"

Increased literacy in rural and outlying areas and wider access to publishing through, for example, local newspapers encouraged regional literary development as the 19th century progressed. Some writers in lesser-used languages and dialects of the islands gained a literary following outside their native regions, for example William Barnes in Dorset, George Métivier (1790-1881) in Guernsey and Robert Pipon Marett in Jersey. George Métivier published Rimes Guernesiaises, a collection of poems in Dgèrnésiais and French in 1831. The poems had first appeared in newspapers from 1813 onward. The first printed anthology of Jèrriais poetry, Rimes Jersiaises, was published in 1865. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1005x1127, 550 KB) Summary Portrait of George Métivier, Guernsey poet and lexicographer Portrait de Georges Métivier, écrivain guernesiais Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: British literature Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1005x1127, 550 KB) Summary Portrait of George Métivier, Guernsey poet and lexicographer Portrait de Georges Métivier, écrivain guernesiais Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: British literature Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... William Barnes (1801 - 1886) was an English writer, poet, minister, and philologist. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Sir Robert Pipon Marett Sir Robert Pipon Marett (1820-1884, pseudonym Laelius) was a lawyer, journalist, poet, politician, and Bailiff of Jersey from 1880 until his death. ... Dgèrnésiais, also known as Guernésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ...


Scots was used in the narrative by Ulster novelists such as W. G. Lyttle (1844-1896). Scots also regularly appeared in Ulster newspaper columns.


Scottish authors as Robert Louis Stevenson, William Alexander, George MacDonald and J. M. Barrie also wrote in Lowland Scots or used it in dialogue. Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... For the British Army surgeon, see James Barry (surgeon). ...


The first major novelist in the Welsh language was Daniel Owen, author of works such as Rhys Lewis (1885) and Enoc Huws (1891). Daniel Owen (October 20, 1836 - October 22, 1895), was a Welsh novelist. ...


Edward Faragher (1831-1908) has been considered the last important native writer of Manx. He wrote poetry, reminiscences of his life as a fisherman, and translations of selected Aesop's Fables. Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ...


19th century English language literature

William Blake's "The Tyger," published in his Songs of Innocence and of Experience is a work of Romanticism
William Blake's "The Tyger," published in his Songs of Innocence and of Experience is a work of Romanticism

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x920, 100 KB) Plate with The Tyger poem by William Blake File links The following pages link to this file: The Tyger ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x920, 100 KB) Plate with The Tyger poem by William Blake File links The following pages link to this file: The Tyger ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Tyger William Blakes original plate for The Tyger. ... Songs of Innocence and Experience is the name of two books of poetry by William Blake usually considered together. ...

Romanticism

Major political and social changes at the end of the eighteenth century, particularly the French Revolution, prompted a new breed of writing now known as Romanticism. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge began the trend for bringing emotionalism and introspection to English literature, with a new concentration on the individual and the common man. The reaction to urbanism and industrialisation prompted poets to explore nature, for example the Lake Poets. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Romantics redirects here. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... The Lake Poets all lived in the Lake District of England at the turn of the nineteenth century. ...


At around the same time, the iconoclastic printer William Blake, largely disconnected from the major streams of elite literature of the time, was constructing his own highly idiosyncratic poetic creations, while the Scottish nationalist poet Robert Burns was collecting and adapting the folk songs of Scotland into a body of national poetry for his homeland. William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... This article is about the country. ...


The major "second generation" Romantic poets included George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats. They flouted social convention and often used poetry as a political voice. Byron redirects here. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ...


The 19th century novel

At the same time Jane Austen was writing highly polished novels about the life of the landed gentry, seen from a woman's point of view, and wryly focused on practical social issues, especially marriage and money. 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ...


Walter Scott's novel-writing career was launched in 1814 with Waverley, often called the first historical novel, and was followed by Ivanhoe. His popularity in England and further abroad did much to form the modern stereotype of Scottish culture. Other novels by Scott which contributed to the image of him as a patriot include Rob Roy. He was the highest earning and most popular author up to that time. Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Waverley is a novel by Sir Walter Scott. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... Rob Roy (1817) is a novel by Walter Scott about Frank Osbaldistone, the son of an English merchant who goes to the Scottish Highlands to collect a debt stolen from his father. ...


Charles Dickens emerged on the literary scene in the 1830s, confirming the trend for serial publication. Dickens wrote vividly about London life and the struggles of the poor, but in a good-humoured fashion which was accessible to readers of all classes. His early works such as The Pickwick Papers are masterpieces of comedy. Later his works became darker, without losing his genius for caricature. “Dickens” redirects here. ... For other uses of Serial, see Serial (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ...


It was in the Victorian era (1837-1901) that the novel became the leading form of literature in English. Most writers were now more concerned to meet the tastes of a large middle-class reading public than to please aristocratic patrons. The best known works of the era include the emotionally powerful works of the Brontë sisters; the satire Vanity Fair by William Makepeace Thackeray and Anthony Trollope's insightful portrayals of the lives of the landowning and professional classes. George Eliot's novels are frequently held in the highest regard for their combination of high Victorian literary detail combined with an intellectual breadth that removes them from the narrow confines they often depict. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Brontë sisters, painted by their brother, Branwell c. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ...


An interest in rural matters and the changing social and economic situation of the countryside may be seen in the novels of Thomas Hardy and others. Thomas Hardy redirects here. ...


Literature for children was published during the Victorian period, some of which has become globally well-known, such as the work of Lewis Carroll. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ...


Victorian poets

Leading poetic figures of the Victorian era included Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, Robert Browning (and his wife, Elizabeth Barrett Browning), and Matthew Arnold, whilst multi-disciplinary talents such as John Ruskin and Dante Gabriel Rossetti were also famous for their poetry. The poetry of this period was heavily influenced by the Romantics, but also went off in its own directions. Particularly notable was the development of the dramatic monologue, a form used by many poets in this period, but perfected by Browning, most of his poems were in the form of dramatic monologues. Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... A dramatic monologue is a type of poem, developed during the Victorian period, in which a character in fiction or in history delivers a speech explaining his or her feelings, actions, or motives. ...


Nonsense verse, such as by Edward Lear, taken with the work of Lewis Carroll, is regarded as a precursor of surrealism. Nonsense verse is a form of poetry, normally composed for humorous effect, which is intentionally and overtly paradoxical, silly, witty, whimsical or just plain strange. ... Edward Lear, 1812-1888 Eagle Owl, Edward Lear, 1837 Another Edward Lear owl, in his more familiar style Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an artist, illustrator and writer known for his nonsensical poetry and his limericks, a form which he popularised. ... Max Ernst. ...


Towards the end of the century, English poets began to take an interest in French symbolism and Victorian poetry entered a decadent fin-de-siècle phase. Two groups of poets emerged, the Yellow Book poets who adhered to the tenets of Aestheticism, including Algernon Charles Swinburne, Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons and the Rhymer's Club group that included Ernest Dowson, Lionel Johnson and William Butler Yeats. Fin de siècle is French for end of the century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... The Yellow Book, with a cover illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... Algernon Swinburne, detail of his portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ... ‹ The template below (Proseline) is being considered for deletion. ... Arthur Symons (February 28, 1865 - January 22, 1945), was a British poet and critic. ... The Rhymers Club was a group of London-based poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. ... Ernest Christopher Dowson (2 August 1867-23 February 1900), an English poet who was associated with the Decadent Movement, was born at Lee, south-east of London. ... Lionel Pigot Johnson (15 March 1867 - 4 October 1902) was an English poet, essayist and critic. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ...


Ireland

In the 19th century, the Irish playwright Dion Boucicault was an extremely popular writer of comedies. However, it was in the last decade of the century that the Irish theatre finally came of age with the emergence of George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde. All of these writers lived mainly in England and wrote in English. Poster for a production of Boucicaults farce Contempt of Court, c. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... ‹ The template below (Proseline) is being considered for deletion. ...


The Celtic Revival (c. 1890), was begun by William Butler Yeats, Augusta, Lady Gregory, John Millington Synge, Seán O'Casey, James Joyce and others. The Revival stimulated new appreciation of traditional Irish literature. The movement also encouraged the creation of works written in the spirit of Irish culture, as distinct from English culture. The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Edmund John Millington Synge (IPA: ) (April 16, 1871 – March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... Sean OCasey Sean OCasey (March 30, 1880 - September 18, 1964) was a major Irish dramatist and memorist. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ...


Wales

Anglo-Welsh literature is a term used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers, especially if they either have subject matter relating to Wales or (as in the case of Anglo-Welsh poetry in particular) are influenced by the Welsh language in terms of patterns of usage or syntax. It has been recognised as a distinctive entity only since the 20th century. The need for a separate identity for this kind of writing arose because of the parallel development of modern Welsh literature, ie. literature in the Welsh language. Anglo-Welsh literature is a term used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers, especially if they either have subject matter relating to Wales or (as in the case of Anglo_Welsh poetry in particular) are influenced by the Welsh language in terms of patterns of usage... Anglo-Welsh poetry is a subset of Anglo-Welsh literature. ...


Scotland

Scottish literature in the 19th century, following the example of Walter Scott, tended to produce novels that did not reflect the realities of life in that period.


Robert Louis Stevenson's short novel Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) depicts the dual personality of a kind and intelligent physician who turns into a psychopathic monster after imbibing a drug intended to separate good from evil in a personality. His Kidnapped is a fast-paced historical novel set in the aftermath of the '45 Jacobite Rising, and Treasure Island is the classic pirate adventure. Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (disambiguation). ... Overview In psychiatry, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the current name of the condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and Multiple Personality Syndrome. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in the British Isles occurring between 1688 and 1746. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


The Kailyard school of Scottish writers presented an idealised version of society and brought elements of fantasy and folklore back into fashion. J. M. Barrie is one example of this mix of modernity and nostalgia. The Kailyard school of Scottish fiction came into being at the end of the nineteenth century as a reaction against what was seen as increasingly coarse writing representing Scottish life complete with all its blemishes. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the British Army surgeon, see James Barry (surgeon). ...


English language literature since 1900

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Scotland of Irish parents, but his Sherlock Holmes stories have typified a fog-filled London for readers worldwide
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Scotland of Irish parents, but his Sherlock Holmes stories have typified a fog-filled London for readers worldwide

The major lyric poet of the first decades of the 20th century was Thomas Hardy, who concentrated on poetry after the harsh response to his last novel, Jude the Obscure. PD image from http://www. ... PD image from http://www. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... Jude the Obscure is the last of Thomas Hardys novels, begun as a magazine serial and first published in book form in 1895. ...


The most widely popular writer of the early years of the 20th century was arguably Rudyard Kipling, a highly versatile writer of novels, short stories and poems, often based on his experiences in British India. Kipling was closely associated with imperialism and this has damaged his reputation in more recent times. This article is about the British author. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


From around 1910, the Modernist Movement began to influence English literature. Whereas their Victorian predecessors had usually been happy to cater to mainstream middle-class taste, 20th century writers often felt alienated from it, and responded by writing more intellectually challenging works or by pushing the boundaries of acceptable content. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


The major poets of this period included the American-born T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and the Irishman William Butler Yeats. Free verse and other stylistic innovations came to the forefront in this era. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be...


The experiences of the First World War were reflected in the work of war poets such as Wilfred Owen, Rupert Brooke, Isaac Rosenberg, Edmund Blunden and Siegfried Sassoon. Many writers turned away from patriotic and imperialist themes as a result of the war, notably Kipling. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The term war poet came into currency during and after World War I. A number of poets writing in English had been soldiers, and had written about that experience. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was a British poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... A statue of Rupert Brooke in Rugby Rupert Chawner Brooke (August 3, 1887 – April 23, 1915) was an English poet known for his idealistic War Sonnets written during the First World War (especially The Soldier), as well as for his poetry written outside of war, especially The Old Vicarage, Grantchester... Isaac Rosenberg (November 25, 1890 - April 1, 1918) was a Jewish-English poet of the First World War who was one of the greatest of all British war poets. ... Edmund Charles Blunden (November 1, 1896 - January 20, 1974), although not one of the top trio of English World War I writers, was an important and influential poet, author and critic. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet and author. ...


Important novelists between the two World Wars included the Irish writer James Joyce, D. H. Lawrence, and Virginia Woolf. This article is about the writer and poet. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ...


Joyce's increasingly complex works included Ulysses, an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin, and culminated in the famously obscure Finnegans Wake. Lawrence wrote with understanding about the social life of the lower and middle classes, and the personal life of those who could not adapt to the social norms of his time. He attempted to explore human emotions more deeply than his contemporaries and challenged the boundaries of the acceptable treatment of sexual issues in works such as Lady Chatterley's Lover. Virginia Woolf was an influential feminist, and a major stylistic innovator associated with the stream-of-consciousness technique. Her novels included To the Lighthouse, Mrs Dalloway, and The Waves. Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Beginning of the Odyssey For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ... This article is about the novel. ... Feminists redirects here. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... To the Lighthouse (5 May 1927) is a novel by Virginia Woolf. ... Mrs Dalloway (1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf detailing a day in the life of protagonist Clarissa Dalloway in post-World War I England. ... The Waves, first published in 1931 is the most experimental novel of Virginia Woolf. ...


Novelists who wrote in a more traditional style, such as John Galsworthy and Arnold Bennett continued to receive great acclaim in the interwar period. At the same time the Georgian poets maintained a more conservative approach to poetry. John Galsworthy OM (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. ... Arnold Bennett, British novelist Enoch Arnold Bennett (May 27, 1867-March 27, 1931) was a British novelist. ... The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ...


One of the most significant English writers of this period was George Orwell. An acclaimed essayist and novelist, Orwell's works are considered among the most important social and political commentaries of the 20th century. Dealing with issues such as poverty in The Road to Wigan Pier and Down and Out in Paris and London, totalitarianism in Nineteen Eighty-Four and colonialism in Burmese Days. Orwell's works were often semi-autobiographical and in the case of Homage to Catalonia, wholly autobiographical. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ... Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwells semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... Burmese Days is a novel by British writer George Orwell. ... Homage to Catalonia book cover Homage to Catalonia is George Orwells personal account of the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ...


The leading poets of the middle and later 20th century included the traditionalist John Betjeman, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes and the Northern Irish Catholic Seamus Heaney, who lived in the Republic of Ireland for much of his later life. A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... Philip Arthur Larkin, CH, CBE, FRSL, (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and jazz critic. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ...


Major novelists of the middle and later 20th century included the satirist Evelyn Waugh, Henry Green, Anthony Powell, William Golding, Anthony Burgess, Kingsley Amis, V. S. Naipaul, Graham Greene and Iris Murdoch. 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... Henry Green was the nom de plume of Henry Vincent Yorke (October 29, 1905-December 13, 1973) . He was born near Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, of an educated family with successful business interests in Birmingham. ... Anthony Dymoke Powell, CH (December 21, 1905 - March 28, 2000) was a British novelist best known for his A Dance to the Music of Time duodecalogy published between 1951 and 1975. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, KB, TC (b. ... This article is about the writer. ... Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. ...


In drama, the drawing room plays of the post war period were challenged in the 1950s by the Angry Young Men, exemplified by as John Osborne's iconic play Look Back in Anger. Also in the 1950s, the bleak absurdist play Waiting for Godot, by the Irish playwright Samuel Beckett profoundly affected British drama. The theatre of the absurd influenced playwrights of the later decades of the 20th century, including Harold Pinter, whose works are often characterized by menace or claustrophobia, and Tom Stoppard. Stoppard's works are however also notable for their high-spirited wit and the great range of intellectual issues which he tackles in different plays. Angry Young Men (or Angries for short) is a journalistic catchphrase applied to a number of British playwrights and novelists from the mid-1950s. ... John James Osborne (December 12, 1929 – December 24, 1994) was an English playwright, screenwriter, and critic of the Establishment. ... Look Back in Anger (1956) is a John Osborne play and 1958 movie about a love triangle involving an intelligent but disaffected young man (Jimmy Porter), his upper-middle-class, impassive wife (Alison), and her snooty best friend (Helena Charles). ... Absurdism is a philosophy stating that the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe will ultimately fail (and, hence, are absurd) because no such meaning exists, at least in relation to humanity. ... Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett in which the characters wait for a man (Godot) who never arrives. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... The Theatre of the Absurd, or Theater of the Absurd (French: Le Théâtre de lAbsurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ...

The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ... Anthology of Twentieth-Century British and Irish Poetry is a poetry anthology edited by Keith Tuma, and published in 2001 by Oxford University Press. ... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Kitchen sink realism was a recognisable English cultural movement in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ...

Non English language literatures since 1900

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Welsh literature began to reflect the way the Welsh language was increasingly becoming a political symbol. Two important literary nationalists were Saunders Lewis and Kate Roberts. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Saunders Lewis (John Saunders Lewis), (October 15, 1893 - September 1, 1985), was a Welsh poet, dramatist, historian, literary critic and political activist. ... Kate Roberts (February 13, 1891 - April 4, 1985) was one of the foremost Welsh-language authors of the twentieth century. ...


In the early 20th century in Scotland, a renaissance in the use of Lowland Scots occurred, its most vocal figure being Hugh MacDiarmid. Other contemporaries were Douglas Young, Sidney Goodsir Smith, Robert Garioch and Robert McLellan. However, the revival was largely limited to verse and other literature. The Scottish version of modernism, the Scottish literary renaissance was begun by Hugh MacDiarmid in the 1920s when he abandoned his English language poetry and began to write in Lallans. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ... M. Douglas (Doug) Young (born September 20, 1940) is a Canadian politician. ... Sydney Goodsir Smith (26 October 1915 - 15 January 1975) was a New Zealand-Scottish poet, artist, dramatist and novelist. ... Robert Garioch Sutherland, (May 9, 1909 – April 26, 1981), was a Scottish poet and translator. ... Robert McLellan, Scottish dramatist and poet, (1907-1985) was born at Linmill, a fruit farm in Kirkfieldbank in the Clyde valley, the home of his maternal grandparents. ...


The end of the First World War saw a decline in the quantity of poetry published in Jèrriais and Dgèrnésiais in favour of short-story-like newspaper columns in prose, some being collected in book or booklet form - this being a common genre in the Norman mainland. The imported eisteddfod tradition in the Channel Islands encouraged recitation and performance, a tradition that continues today. The German military occupation of the Channel Islands 1940-1945 encouraged increased use of the vernacular languages among those who remained, but the German censorship permitted little original writing to be published. Within the restrictions, Les Chroniques de Jersey, the only surviving French language newspaper in the Islands, republished considerable quantities of older Jèrriais literature for purposes of morale and the assertion of identity. The post-Liberation social changes meant, however, that vernacular literature has never regained the situation it had enjoyed previously. Orature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Sorley MacLean's work in Scottish Gaelic in the 1930s gave new value to modern literature in that language. Sorley MacLean (Scottish Gaelic: ) (b. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Highly anglicised Lowland Scots is often used in contemporary Scottish fiction, for example, the Edinburgh dialect of Lowland Scots in Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh. Edwin Morgan is the current Makar (Scottish national poet) and also produces translations of world literature. Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh. ... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ... Edwin Morgan (born April 27, 1920) is a Scottish poet and translator who is associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... A makar in Scottish literature is a poet or bard, often attached to the royal court. ...


Translations are an important feature of the literatures of the regional languages of the islands, for example: Contoyryssyn Ealish ayns Cheer ny Yindyssyn a Manx translation of Alice in Wonderland by Brian Stowell, published in 1990, or the 2004 Scots version of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Rab Wilson. Alexander Hutchison has translated the poetry of Catullus into Scots, and in the 1980s Liz Lochhead produced a Scots translation of Tartuffe by Molière. Original literature continues to be promoted by organisations and institutions such as the Eisteddfod or the Mod. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... “Alice in Wonderland” redirects here. ... Brian Stowell (born in Douglas, Isle of Man in 1936) is considered one of the primary people behind the revival of the Manx language. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... Liz Lochhead (born December 26, 1947) is a Scottish poet and dramatist, originally from Motherwell. ... For the film of the same name, see Tartuffe (film) Tartuffe is a comedy by Molière, and arguably his most famous play. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A mod is a festival of Scottish Gaelic song, arts and culture. ...


With the revival of Cornish there have been newer works written in the language. The bard Pol Hodge is an example of a poet writing in Cornish.

Although Irish has been used as a literary language for more than a thousand years (see Irish literature), and in a form intelligible to contemporary speakers since at least the sixteenth century, modern Irish literature is thought to begin with the revival movement. ...

Literary prizes

Recipients of the Nobel Prize in Literature from the isles include Rudyard Kipling (1907), George Bernard Shaw (1925), John Galsworthy (1932), T.S. Eliot (1948), Bertrand Russell (1950), Winston Churchill (1953), William Golding (1983), Seamus Heaney (1995), V. S. Naipaul (2001), Harold Pinter (2005) and Doris Lessing (2007). A list of British literary awards: Booker Prize British Book Awards -- the Nibbies Commonwealth Writers Prize Duff Cooper Prize Hawthornden Prize Hessell-Tiltman Prize John Llewellyn Rhys Prize Orange Prize for Fiction Samuel Johnson Prize Somerset Maugham Award Whitbread Awards Alice Hunt Bartlett Prize Bridport Prize Cholmondeley Award Eric Gregory... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... This article is about the British author. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ... John Galsworthy OM (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, KB, TC (b. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Doris Lessing CH OBE (born Doris May Tayler in Kermanshah, Persia (now Iran),[1] on 22 October 1919[2]) is a British writer, author of works such as the novels The Grass is Singing and The Golden Notebook. ...


Literary prizes for which writers from the United Kingdom are eligible include:

The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known in short as the Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of either the Commonwealth of Nations or the Republic of Ireland. ... The Commonwealth Writers’ Prize, organised and funded by the Commonwealth Foundation, is a leading award for fiction that was first awarded in 1987. ... The International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award is the largest and most international prize of its kind for a single work -published in English. ... The Costa Book Awards are among the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary awards. ... The Orange Prize for Fiction is one of the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary prizes, awarded annually for the best original full-length novel by a female author of any nationality, written in English and published in the UK in the preceding year. ... The Gold Medal for Poetry, originally instituted by King George V, is awarded in some years on 23 April, for a book of verse written by a United Kingdom or British Commonwealth citizen; before 1985 it was awarded only to British writers (this rule clearly not having hardened by 1940). ...

See also

British poetry is poetry written by British poets. ... British Latin literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands originally written in Latin. ... Cornish literature refers to written works in the Cornish language. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet. ... Bold textBold textBold textBold textDrama was introduced to England from Europe by the Romans and auditoriums were constructed across the country for this purpose. ... // Early novels in English See the article First novel in English. ... This is a list of novelists from England. ... Jèrriais literature is literature in Jèrriais. ... Manx literature is literature in the Manx language. ... Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers. ... List of Scottish writers is an incomplete alphabetical list of Scottish writers. ... Speakers of Northumbrian Old English settled in south eastern Scotland in the 7th century, at which time Celtic Brythonic was spoken in the south of Scotland to a little way north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde, and Pictish was spoken further north: almost nothing is... Shetland’s Literature reflects its history: five hundred years of Norse rule, followed by five hundred years of Scottish and British - this, in very simple terms, is the political reality of the last millennium. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... Welsh poetry may refer to poetry in the Welsh language, Anglo-Welsh poetry, or other poetry written in Wales or by Welsh poets. ... Welsh language poetry has, until quite recently, been regulated by specific verse forms, with the encouragement of the eisteddfod movement. ... Traditional Welsh poetic meters consist of twenty four different types of poetic meter. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... The Big Read was a 2003 survey carried out by the BBC, with the goal of finding the Nations Best-loved Book by way of a viewer vote via the Web, SMS and telephone. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of modern literary movements: that is, movements after the Renaissance. ...

References

  1. ^ Robert DeMaria (2001), British Literature 1640 -1789: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 063121769X

  Results from FactBites:
 
British literature - definition of British literature in Encyclopedia (1876 words)
Literature in the Celtic languages of the islands is the oldest surviving vernacular literature in Europe.
The Jersey poet Wace is considered the founder of Jersey literature and contributed to the development of the Arthurian legend in British literature.
Anglo-Welsh literature is a term used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers, especially if they either have subject matter relating to Wales or (as in the case of Anglo-Welsh poetry in particular) are influenced by the Welsh language in terms of patterns of usage or syntax.
British literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3612 words)
British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
In Medieval Welsh literature the period before 1100 is known as the period of Y Cynfeirdd ("The earliest poets") or Yr Hengerdd ("The old poetry").
Literature for children was published during the Victorian period, some of which has become globally well-known, such as the work of Lewis Carroll.
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