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Encyclopedia > British honours system

The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. The system consists of three types of award: honours, decorations and medals:

  • Honours are used to recognise merit in terms of achievement and service;
  • Decorations tend to be used to recognise specific deeds;
  • Medals are used to recognise bravery, long and/or valuable service and/or good conduct.

Contents

A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... A Medal is a word used for various types of compact objects: a wearable medal awarded by an authority government for services redered, especially to a country (such as Armed force service); strictly speaking this only refers to a medal of coin-like appearance, but informally the word also refers...

Brief history

Although the Anglo-Saxon kings are known to have rewarded their loyal subjects with rings and other symbols of favour, it was the Normans who introduced knighthoods as part of their feudal government. The first English order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter was created in 1348 by Edward III. Since then the system has evolved to address the changing need to recognise other forms of service to the United Kingdom. Various orders of knighthood were created as well as awards for military service, bravery, merit and achievement. The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was Ælle of Sussex in 477, who was much later followed by Alfred the Great (who took the place of Ethelred) in 871. ... Norman conquests in red. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ...


Modern honours

As the head of state, the Sovereign remains the "fount of honour", but the system for identifying and recognising candidates to honour has changed considerably over time. Various orders of knighthood have been created (see below) as well as awards for military service, bravery, merit and achievement which take the form of decorations or medals. Knighthoods awarded from an Order of Knighthood are recognised by a sash worn over the left shoulder to the right waist, in the silks of the Order, with an order star on the left breast. The Garter sash is worn right shoulder to left waist. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Most medals are not graded. Each one recognises specific service and as such there are normally set criteria which must be met. These criteria may include a period of time and will often delimit a particular geographic region. Medals are not normally presented by the Sovereign. A full list is printed in the "order of wear," published infrequently by the London Gazette. The London Gazette , front page from Monday 3 - 10 September 1666, reporting on the Great Fire of London. ...


Honours are split into classes ("orders") and are graded to distinguish different degrees of achievement or service. There are no criteria to determine these levels; various honours committees meet to discuss the candidates and decide which ones deserve which type of award and at what level. Since their decisions are inevitably subjective, the twice-yearly honours lists often provoke criticism from those who feel strongly about particular cases. Candidates are identified by public or private bodies, by government departments or are nominated by members of the public. Depending on their roles, those people selected by committee are submitted either to the Prime Minister, Foreign Secretary or Defence Secretary for their approval before being sent to the Sovereign for final approval. Certain honours are awarded solely at the Sovereign's discretion, such as the Order of the Garter. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The title of Foreign Secretary has been traditionally used to refer to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...


A complete list of approximately 1350 names is published twice a year, at New Year and on the date of the Sovereign's (official) birthday. The awards are then presented by the Sovereign or the Prince of Wales at investiture ceremonies. For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth realms). ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ...


Refusal or forfeiture

A small number of people have also refused the offer of an award, usually for personal reasons. (See List of people who have declined a British honour for an incomplete list.) Rarely, an American (typically with some connection to the UK) will be offered an award, and sometimes it is refused. It is a misperception, however, that US citizens cannot accept such awards. The US Constitution, in Article I, Section 9, prohibits only elected or appointed Federal officials from accepting such awards without the permission of Congress. Citizens of the Republic of Ireland must seek permission from their government before accepting honours[1]. (See below "Honorary Awards".) The following is a partial list of people who have declined a British honour, such as a knighthood or an honour usually within the Order of the British Empire. ...


Honours are sometimes removed (forfeited) if a recipient is convicted of a criminal offence. Notable examples of knights who forfeited their knighthoods are: for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ...

  • Sir Roger Casement, a distinguished colonial officer in the Congo, who was convicted of spying in the First World War, forfeited his knighthood and was executed.
  • Sir Jack Lyons, who had received his knighthood for his huge charitable donations and services to industry, lost it when he was convicted of fraud in the 1980s.
  • Sir Anthony Blunt, knighted as Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures for his services to Art, lost his knighthood in the 1980s when he was revealed to be the "Third Man" in the early 1950s Burgess and Maclean spying scandal which also touched on the 1960s Philby spying affair, as a result of which he confessed to the security services. Although Blunt was never charged or convicted, the honour was withdrawn on the advice of the then Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, to The Queen as "fount of all honour" . It has always been widely assumed that The Queen was long aware of this background and his homosexual proclivities but had chosen to ignore them because of his charm and expert knowledge. This aspect has been the subject of several documentaries, television and stage plays.
  • Sir Terence Lewis, knighted for his services to Queensland police, was stripped of his knighthood in 1993 after being sentenced to prison on charges of corruption and forgery as a result of the findings of the Fitzgerald Inquiry.

Sir Roger David Casement CMG (Irish: Ruairí Mac Easmainn) (1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916) was an Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary and nationalist by inclination. ... Isidore Jack Lyons (born 1916) is a retired British financier and philanthropist. ... Anthony Frederick Blunt (26 September 1907 – 26 March 1983) was an English art historian and the Fourth Man of the Cambridge Five, a group of spies working for the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high ranking member of British intelligence who led a lifelong career as a spy for the Soviet Union. ... Terence Murray Terry Lewis (born 29 February 1928) is a former Queensland police commissioner who was convicted and jailed for corruption as a result of the Fitzgerald Inquiry. ... Emblems: Faunal - Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); Floral - Cooktown orchid (Dendrobium bigibbum); Bird - Brolga (Grus rubicunda); Aquatic - Barrier Reef Anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos); Gem - Sapphire; Colour - Maroon Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Const. ... The Fitzgerald Inquiry into Queensland Police corruption was a judicial inquiry presided over by Tony Fitzgerald QC. The inquiry was established in response to a Four Corners report, aired May 1987, entitled The Moonlight State alleging high-level corruption involving both the police force and the then-Bjelke-Petersen government. ...

Current orders of chivalry

See also: Chivalric order

The current system is made up of ten orders of chivalry. The statutes of each order specify matters such as the size of the order, the use of post-nominal letters and insignia design and display. See also Orders of Chivalry in the British honours system After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ... ...

Complete name Established Motto Associated awards
The Most Noble Order of the Garter Established on 1348 by King Edward III. Its motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense, which means "shame upon him who thinks evil of it". None.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle Established on 1687 by James VII. Its motto is Nemo me impune lacessit, which means "No one provokes me with impunity". None.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath Established on 18 May 1725 by George I. Its motto is Tria iuncta in uno, which means "Three joined in one". None.
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George Established on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince of Wales. Its motto is Auspicium melioris aevi, which means "Token of a better age". None.
The Distinguished Service Order Established on 1886 by Queen Victoria. None. None.
The Royal Victorian Order Established on 21 April 1896 by Queen Victoria. Its motto is Victoria, which means "Victory". The Royal Victorian Medal, The Royal Victorian Chain.
The Order of Merit Established on 1902 by King Edward VII. Its motto is For merit. None.
The Imperial Service Order Established on August 1902 by King Edward VII. Its motto is For faithful service. The Imperial Service Medal.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. Its motto is For God and the Empire. The British Empire Medal.
The Order of the Companions of Honour Established on June 1917 by King George V. Its motto is In action faithful and in honour clear. None.

The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English kings of medieval times. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... George I (Georg Ludwig) (28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was Elector of Hanover from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Silver Medal of the Royal Victorian Medal The Royal Victorian Medal is a British Commonwealth medal estabished by Queen Victoria in April 1896. ... The Royal Victorian Chain is a British award, instituted in 1902 by HM King Edward VII as a personal award of the British Monarch (i. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The British Empire Medal (Medal of the Order of the British Empire for Meritorious Service) is a British medal awarded for meritorious civil or military service worthy of recognition by the crown. ... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ...

Old orders of chivalry

Orders were created for particular reasons at particular times. In some cases these reasons have ceased to have any validity and orders have fallen into abeyance, primarily due to the decline of the British Empire during the twentieth century. Reforms of the system have sometimes made other changes. For example the medal of the Order of the British Empire ceased to be awarded in the UK in 1993, as was the companion level award of the Imperial Service Order (although its medal is still used). These changes were made because it was believed they perpetuated "class" differences. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick

Founded in 1783, this single-class order fell into disuse following Irish independence. The last surviving knight, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, died in 1974. The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and... The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert), (31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third son of King George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary. ...


The Royal Guelphic Order

Also known as the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, this three-class honour was founded in 1815 and awards were made in two divisions (civil and military). In the UK it was used only briefly until 1837 when the death of William IV ended the personal union with Hanover. The Royal Guelphic Order was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...


Indian Orders

Image:Lady with a Tiara.jpg
unidentified women wearing the Order of the Indian Empire

* The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India (founded 1861) Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

These orders, relating to the British Raj (the British control of India), are also defunct. The senior order, the Order of the Star of India, was divided into three grades, Knight Grand Commander, Knight Commander and Companion, of which the first and highest was conferred upon the Princes and Chiefs of Indian states and upon important British civil servants working in India. Women were not eligible to receive the award. The junior order, the Order of the Indian Empire, was divided into the same ranks and also excluded women. The third order, the Order of the Crown of India, was used exclusively to honour women. Its members, all sharing a single grade, consisted of the wives and close female relatives of Indian Princes or Chiefs; the Viceroy or Governor-General; the Governors of Bombay, Madras and Bengal; the Principal Secretary of State for India; and the Commander-in-Chief in India. Upon Indian independence in 1947, appointments to all these orders ceased. The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. ... The British Empire at its zenith in 1919. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Order of Burma

The Order of Burma was created in May 1940 by King George VI of the United Kingdom to recognize subjects of the British colony Burma. This order had one class which entitled the member to the postnominal letters OB but no title. It was originally intended to reward long and faithful service by military and police. In 1945 the Royal Warrant was altered to allow for membership for acts of gallantry as well as meritorious service. The Order was one of the rarest awarded with only 33 appointments by the time appointments were discontinued in 1948 because of Burma's decolonization. The Order of Burma was founded by Royal Warrant on 10 May 1940 conferred in a single class. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ...


Other honours and appointments

Hereditary peerage

There are five ranks of hereditary peerage: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. Until the 19th century, peerages were usually hereditary and, until the end of the 20th century, English, British and UK peerages (except, until very recent times, those for the time being held by women) carried the right to a seat in the House of Lords. The Peerage in the United Kingdom includes several hereditary peers, as well as life peers. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Duke (disambiguation). ... A marquess is a nobleman of hereditary rank. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


Hereditary peerages are now normally only given to members of the Royal Family. The most recent was the grant to the Queen's youngest son, the Earl of Wessex, on his marriage in 1999, who it was implied, will be created Duke of Edinburgh on his father's death. No hereditary peerages were granted to commoners after the Labour Party came to power in 1964, until Margaret Thatcher tentatively reintroduced them by two grants to men with no sons in 1983, respectively the Speaker of the House of Commons George Thomas and her trusted deputy Willie Whitelaw. Both these titles died with their holders. She followed this with an Earldom in 1984 for the former Prime Minister Harold Macmillan not long before his death, reviving a traditional honour for former Prime Ministers. Macmillan's grandson succeeded him on his death in 1986. No hereditary peerages have been created since, and Thatcher's own title is a life peerage [see further explanation below]. The concession of a hereditary knighthood, ie, baronetcy, was granted to Margaret Thatcher's husband Denis following her resignation [explained below, see Baronetcy]. Members of the British royal family A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... The Earl of Wessex is an Earl in the English and later British nobility. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Duke of Edinburgh is a British dukedom. ... A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable Thomas George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy (29 January 1909 - 22 September 1997) was a British Labour politician. ... The Rt Hon. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM (10 February 1894 - 29 December 1986), nicknamed Supermac and Mac the Knife, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


Life peerage

Life peerages were introduced under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 following a test case (the Wensleydale Peerage Case) which established that non-statutory life peers would not have the right to sit in the House of Lords. At that time, life peerages were intended only for Law Lords, there being a desire to introduce legal expertise into the chamber in order to assist in its appellate law work, without conferring rights on future generations of these early working peers (since, after all, the future generations might contain no legal experts). In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The British Peerage is governed by a body of law that has developed over several centuries. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ...


Subsequently, under the Life Peerages Act 1958, life peerages became the norm for all new grants outside the Royal Family, this being seen as a modest reform of the nature of the second legislative chamber. However, its effects were gradual because hereditary peers, and their successors, retained until recently their rights to attend and vote with the life peers. All hereditary peers except 92 - chosen in a secret ballot of all hereditary peers - have now lost their rights to sit in the second chamber. All hereditary peers retain dining rights to the House of Lords, retaining its title as "the best club in London". The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ...


All life peers hold the rank of Baron and automatically have the right to sit in the House of Lords. The title exists only for the duration of their own lifetime and is not passed to their heirs (although the children even of life peers enjoy courtesy titles, prefix "Honourable" in the case of children of life peers). Some life peerages are created as an honour for achievement, some for the specific purpose of introducing legislators from the various political parties (known as working peers) and some under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, with a view to judicial work. There is a discreet number appointed as "People's Peers", on recommendation of the general public. 19 Church of England bishops as of right have a seat in the House of Lords. Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... A courtesy title is a form of address in the British peerage system used for wives, children, and other close relatives of a peer. ...


As a life peerage is not technically an "honour under the Crown", it cannot be withdrawn once granted. Thus, while knighthoods have been withdrawn as "honours under the Crown", convicted criminals who have served their sentences have returned to the House of Lords. In the case of Lord Archer of Weston-super-Mare, he has chosen only to exercise dining rights and has yet to speak following his release from his conviction for perjury. Jeffrey Howard Archer, Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare (born 15 April 1940) is an English author and former politician. ...


Baronetcy

A hereditary honour carrying the title Sir. Baronetcies are not peerages, but are usually considered a species of knighthood. A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) is the holder of a species of knighthood known as a baronetcy. ...


When a baronetcy becomes vacant on the death of a holder, the heir if he wishes to be addressed as "Sir" is required to register the proofs of succession. The Official Roll of Baronets is kept at the Home Office by the Registrar of the Baronetage. Anyone who considers that he is entitled to be entered on the Roll may petition the Crown through the Home Secretary. Anyone succeeding to a baronetcy therefore must exhibit proofs of succession to the Home Secretary. A person who is not entered on the Roll will not be addressed or mentioned as a baronet or accorded precedence as a baronet, effectively declining the honour. The baronetcy can be revived at any time on provision of acceptable proofs of succession [Whitaker's Almanac 2005, p 83 et seq.]. There will at any time be numerous baronets who intend proving succession, but who have yet to do so.


About 83 baronetcies are listed as awaiting proofs of succession. Notable examples include Jonathon Porritt, lately of Friends of the Earth ; Ferdinand Mount, the journalist ; and Francis Dashwood, Premier Baronet of Great Britain [title created 1707]. Sir Jonathon Espie Porritt, 2nd Baronet, CBE (born 6 July 1950) known as Jonathon Porritt, is a British environmentalist and writer. ... Ferdinand Mount (born 1939) is a British writer, columnist for the Sunday Times and commentator on politics, and Conservative Party politician. ... Francis Dashwood, 15th Baron le Despencer (December, 1708 - December 11, 1781) was an English rake and politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (1762-1763) and founder of The Hellfire Club. ...


Interestingly, Tam Dalyell, lately MP and Father of the House of Commons and scourge of Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair, provided proofs of succession to take his Scottish baronetcy, created in 1683, as "Sir Tam". Sir Thomas Dalyell of the Binns, 11th Baronet (born 9 August 1932), more commonly known as Tam Dalyell (pronounced ), is a Scottish politician and was a Labour member of the House of Commons from 1962 to 2005. ... There is also the designation of Father of the House of Lords The longest continuously serving member of certain national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, is customarily designated Father of the House. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament...


As with hereditary peerages, baronetcies ceased to be granted after the Labour Party came to power in 1964, except those Viscountencies of Whitelaw and Tonypandy obtained by Margaret Thatcher[citation needed] in 1983, respectively, for her Deputy Prime Minister and prominent Speaker of the House of Commons, though in both cases there was no heir to take the title beyond first creation. Viscount Whitelaw was the first hereditary peerage title created in the United Kingdom for eighteen years, in 1983. ... Viscount Tonypandy (Thomas) George Thomas, 1st Viscount Tonypandy (born Port Talbot, January 29, 1909; died September 22, 1997) was a British Labour politician. ... A Deputy Prime Minister is a member of a nations cabinet who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the real Prime Minister is temporarily absent. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ...


The sole subsequent exception was a baronetcy created for the husband of Margaret Thatcher, Sir Denis Thatcher, in 1991, which was inherited by her son, Mark Thatcher, after his father's death. This hereditary creation was widely assumed to have been granted to allow her eldest son to succeed to a title[citation needed]. Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE, TD (May 10, 1915 – June 26, 2003) was a businessman, and the husband of the former British Prime Minister, Baroness Thatcher. ... The Honourable Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born August 15, 1953), is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Margaret Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister. ...


It was widely reported that Margaret Thatcher had held out for a hereditary peerage[citation needed] as a retiring Prime Minister. Until 1959 with the Life Peerages Act, retiring Prime Ministers had taken an Earldom as of right if they chose, with the notable exception of Sir Winston Churchill, reported to have turned down the offer of a dukedom[citation needed], as Duke of London, in 1945. Harold Macmillan, who had been Prime Minister at the passing of the Life Peerages Act, exerted his right to an earldom as Earl of Stockton in 1984, shortly before his death. Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


Baroness Thatcher on this reckoning would have been created a countess. However it is suggested John Major chose to revert to the new custom of no longer awarding non-royal hereditary peerages[citation needed]. When she was awarded a Life Peerage, her husband, Dennis, was created the first new baronet since the 1960s. Sir John Major KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ...


Knighthood

Descended from mediaeval chivalry, knights exist within the orders of chivalry and of class known as Knights Bachelor. Regular recipients include High Court judges and senior civil servants. Knighthood carries the title Sir; the female equivalent Dame only exists within the orders of chivalry. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Woman under the Safeguard of Knighthood, allegorical Scene. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ...


Order of St John

Members of the Royal Order of Chivalry the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem (founded 1888) may wear the Order's insignia but the ranks within the Order of St. John do not confer official rank on the order of precedence and, likewise, the abbreviations or postnominal initials associated with the various grades of membership in the Order of St. John do not indicate precedence among the other orders. Thus someone knighted in the order does not take precedence with the knights of other British orders nor should they be addressed as "Sir" or "Dame." HRH The Duke of Gloucester is Grand Prior of the Venerable Order of Saint John. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Other orders

Other orders, decorations and medals which do not carry titles but entitle the holder to place post-nominal letters after his or her name also exist, as do a small number of Royal Family Orders. This article concerns British and Commonwealth of Nations orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ... Post-nominal letters are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, office, or honour. ...


Honorary awards

Citizens of countries which do not have the Queen as their head of state sometimes have honours conferred upon them, in which case the awards are "honorary". In the case of knighthoods, the holders are entitled to place initials behind their name but not style themselves "Sir". Examples of foreigners with honorary knighthoods are Riley Bechtel, Bill Gates, Bob Geldof, Bono and Rudolph Giuliani, while Arsène Wenger and Gérard Houllier are honorary OBEs. Honorary knighthoods arise from Orders of Chivalry rather than as Knights Bachelor as the latter confers no postnominal letters. Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Riley P. Bechtel is the chairman and CEO of the Bechtel Corporation. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ... Robert Frederick Zenon Bob Geldof, KBE (born 5 October 1951) is an Irish singer, songwriter, actor and political activist. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... Arsène Wenger, OBE (born October 22, 1949 in Strasbourg) is a French football manager, who is currently managing Arsenal, where he has become the clubs most successful manager, in terms of trophies, and the longest-running manager, and in terms of matches played (over 550, as of September... Gérard Houllier, OBE, (born 3 September 1947, in Thérouanne, Pas-de-Calais, France) is a football manager, currently managing the French champions Lyon. ...


Recipients of honorary awards who later become subjects of Her Majesty may apply to convert their awards to substantive ones. Examples of this are Marjorie Scardino, American CEO of Pearson PLC, and Yehudi Menuhin, the American-born violinist and conductor. They were granted an honorary damehood and knighthood respectively while still American citizens, and converted them to substantive awards after they assumed British citizenship, becoming Dame Marjorie and Sir Yehudi. Menuhin later accepted a life peerage with the title Lord Menuhin. Dame Marjorie M. Scardino, DBE is the American born CEO of Pearson PLC, a non-executive director of Nokia, and former CEO of the Economist Group. ... Pearson plc LSE: PSON;NYSE: PSO is a London-based media conglomerate. ... Yehudi Menuhin album cover Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was a Jewish-born, American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom and eventually became a British citizen. ...


Tony O'Reilly, who holds both British and Irish nationality [2], uses the style "Sir", but has also gained approval from the Irish Government to accept the award as is necessary under the Irish Constitution[1]. Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, the German soprano, became entitled to be known as "Dame Elizabeth" when she took British nationality. Irish-born Sir Terry Wogan was initially awarded an honorary knighthood, but by the time he collected the accolade from the Queen in December 2005, he had obtained dual nationality [2] and the award was upgraded to a substantive knighthood. Sir Anthony Tony OReilly KBE (born 7 May 1936) is an Irish businessman and one of the richest men in Ireland. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Government Buildings in Dublin. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... Elisabeth Schwarzkopf Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf DBE (b. ... Sir Michael Terence Wogan KBE, (known as Terry Wogan) was born on August 3, 1938. ...


Bob Geldof is often erroneously referred to in the tabloid press as "Sir Bob", though he does not have British nationality and does not appear in the British Knightage. His late wife, Paula Yates, regularly styled herself "Lady Geldof", though this may have been a ruse to enjoy preferential treatment when booking restaurants. Paula Yates (born April 24, 1959 in Colwyn Bay, Conwy, Wales – died September 17, 2000) was a British television presenter. ...


There is no law in the UK preventing foreigners from holding a peerage, though only Commonwealth and Irish citizens may sit in the House of Lords. This has yet to be tested under the new arrangements. However, some other countries such as the United States have laws restricting the acceptances of awards by foreign powers; in Canada, where the Canadian House of Commons has opposed the granting of titular honours with its Nickle Resolution, the prime minister Jean Chrétien advised the Queen not to grant Conrad Black a titular honour while he remained a Canadian citizen[3]. The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Nickle Resolution, adopted by the Canadian House of Commons on 22 May 1919, marked the earliest attempt to establish a Canadian government policy forbidding the British, and, later, Canadian, Sovereign from granting knighthoods, baronetcies, and peerages to Canadians, and set the precedent for later policies prohibiting Canadians from accepting... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour PC, OC, KCSG, (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec), is a British biographer, financier and former newspaper magnate. ...


Ceremony

Each year, around 2,600 people receive their awards personally from The Queen or a member of the Royal Family. Approximately 22 Investitures are held annually in Buckingham Palace, one or two at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh and one in Cardiff. There are approximately 120 recipients at each Investiture. The Queen usually conducts the Investitures, although The Prince of Wales and The Princess Royal also hold some Investitures on behalf of the Queen. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Members of the British royal family A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Cardiff (English:  Welsh: ) is the capital of Wales and its largest city. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Princess Anne, the current Princess Royal Princess Royal is a style customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. ...


During the ceremony, The Queen enters the Ballroom of Buckingham Palace attended by two Gurkha Orderly Officers, a tradition begun in 1876 by Queen Victoria. On duty on the dais are five members of The Queen's Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard, which was created in 1485 by Henry VII; they are the oldest military corps in the United Kingdom. Four Gentlemen Ushers are on duty to help look after the recipients and their guests. Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Yeomen of the Guard in the procession to the annual service of the Order of the Garter at Windsor Castle For the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, see The Yeomen of the Guard The Queens Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard are a bodyguard of the British Monarch. ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... Henry VII may refer to: Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (c. ...


The Queen is escorted by either the Lord Chamberlain or the Lord Steward. After the National Anthem has been played, he stands to the right of The Queen and announces the name of each recipient and the achievement for which they are being decorated. The Queen is given a brief background by her Equerry of each recipient as they approach to receive their award. The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is one of the chief officers of the Royal Household in the United Kingdom, and is to be distinguished from the Lord Great Chamberlain, one of the Great Officers of State. ... almLord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, an important official of the Royal Household. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ...


Those who are to be knighted kneel on an Investiture stool to receive the Accolade, which is bestowed by The Queen using the sword which her father, George VI used when, as Duke of York, he was Colonel-in-Chief of the Scots Guards. Occasionally an award for Gallantry may be made posthumously and in this case The Queen presents the decoration or medal to the recipient's next-of-kin in private before the public Investiture begins. A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... The title Duke of York is a title of nobility in the British peerage. ... In the British and other Commonwealth armies, the Colonel-in-Chief of a regiment is its (usually Royal) patron. ... The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ...


After the award ceremony, investees are ushered out of the Ballroom into the Inner Quadrangle of Buckingham Palace, where the Royal Rota of Photographers are stationed. Here, recipients are photographed with their awards. In some cases, at this point members of the press may interview some of the more well-known investees.


Precedence

Knights and Ladies of the Garter, Thistle and St Patrick precede recipients of other orders regardless of grade. Amongst the remaining orders, individuals of a higher rank precede those of a lower rank. For instance, a Knight Grand Cross always precedes a Knight Commander. For those of equal rank, members of the higher-ranked Order take precedence. Within the same Order, precedence is accorded to that individual who received the honour earlier. Knights Bachelor come after Knights of all of the other orders, but before those with the rank of Commander or lower. The Orders of Merit (founded 1902), Companions of Honour (1917), St John (1888) and the Crown of India (1878) accord no special precedence.


Wives of Knights of a certain rank will come directly after all Dames of that rank. For instance, the wife of the most senior Knight Grand Cross of the Bath ranks directly below the most junior Dame Grand Cross of the British Empire.


Style

For peers, see Forms of address in the United Kingdom. Forms of address used in the United Kingdom are given below. ...


For baronets, the style Sir John Smith, Bt. is used. Their wives are styled simply Lady Smith. The rare baronetess is styled Dame Jane Smith, Btss.


For knights, the style Sir John Smith, [ postnominals ] is used, attaching the proper postnominal letters depending on rank and order (for knights bachelor, no postnominal letters are used). Their wives are styled Lady Smith, with no postnominal letters. A dame is styled Dame Jane Smith, [postnominals]. More familiar references or oral addresses use the first name only, e.g. Sir Alan, or Dame Judy. Post-nominal letters are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, office, or honour. ...


Wives of knights and baronets are officially styled Dame Jane Smith, but this style is very rarely used nowadays.


Recipients of orders, decorations and medals receive no styling of Sir or Dame, but they may attach the according postnominal letters to their name, e.g. John Smith, VC. This article concerns British and Commonwealth of Nations orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ...


Bailiffs or Dames Grand Cross (GCStJ), Knights/Dames of Justice/Grace (KStJ/DStJ), Commander Brothers/Sisters (CStJ), Officer Brothers/Sisters (OStJ), Serving Brothers/Sisters (SBStJ/SSStJ)and Esquires (EsqStJ) of the Order of St. John do not receive any special styling with regards to prenominal address i.e. Sir or Dame. They may, however, attach the relevant postnominal initials.


Reform

Reforms of the system occur from time to time. In the last century notable changes to the system have included a Royal Commission in 1925 following the scandal in which Prime Minister David Lloyd George was found to be selling honours, and a review in 1993 when Prime Minister John Major created the public nominations system. 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the Commonwealth of Nations through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Sir John Major KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ...


In July 2004, the Public Administration Select Committee (PASC) of the House of Commons and, concurrently, Sir Hayden Phillips, Permanent Secretary at the Department of Constitutional Affairs, both concluded reviews of the system. The PASC recommended some radical changes; Sir Hayden concentrated on issues of procedure and transparency. In February 2005 the Government responded to both reviews by issuing a Command paper detailing which of the proposed changes it had accepted. These included diversifying and opening up the system of honours selection committees for the Prime Minister's list and also the introduction of a miniature badge. 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: July 2004 in sports Deaths in July • 31 David B. Haight • 29 Francis Crick • 29 Nafisa Joseph • 23 Joe Cahill • 23 Mehmood • 23 Illinois Jacquet • 23 Carlos Paredes... The British Parliament (that is, the Houses of Commons and Lords) has a number of Committees – small numbers of members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues; most are made up of members of the Commons. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-Secretary of State (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis. ... The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) is a United Kingdom government department. ... February 2005 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → Pope John Paul II is taken to a hospital suffering from a serious case of influenza. ... Front cover of the National Plan published by the Department for Economic Affairs in 1965 as Cmnd. ...


Honours for political donations

It has been revealed recently by the Sunday Times newspaper that every donor who has given £1,000,000 or more to the Labour Party since 1997 has been given a Knighthood or a Peerage. On top of this, the government has given honours to 12 of the 14 individuals who have given Labour more than £200,000 and of the 22 who donated more than £100,000, 17 received honours. Eighty percent of the money raised by individuals for the Labour Party is from those who have received honours.


Corruption and honours have always gone hand in hand from the very beginning and there are those who believe that the two are virtually indivisible by the very nature of the patronage process[citation needed]. David Lloyd George actually sold honours for cash and used the money for his personal political fundraising. In 1976, the Harold Wilson era was mired by a similar controversy which became known as The Lavender List. Generally, patronage is the act of a so-called patron who supports or favors some individual, family, group or institution. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... The Lavender List was a docudrama broadcast on BBC Four in March 2006. ...


See also

This article concerns British and Commonwealth of Nations orders and decorations awarded by the British Sovereign. ... State decorations are orders, medals and other decorations granted by a state. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The Queen of Canada, Queen Elizabeth II The Canadian honours system has developed as a unique entity since the centennial of Canadian Confederation in 1967 when the first distinctly Canadian honour, the Order of Canada was created. ... The modern Hong Kong honours system was created by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) Government after the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997. ... The Australian honours system until 1975 was part of the British honours system. ... // History Royal honours were awarded in New Zealand from the very beginning of settlement. ... This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights (or Dames) by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The New Year Honours 2007 for the Commonwealth Realms were announced on 30 December 2006, to celebrate the year passed and mark the beginning of 2007. ... The Birthday Honours 2006 for the Commonwealth Realms were announced on 17 June 2006, to celebrate the Queens Birthday of 2006. ... A list of British awards for gallantry in the Iraq War from 2003 onwards. ... The honor system is a philosophical way of running a variety of endeavors based on trust and honor. ... The Order of precedence in the United Kingdom is different for each region. ... (Arthur) Maundy Gregory (1 July 1877 – 28 September 1941) was a British spy, involved in the Zinoviev Letter and the disappearance of Victor Grayson, and notable for his conviction for selling honours. ...

External links

  • The UK Honours System
  • Cabinet Office Ceremonial Secretariat website
  • London Gazette website

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b The Republic of Ireland government has no right to veto the award of a British honour to an Irish citizen, whether or not that person also holds British nationality. However, in practise, the British government would consult the Irish government before offering honorary aware to a solely Irish citizen, especially one not resident in the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ a b A person born in the Republic of Ireland before 1949 who holds British nationality may be either a British subject or a British citizen. British subject status is not full British citizenship but confers equal entitlement to a substantive honour.
  3. ^ The Guardian - The born-again Canadian - 16th October 2006
British honours system
Current Orders
Garter | Thistle | Bath | St Michael and St George | Distinguished Service | Royal Victorian | Merit | Imperial Service | British Empire | Companions of Honour
Old Orders

St Patrick | Royal Guelphic | Star of India | Indian Empire | British India | Indian Merit | Crown of India | Victoria and Albert | Burma In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire (Military division) The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority... The Order of the Companions of Honour is a British and Commonwealth Order. ... The Most Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick is an order of chivalry associated with Ireland. ... The Royal Guelphic Order was a British order of chivalry instituted on 28 April 1815 by the Prince Regent (later George IV). ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ... Order Of British India First Class Order Of British India Second Class // History The Medal was originally instituted by the East India Company on the 18th of April 1837 for long, faithful and honourable service. ... // History The medal was first introduced by the East India Company in 1837. ... The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. ... The Royal Order of Victoria and Albert was a British Royal Family Order instituted in 1862 by Queen Victoria, and enlarged on 10 October 1864, 15 November 1865 and 15 March 1880. ...

Other Honours and Appointments
Hereditary peer | Life peer | Privy Counsellor | Baronet | Knight | St John | ADC | Other orders and decorations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > British honours system (530 words)
The honours system of the United Kingdom is a means of awarding those, deserving on merit, for achievement or service to the country.
The recipients are chosen by the Sovereign, the 'fountain of honour', on the advice of the Prime Minister.
There is usually an elaborate ceremony for bestowing honours, the most famous of which is the well-known "knighting" ceremony, in which the soverign taps the recipiant on the shoulder with a ceremonial sword.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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