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Encyclopedia > British armed forces
British Armed Forces

The tri-service badge.
Service branches Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom Royal Navy
British Army
Royal Air Force Ensign Royal Air Force
Leadership
Secretary of State for Defence Rt Hon Des Browne MP
Manpower
Available for
military service
14,607,724 males, age 15–49,
14,028,738 females, age 15–49
Fit for
military service
12,046,268 males, age 15–49,
11,555,893 females, age 15–49
Reaching military
age annually
N/A
Active personnel 195,900 (April 2006) (ranked 28th)
Reserve personnel 191,300 regular reserve (April 2005)
42,300 volunteer reserve (April 2005)
Expenditures
Budget FY2007-8 - ranked 2nd
GBP £33.4 billion
USD $66.1 billion
Percent of GDP 2.2% (2007)[1]

The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. With a reported personnel strength of 429,500 in 2006 (195,900 regular force, 191,300 regular reserve, and 42,300 volunteer reserve), the British Armed Forces constitutes one of the largest militaries in Europe, though only the 28th largest in the world.[2] The British Armed Forces however have the second highest expenditure of any military in the world and this high spending on (relatively) small numbers of personnel, research, design and procurement of defence equipment means that they are one of the most powerful and technologically advanced forces in the world. Their Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II and they are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence. Consistent with longstanding constitutional convention, however, the Prime Minister holds de facto authority over the armed forces. Tri service logo This image is Crown copyright protected. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Ensign_of_the_Royal_Air_Force. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Right Honourable Desmond Henry Browne MP (born March 22, 1952) British politician and barrister. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Number of active troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the total number of active troops where the military manpower of a country is measured by the total amount of active troops within the command of that country. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... Military expenditure by country using CIA World Factbook figures Military spending as a percentage of GDP using CIA World Factbook figures This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... US 1979 and 2002 Reissue Cover Also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ...


The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting Britain's wider security interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts.[3] They are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations. Location of the British Overseas Territories A British Overseas Territory is one of fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Recent operations have included wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (2001 and 2003 respectively), intervention in Sierra Leone (2000), and ongoing peacekeeping responsibilities in the Balkans and Cyprus. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya, and the Sovereign Base Areas (Cyprus). [4][5] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... Diego Garcia ( ) is an atoll located in the heart of the Indian Ocean, some 1,000 miles (1,600 km) south of Indias southern coast. ... The UK Sovereign Base Areas are those British military base areas located in countries formerly ruled by the United Kingdom which were retained by it and not handed over when those countries attained independence. ...

Contents

History

Origin

British military history is long, complex and greatly influential in World history, especially since the 17th Century, but it seems to have had rather simple origins. Many today attribute the foundation of the first native armed forces in Britain to Alfred the Great. Important conflicts in which the British took part later on in history include the Seven Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars of the 18th Century/early 19th Century, the Crimean War of the mid 19th Century, and the First and Second World Wars of the 20th Century. The British Empire, which reached its apogee in the 1920s, was the largest empire in history; almost a third of the World's population were subjects of the British Crown and it controlled a quarter of the World's total land area (and arguably its seas). British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d //) (c. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ...


The current structure of defence management in the United Kingdom was set in place in 1964 when the modern day Ministry of Defence (MoD) was created (an earlier form had existed since 1940). The MoD assumed the roles of the Admiralty, the War Office and the Air Ministry. 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Old War Office Building, seen from Whitehall, London - the former location of the War Office The War Office was a former department of the British Government, responsible for the administration of the British Army between the 17th century and 1963, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ...


Cold War

The Avro Vulcan was a strategic bomber used by the Royal Air Force to carry both conventional and nuclear bombs.

Post-World War II economic and political decline, as well as changing attitudes in British society and government, was reflected by the Armed Forces contracting global role. [6][7][8] Britain's protracted decline was dramatically epitomised by its political defeat during the Suez War of 1956.[9] The 1957 Defence White Paper decided to abolish conscription and reduce the size of the Armed Forces from 690,000 to 375,000 by 1962.[10] Seeking an inexpensive alternative to maintaining a large conventional military, the government pursued a doctrine of nuclear deterrence.[11][12] This initially consisted of free-fall bombs operated by the RAF, but these were eventually superseded by the submarine-launched Polaris ballistic missile. While assurances had been made to the United States that Britain would maintain a presence "East of Suez", a process of gradual withdrawal from its eastern commitments was undertaken in the 1960s, primarily for economic reasons. [13][14] By the mid-1970s, Britain had withdrawn permanently deployed forces from Aden, Bahrain, Malaysia, Mauritius, Oman, Sharjah, and Singapore. Agreements with Malta (expired 1979) and South Africa (terminated 1975) also ended. Avro Vulcan XH534. ... Avro Vulcan XH534. ... The Avro Vulcan was a British delta wing subsonic bomber, operated by the Royal Air Force from 1953 until 1984. ... Boeing B-52 strategic bomber taking off A strategic bomber is a large aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance on a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemys capacity to wage war. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ... The 1957 White Paper on Defence was a British white paper setting forth the future as seen of the British military. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... The Polaris Missile was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) carrying a nuclear warhead developed during the Cold War for the United States Navy. ... East of Suez was a term used in British military and political discussions. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Sharjah Central Souq - Shopping Mall The flag of Sharjah The Emirate of Sharjah (Arabic: الشارقة ash-shaariqah) extends along approximately 16 kilometres of the United Arab Emiratess Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 kilometres into the interior. ...


With a permanent presence east of Suez effectively reduced to Hong Kong (up to 1997) and Brunei, the Armed Forces reconfigured to focus on the responsibilities allocated to the services during the Cold War.[15][8] [16]Substantial forces were thus committed to NATO in Europe and elsewhere; by 1985, 72,929 personnel were stationed in Continental Europe.[8][17][18] The British Army of the Rhine and RAF Germany consequently represented the largest and most important overseas commitments that the British Armed Forces had during this period.[19] The Royal Navy's fleet developed an anti-submarine warfare specialisation, with a particular focus on countering Soviet submarines in the Eastern Atlantic and North Sea.[20] In the process of this transition and due to economic constraints, four conventional aircraft carriers and two "commando" carriers decommissioned between 1967 and 1984. [21][22] With the cancellation of the CVA-01 project, three Invincible-class STOVL aircraft carriers, originally designed as "Through-Deck Cruisers", became their ultimate replacements.[22] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... There have been two formations named British Army on the Rhine (BAOR). ... Royal Air Force Germany was a command of the Royal Air Force, consisting of those units based in Germany initially as part of the occupation following World War II and later as part of the RAFs commitment to the defense of Europe during the Cold War. ... Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older forms A/S) is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft or other submarines to find, track and then damage or destroy enemy submarines. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The CVA-01 Queen Elizabeth class supercarrier was designed to replace the five old World War II-built aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy in the 1960s - ships like the Ark Royal. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ...


While this focus on NATO obligations increased in prominence during the 1970s, low-intensity conflicts in Northern Ireland and Oman emerged as the primary operational concerns of the British Armed Forces.[23] These conflicts had followed a spate of insurgencies against British colonial occupation in Aden, Cyprus, Kenya, and Malaysia.[23] An undeclared war with Indonesia had also occurred in Borneo during the 1960s, and recurring civil unrest in the declining number of British colonies often required military assistance. Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ...


Recent history

The CVF project will build 2 new aircraft carriers for the Royal Navy. Both will be supercarrier size and use F-35 fighters.

Three major reviews of the British Armed Forces have been conducted since the end of the Cold War. The Conservative government produced the Options for Change review in the 1990s, seeking to benefit from a perceived post-Cold War "peace dividend".[24] All three services experienced considerable reductions in manpower, equipment, and infrastructure.[25] Though the Soviet Union had disintegrated, a presence in Germany was retained, albeit in the reduced form of British Forces Germany. Experiences during the First Gulf War prompted renewed efforts to enhance joint operational cohesion and efficiency among the services by establishing a Permanent Joint Headquarters in 1996.[26][27] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x609, 95 KB) This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or a promotional photo in a press kit. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x609, 95 KB) This is a copyrighted image that has been released by a company or organization to promote their work or product in the media, such as advertising material or a promotional photo in a press kit. ... This page relates to the future aircraft carrier for the Royal Navy. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle A Supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a fighter plane currently in early development by Lockheed Martin (with partners Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS.) The primary customers are the United States armed forces and the United Kingdom (RN and RAF), but the Netherlands... The Cold War (1985-1991) discusses the period within the Cold War between the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The new logo of the Conservative Party The Conservative Party is the largest centre right political party in the United Kingdom. ... Options for Change was a restructuring of the British military in 1993, aimed at cutting defence spending following the end of the Cold War. ... The peace dividend is a political slogan purporting to describe the economic benefit of a decrease in defense spending. ... The British Forces Germany (BFG) is the successor of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) and Royal Air Force Germany (RAFG), which were disbanded in 1994 after the end of the Cold War. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... The Permanent Joint Headquarters is the British Tri Service Base in Northwood from where all overseas military operations are planned and controlled. ...


An increasingly international role for the British Armed Forces has been pursued since the Cold War's end.[28] This has entailed the Armed Forces often constituting a major component in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations or NATO, and other multinational operations. Consistent undermanning and the reduced size of the Armed Forces has, however, highlighted the problem of "overstretch" in recent years.[29] This has reportedly contributed to personnel retention difficulties and challenged the military's ability to sustain its overseas commitments. [29][30] [31] It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


The Strategic Defence Review - described as "foreign-policy-led" - was published in 1998.[32][33] Expeditionary warfare and tri-service integration were central to the review, which sought to improve efficiency and reduce expenditure by consolidating resources. [34][35] Most of the Armed Forces' helicopters were collected under a single command and a Joint Force Harrier was established in 2000, containing the Navy and RAF's fleet of Harrier Jump Jets. A Joint Rapid Reaction Force was formed in 1999, with significant tri-service resources at its disposal.[36] The Strategic Defence Review (or SDR) was a policy document produced by the Labour Government that came to power in 1997. ... A Royal Air Force Merlin HC3 is an example of a helicopter of Joint Helicopter Command. ... Missing image RAF Harrier GR7 Joint Force Harrier is a defence proposal brought by the British Government as part of Strategic Defence Review. ... Harrier Jump Jet, often referred to as just the Jump Jet, covers a series of a military VSTOL jet aircraft. ...


The first major post-11 September restructuring was announced in the 2004 Delivering Security in a Changing World: Future Capabilities review, continuing a vision of "mobility" and "expeditionary warfare" articulated in the SDR.[37][38] Future equipment projects reflecting this direction featured in the review, including the procurment of two large aircraft carriers and a series of medium-sized vehicles for the Army. Reductions in manpower, equipment, and infrastructure were also announced. The decision to reduce the Army's regular infantry to 36 battalions (from 40) and amalgamate the remaining single-battalion regiments was controversial, especially in Scotland and among former soldiers.[39] Envisaging a rebalanced composition of more rapidly deployable light and medium forces, the review announced that a regiment of Challenger 2 main battle tanks and a regiment of AS-90 self-propelled artillery would be converted to lighter roles.[40][38] September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... The 2003 Defence White Paper, entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World sets out the future of the British military, and builds on the 1998 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) and the 2002 SDR New Chapter which responded to the challenges raised by the War on Terror. ... The Future Rapid Effect System (often abbreviated FRES) is a proposed family of medium weight armoured vehicles for the British Army. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The AS-90 (Artillery System for the 1990s) is a lightly-armoured self-propelled artillery piece used by the British Army it was first delivered in 1993. ...


Current strength

The United Kingdom fields one of the most powerful, technologically advanced, and comprehensive armed forces in the world. The UK has the second highest military expenditure in the world[2] despite only having the 28th highest number of troops. It is also the second largest spender on military science, engineering and technology[3] Despite Britain's wide ranging capabilities, recent defence policy has a stated assumption that any large operation would be undertaken as part of a coalition. Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq (Granby, Desert Fox and Telic) may all be taken as precedent - indeed the last large scale military action in which the British armed forces fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982. C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United... Operation Telic is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...


The Royal Navy is the second largest navy in the world in terms of gross tonnage, with 91 commissioned ships. The Naval Service (which comprises the Royal Navy and Royal Marines) had a strength of 35,470 in July 2006 [4] and is charged with custody of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear deterrent consisting of four Trident missile submarines, while the Royal Marines provide commando units for amphibious assault and for specialist reinforcement forces in and beyond the NATO area. According to the same source, the British Army had a strength of 100,010, while the Royal Air Force had a strength of 45,210. This puts the total number of regular Armed Forces personnel at 180,690 (not including civilians), nine percent of whom were women. This number is supported by reserve forces, including over 35,000 from the Territorial Army. The total number of serving personnel, including reserve forces, is therefore in the region of 225,000 (taking into account Navy, Marines and Air Force reserves). The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... This is a list of the current Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of 2005. ... The Naval Service is the maritime branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in October 1952. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ...


Structure

Command organisation

Then Chief of the Defence Staff Sir Michael Walker (centre) presenting new colours to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, 2005.
Then Chief of the Defence Staff Sir Michael Walker (centre) presenting new colours to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, 2005.

As head of state, the British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.[41] Longstanding constitutional convention, however, has vested de facto executive authority in the office of Prime Minister and the Cabinet.[42] The Ministry of Defence is the Government department and highest level of military headquarters charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the Armed Forces; it employed 103,930 civilians in 2006[43][44] The department is controlled by the Secretary of State for Defence and contains three deputy appointments: Minister of State for the Armed Forces, Minister for Defence Procurement, and Minister for Veterans' Affairs. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2242x1495, 268 KB) [[Category:Military File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prince Harry of Wales Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom) Michael... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2242x1495, 268 KB) [[Category:Military File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prince Harry of Wales Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom) Michael... The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the professional head of the British Armed Forces. ... There are several people with the name Michael Walker: Michael Walker, a councillor in Canada who advocates a Province of Toronto Michael Walker, a Canadian economist who founded the Fraser Institute Michael Walker, a film director who wrote and directed the psychological thriller Chasing Sleep Michael Walker, the British Chief... New College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst New Colours are presented to RMAS, June 2005. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ...


Responsibility for the management of the forces is delegated to a number of committees: the Defence Council, Chiefs of Staff Committee, Defence Management Board, and three single-service boards. The Defence Council, composed of senior representatives of the services and the Ministry of Defence, provides the "formal legal basis for the conduct of defence".[45][44] The three constituent single-service committees (Admiralty Board, Army Board, and Air Force Board) are chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence. ... The Chiefs of Staff Committee is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British forces. ... The Admiralty Board is a committee of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom responsible for the administration of the Royal Navy. ... The Army Board is the senior single-service management committee of the British Army: The Secretary of State for Defence Minister for the Armed Forces Minister for Defence Procurement Minister for Veterans Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Defence Chief of the General Staff Assistant Chief of the General Staff... The Air Force Board of the Defence Council is responsible for the management of the Royal Air Force. ...


The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by an Admiral, Air Chief Marshal, or General. Before the practice was discontinued in the 1990s, those who were appointed to the position of CDS had been elevated to the most senior rank in their respective service (a 5-star rank).[46] The CDS, along with the Permanent Under Secretary, are the principal advisers to the departmental minister. The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the First Sea Lord, the Chief of the General Staff and the Chief of the Air Staff. The Chief of the Defence Staff is a term used for the head of the militaries in a number of nations: Chief of the Defence Staff (Canada) Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... An Air Chief Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Chief Marshal is the most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force (RAF) today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The collar insignia for a US General of the Air Force An officer of 5 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-10. ... The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the British Royal Navy. ... In the military systems of many countries, the Chief of the General Staff is the professional head of that countrys General Staff. ... Chief of the Air Staff can also refer to the head of the Canadian Forces Air Command or the head of the Indian Air Force. ...


Naval Service

HMS Illustrious, one of two Invincible class aircraft carriers currently in service. A third carrier is in reserve.
HMS Illustrious, one of two Invincible class aircraft carriers currently in service. A third carrier is in reserve.

The Naval Service consists of the Royal Navy (including the Fleet Air Arm) and the Royal Marines.[5] (including their respective reserves.) [47] As of 1 February 2007, a fleet of 88 vessels (including an aircraft carrier in reserve) is maintained by the Royal Navy, assisted by 23 vessels of the civilian Royal Fleet Auxiliary. [48] [49][50] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x792, 209 KB) HMS Illustrious http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1146x792, 209 KB) HMS Illustrious http://www. ... The fifth HMS Illustrious (R06) is an Invincible-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, affectionately known as Lusty to her crew. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... The Naval Service is the maritime branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Royal Marines (RM), are the Royal Navys elite fighting forces. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This is a list of the current Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of 2005. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ...


Royal Navy

Referred to as the "Senior Service" by virtue of it being the oldest service within the British Armed Forces, the Royal Navy had a strength of 34,900 in April 2006.[2] The Navy has been structured around a single fleet since the abolition of the Eastern and Western fleets in 1971.[51] Command of deployable assets is exercised by the Commander-in-Chief Fleet, who also has authority over the Royal Marines, and the civilian Royal Fleet Auxiliary.[52] Personnel matters are the responsibility of the Second Sea Lord/Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command, an appointment usually held by a vice-admiral.[53] The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British Eastern Fleet (also known as the East Indies Fleet) was a fleet of the Royal Navy during World War II. It operated in the Indian Ocean and was based in Trincomalee in Ceylon. ... The British Western Fleet was a fleet level command in the Royal Navy. ... The Commander-in-Chief Fleet, or CINCFLEET, is the senior admiral responsible for the preparation and operation of the ships, submarines and aircraft of the Royal Navy. ... The Second Sea Lord is one of the senior admirals of the Royal Navy. ...

A Trident II SLBM being launched from one of the Royal Navy's 4 Vanguard class submarines as a test launch.
A Trident II SLBM being launched from one of the Royal Navy's 4 Vanguard class submarines as a test launch.

The United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent is carried aboard the navy's Vanguard-class of four nuclear ballistic-missile submarines. The surface fleet consists of carriers, destroyers, frigates, amphibious assault ships, patrol ships, mine-countermeasures, and miscellaneous vessels. A submarine service has existed within the Royal Navy for over 100-years. The service possessed a combined fleet of diesel-electric and nuclear-powered submarines in the early 1990s. Following the Options for Change defence review, diesel-electric submarines were withdrawn and the "hunter-killer" fleet is now exclusively nuclear-powered. Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... Image File history File links Trident_II_missile_image. ... The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it an SLBM. There are 14 active US Ohio class submarines and 4 UK Vanguard class submarines equipped with the two variants of Trident: the initial Trident-I... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... The Vanguard class are the Royal Navys current nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), each armed with up to 16 Trident II SLBMs. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... HMCS Algonquin, a Canadian Iroquois-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range but powerful attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Six of the U.S. Navys assault ships in formation; lead ship and first ship to port are Tarawa-class, all others are Wasp-class Amphibious assault ships, usually shortened to amphibs, phibs or popularly known as gator freighters, denotes a range of classes of warship employed to land... Categories: Ship types ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... The Royal Navy Submarine Service - sometimes known as the Silent Service, on account of a submarine being required to operate quietly in order to remain undetected by enemy SONAR (or ASDIC as it was known in the RN pre-1948) - is the collective name given to the submarine element of... A Hunter Killer is a light weight military submarine class used for fighting sea vehicles. ...


Royal Marines

The infantry component of the Naval Service is the Corps of Royal Marines, which had a reported strength of approximately 7,400 in 2006.[2] Consisting of a single manoeuvre brigade (3 Commando) and various independent units, the Royal Marines specialise in amphibious, arctic, and mountain warfare. [54] Contained within 3 Commando Brigade are three attached army units; an infantry battalion (from April 2008), an artillery regiment, and an engineer regiment.[55] The Commando Logistic Regiment consists of personnel from the Army, Royal Marines, and Royal Navy.[56] 3 Commando Brigade is the main manoeuvre force of the British Royal Marines. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... The mission role of the Commando Logistic Regiment, Royal Marines is to provide second line Combat Service Support to Headquarters 3 Commando Brigade and Royal Marines Commandos in peace, in war and on operations other than war. ...


British Army

The Challenger 2 battle tank is the United Kingdom's main battle tank.

The regular British Army had a strength of 107,700 in 2006, while its reserve component, the Territorial Army, numbered 38,500.[2][57] The British Army is undergoing a restructuring programme envisaged in the 2003 defence white paper, Delivering Security in a Changing World, and the subsequent announcement of the Future Army Structure (FAS). [58] The structure of the British Army is broadly similar to that of the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, being divided into two Commands as top-level budget holders; Land Command and the Adjutant-General. ... Challenger 2 tank source: http://www. ... Challenger 2 tank source: http://www. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Territorial Army (TA) is the principal reserve force of the British Army, the land armed forces of the United Kingdom, and composed mostly of part-time soldiers paid at the same rate, while engaged on military activities, as their Regular equivalents. ... The 2003 Defence White Paper, entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World sets out the future of the British military, and builds on the 1998 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) and the 2002 SDR New Chapter which responded to the challenges raised by the War on Terror. ...


The army consists of three TLBs (Top Level Budget): United Kingdom Land Command, HQ Adjutant-General, and HQ Northern Ireland.[59] Deployable combat formations consist of two divisions (1st Armoured and 3rd Mechanised) and eight brigades.[60][61] Within the United Kingdom, operational and non-deployable units are administered by three regionally-defined "regenerative"" divisions (2nd, 4th, and 5th) and London District.[62] Land Command (or HQ Land) is a military command and part of the structure of the modern British Army. ... HQ Northern Ireland is the command formation responsible for the administration of all British Armed Forces stationed in and around Northern Ireland. ... The 1st Armoured Division is the title of an armoured division of the British Army. ... The British 3rd Infantry Division, known as the Iron Division, was originally formed in 1809 by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington for service in the Peninsula War, and was known as the Fighting 3rd under Sir Thomas Picton during the Napoleonic Wars. ... London District is the name given by the British Army to the area of operations encompassing the Greater London area. ...


The core element of the Army is the 50 battalions of regular and territorial infantry, organised into 17 regiments.[63] The majority of infantry regiments contains multiple regular and territorial battalions. Modern infantry have diverse capabilities and this is reflected in the varied roles assigned to them. There are four operational roles that infantry battalions can fulfil: air assault, armoured infantry, mechanised infantry, and light role infantry. The British Armys Infantry is comprised of 55 battalions of Infantry, from 32 Regiments. ... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S.) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry troops provided with trucks, armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat. ... Mechanized infantry are infantry troops that use armoured fighting vehicles for transport and as heavy weapons support in combat. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...


Regiments and battalions exist within every corps of the Army, functioning as administrative or tactical formations. Armoured regiments are equivalent to an infantry battalion. There are 11 armoured regiments within the regular army, of which five are designated as "Armoured" and five as "Formation Reconnaissance". The 1st Royal Tank Regiment uniquely forms a component of the Joint Chemical, Biological, Radiation and Nuclear Regiment. With the exception of the Household Cavalry, armoured regiments and their Territorial counterparts are grouped under the Royal Armoured Corps. Arms and support units are also formed into similar collectives organised around specific purposes, such as the Corps of Royal Engineers, Army Air Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps. [64] Soldiers from U.S. 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment provide overwatch for other troops with their M1 Abrams main battle tank in Biaj, Iraq. ... The Formation Reconnaissance Regiment is one of two organisations currently used by cavalry regiments of the British Army. ... The 1st Royal Tank Regiment (1 RTR) is an armoured regiment of the British Army. ... The Joint CBRN Regiment is a specialist unit of the British armed forces. ... Dismounted Blues and Royals (left) and Life Guards (right) preparing to line the route of the Garter procession at Windsor Castle Household Cavalry is used across the Commonwealth to describe the cavalry of the Household Divisions, a country’s most elite or historically senior military groupings or those military groupings... The Royal Armoured Corps (RAC) is currently a collection of ten regular regiments, mostly converted from old horse cavalry regiments, and four Yeomanry regiments of the Territorial Army. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers (RE), commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army. ... The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in war and in peace. ...


Royal Air Force

The Typhoon is the main fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force.
The Typhoon is the main fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force.

Consisting of both fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, the Royal Air Force has a large operational fleet that fulfills various roles. According to a House of Commons written answer made by Armed Forces Minister Adam Ingram, the RAF had in its inventory an estimated 1,046 aircraft of all types in March 2006.[65] A personnel strength of 48,700 was recorded in April 2006, though the RAF is undergoing a programme of reduction that will give it a projected trained strength of 41,440 by April 2008.[2][66] Frontline aircraft are controlled by Strike Command, which is organised into two groups defined by function: 1 Group (Air Combat) and 2 Group (Air Support).[67] Training aircraft are organised into 22 Group, a component of Personnel and Training Command.[67] Deployable formations consist of Expeditionary Air Wings and squadrons - the basic unit of the Air Force.[68][69] Independent flights are deployed to facilities in Afghanistan, the Falkland Islands, Iraq, and the United States. [70] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x472, 60 KB) Taken and donated by John Mullen I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x472, 60 KB) Taken and donated by John Mullen I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Official Eurofighter logo. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... There are two Scottish politician called Adam Ingram The Rt Hon. ... Strike Command is the successor organisation in the Royal Air Force to RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command and RAF Coastal Command of WWII fame. ... Group is a term used by different air forces for an element of military organization. ... Number 1 Group of the Royal Air Force is one of the two groups in Strike Command. ... Number 2 Group of the Royal Air Force is one of the two groups in RAF Strike Command. ... Number 22 Group is one of only three groups currently active in the Royal Air Force falling under the responsibility of Deputy Commander-in-Chief Personnel in Air Command. ... Personnel and Training Command is one of two operational commands of the Royal Air Force along with Strike Command. ... Wing is a term used by different air forces for a unit of command. ... A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ... A flight is a military unit in an air force, naval air service, or army air corps. ...

The F-35 will soon replace the BAE Harrier II aboard the United Kingdom's aircraft carriers.

The Royal Air Forces operates multi-role and single-role fighters, reconnassaince and patrol aircraft, tankers, transports, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, and various types of training aircraft.[71] Ground units are also maintained by the Royal Air Force, most prominently the RAF Police and RAF Regiment. The Royal Air Force Regiment essentially functions as the "ground fighting force" of the RAF.[72] Roled principally as ground defence for RAF facilities, the regiment contains nine regular squadrons, supported by five squadrons of the Royal Auxiliary Air Force Regiment. By March 2008, the three remaining "Air Defence" squadrons will have disbanded and their responsibilities transferred to the British Army's Royal Artillery. [73] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 917 KB) The F-35A while being towed at the Inauguration Ceremony on July 7th, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 917 KB) The F-35A while being towed at the Inauguration Ceremony on July 7th, 2006. ... The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a fighter plane currently in early development by Lockheed Martin (with partners Northrop Grumman and BAE SYSTEMS.) The primary customers are the United States armed forces and the United Kingdom (RN and RAF), but the Netherlands... The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II (GR5, GR7, and GR9 series) is a second generation vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jet aircraft used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and, since 2006, the Royal Navy. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... UAVs in a hangar An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft with no onboard pilot. ... The Royal Air Force Police (RAFP) is the military police branch of the British Royal Air Force. ... The Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regt) is a specialist corps within the Royal Air Force, responsible for capturing and defending airfields and associated installations. ... The Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF) is the volunteer reserve part of the Royal Air Force. ... Tactical Recognition Flash of the Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, generally known as the Royal Artillery (RA), is, despite its name, a corps of the British Army. ...


Civilian Agencies of the MOD

The British Armed Forces are supported by civilian agencies owned by the MOD. Although they are civilian, they play a vital role in supporting Armed Forces operations, and they are under certain circumstances under military discipline.


Naval Auxiliaries

The MOD owns two civilian naval agencies which are not part of the military Naval Service.[6] The Naval Service is the maritime branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service ensign The Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service is a British Government agency which runs a variety of small support vessels for the Royal Navy. ...

Police

The Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency (MDPGA) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Defence. ...

Personnel

Size

Service 1975[18] 1985[18] 1993[18] 1997[18] 2005/2006[2][57]
Regular
Overall 338,400 326,200 274,800 210,800 195,900
Naval 76,200 70,400 59,400 45,100 39,400
Army 167,100 162,400 134,600 108,800 107,700
Royal Air Force 95,000 93,400 80,900 56,900 48,700
Regular Reserve
Overall N/A 205,700 258,300 259,300 191,300
Naval N/A 25.700 22,000 24,100 22,200
Army N/A 150,200 190,200 190,100 134,200
Royal Air Force N/A 29,800 46,100 45,400 35,000
Volunteer Reserve
Overall N/A 88,600 76,100 62,500 42,300
Naval N/A 6,300 5,600 4,600 3,600
Army N/A 81,00 68,700 57,600 37,300
Royal Air Force N/A 1,200 1,800 1,400 1,400

Recruitment

Soldiers of the Brigade of Gurkhas exercising with the United States Marine Corps, 1996.
Soldiers of the Brigade of Gurkhas exercising with the United States Marine Corps, 1996.

The Armed Forces mainly recruits within the United Kingdom, and normally has an annual recruitment target of around 24,000.[74] The minimum recruitment age is 16½ years (although personnel may not serve on operations below 18 years); the maximum recruitment age is 33-years. The normal term of engagement is 22 years. [75] Low unemployment in Britain has resulted in the Army having difficulty in meeting its target, and in the early years of the 21st century there has been a marked increase in the number of recruits from other (predominantly Commonwealth) countries[76][77] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (1432 × 960 pixel, file size: 435 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Armed Forces... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (1432 × 960 pixel, file size: 435 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Armed Forces... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Citizens of Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland, and dual-nationals are eligible to join the British Armed Forces.[76] In 2005, the proportion of foreign nationals in the Armed Forces rose from a 2004 figure of 7.5 to almost 10 percent. While the Army has been the destination for the majority of recruits, large contingents exist in the Navy and Air Force.[78] Excluding the Brigade of Gurkhas and the Royal Irish Regiment, 7,155 personnel were recorded as being of foreign nationality in 2005.[78] The largest tri-service national groups recorded in 2005 were Fijian (2,040), Jamaican (1,030), South African (710), Zimbabwean (590), Ghanaian (590), and Irish (335).[78] Smaller contingents were drawn from countries such as Australia (110) and Canada (105), and islands nations with relatively small populations.[78] A Grenadian, Lance Corporal Johnson Beharry, was awarded the Victoria Cross in 2005 for actions in Iraq.[76] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ... The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment), commonly just called the Royal Irish Regiment (R IRISH), is an infantry unit of the British Army and is the only remaining Irish regiment of the line. ... Johnson Beharry in front of a mural of the Victoria Cross Private Johnson Gideon Beharry, VC (born 26 July 1979, in Grenada), of the 1st Battalion, Princess of Waless Royal Regiment is a British soldier who, in March 2005, was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military decoration for... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ...

A female Tornado navigator of No. 12 Squadron, 1998.
A female Tornado navigator of No. 12 Squadron, 1998.

Specific initiatives to develop female and ethnic minority representation in the Armed Forces has yielded percentage increases of 3.4 and 4.5 since 1997.[79][80][81][18] In 1997, there were 14,830 (5.7%) women and 2.184 (1.0%) personnel who identified as an ethnic minority.[18] This had increased to 17,870 (9.1%) and 10,180 (5.5%) in 2006. A higher percentage of personnel have attained higher-rank since 2000. Notably included among these officers are Rear-Admiral Amjad Hussain, Air Commodore David Case, Commodore Carolyn Stait, and Squadron Leader Nicky Smith.[82][83] Women have been fully integrated into the British Armed Forces since the early 1990s; however, they remain excluded from primarily combat units in the Army, Royal Marines, Royal Air Force Regiment, and the submarine service.[84] Since 2000, sexual orientation has not been a factor considered in recruitment and the army actively recruits at Gay Pride parades. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1012 × 1524 pixel, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Armed Forces... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1012 × 1524 pixel, file size: 482 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Armed Forces... No. ... Rear Admiral Amjad Hussain is a high-ranking officer in the Royal Navy. ... Air Commodore David Case is the highest ranking black officer in the Royal Air Force and at the age of 47-year-old is the highest ranking black officer ever to serve in Britains armed forces. ... The Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regt) is a specialist corps within the Royal Air Force, responsible for capturing and defending airfields and associated installations. ...


Current operations

Main article: Deployments of the British military

There were over 30,000 members of the British Armed Forces deployed abroad in January 2007, serving in various capacities.[85][86] Peackeeping, humanitarian aid, and disaster relief tasks have increased in recent years, many under the auspices of the United Nations and NATO.[87] The Armed Forces most recently contributed to the international humanitarian and reconstruction efforts that occurred in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami and 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.[88][89] The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... The Kashmir earthquake (also known as the South Asia earthquake or the Great Pakistan earthquake) of 2005, was a major earthquake, of which the epicenter was the Pakistan-administered Kashmir. ...


Within the United Kingdom, there were approximately 140,000 personnel stationed in England, 13,200 in Scotland, 7,000 in Northern Ireland, and 6,200 in Wales.[90] The conflict in Northern Ireland has required the Armed Forces to provide "Military Aid to the Civil Power" since 1969, with a presence that peaked at over 20,000 regular personnel in 1972.[91] Sectarian and paramilitary violence has subsided since the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998.[92] The IRA declared an end to its campaign in 2005. Operational support for the Police Service of Northern Ireland, known as Operation Banner, will officially end on 1 August 2007 and result in the reduction of the miliary presence to the size of a peacetime garrison.[93] For other uses, see The Troubles (disambiguation). ... Military aid to the civil power (MACP) is assistance by the armed forces to the police in maintaining law and order. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... Operation Banner is the operational name for the British Armed Forces support to the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) in counter-terrorism and public order operations to assist the Government in its objective of restoring normality in Northern Ireland [1]. This support has been primarily from the army with... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Personnel are based in a number of overseas territories, though internal security for the majority is provided solely by small police forces. Garrisons and facilities exist in Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, and the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.[5] These deployments accounted for over 5,000 personnel in 2006.[85] Locally-raised units are maintained in Bermuda (The Bermuda Regiment), the Falkland Islands (Falkland Islands Defence Force), and Gibraltar (Royal Gibraltar Regiment). Though their primary mission is "home defence", individuals have volunteered for operational duties. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment has recently mobilised section-sized units for attachment to regiments deployed to Iraq.[94][95] A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper ( Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Bermuda Regiment is the home defence unit of the British colony of Bermuda. ... The Falkland Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and, as such, rely on the UK for guarantee of their security. ... Cap Badge of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British Colony of Gibraltar. ...


Recent Defence Reviews

Options for Change was a restructuring of the British military in 1993, aimed at cutting defence spending following the end of the Cold War. ... The Strategic Defence Review (or SDR) was a policy document produced by the Labour Government that came to power in 1997. ... The 2003 Defence White Paper, entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World sets out the future of the British military, and builds on the 1998 Strategic Defence Review (SDR) and the 2002 SDR New Chapter which responded to the challenges raised by the War on Terror. ...

See also

The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union (EU). ... The Thin Red Line of 1854. ... A British joint-forces flag used in the Falkands [1] The Falkland Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and, as such, rely on the UK for guarantee of their security. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.raf.mod.uk/legalservices/p3chp29.htm]
  2. ^ a b c d e f Strength of UK Regular Forces by Service and whether trained or untrained at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  3. ^ The Mission of the Armed Forces, armedforces.co.uk
  4. ^ Permanent Joint Operating Bases, northwood.mod.uk
  5. ^ a b House of Commons Hansard, publications.parliament.uk
  6. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p343
  7. ^ Colman (2005), A 'Special Relationship'?: Harold Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Anglo-American Relations' at the at the Summit’, 1964-68, p77
  8. ^ a b c Focus on Europe, raf.mod.uk
  9. ^ Johnman & Gorst (1997), The Suez Crisis, p166
  10. ^ Lider (1985), British Military Thought After World War II, p525
  11. ^ Lee (1996), Aspects of British Political History 1914-1995, 273
  12. ^ Pierre (1972), Nuclear Politics: the British experience with an independent strategic force: 1939-1970, p100
  13. ^ Hack (2000), Defence and Decolonisation in South-East Asia: Britain, Malaya, Singapore, 1941-1968, p285
  14. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p345
  15. ^ http://www.royal-navy.mod.uk/server/show/nav.3867
  16. ^ Kennedy (2004), British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p193
  17. ^ Kennedy (2004), British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p193
  18. ^ a b c d e f g 1998 Publication, dasa.mod.uk
  19. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p421
  20. ^ Vanguard to Trident 1945-2000, royal-navy.mod.uk
  21. ^ Kennedy (2004), British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p246
  22. ^ a b Harding (2005), The Royal Navy 1930-2000: innovation and defence, p220
  23. ^ a b Chandler & Beckett (2003), pp350-351
  24. ^ Hollowell (2003), Britain Since 1945, p16
  25. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p358
  26. ^ Strachan (2006), Big Wars And Small Wars: The British Army And the Lessons of War in the Twentieth Centur, p158
  27. ^ Frantzen (2005), Nato And Peace Support Operations, 1991-1999: Policies And Doctrines, p104
  28. ^ Frantzen (2005), NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991-1999: policies and doctrines, p95
  29. ^ a b Dorman (2005), Overstretch: Modern Army's weakness, news.bbc.co.uk
  30. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p434
  31. ^ BBC (2007), Military 'faces retention crisis', news.bbc.co.uk
  32. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), P418
  33. ^ Kennedy, British Naval Strategy East of Suez, 1900-2000: Influence and Actions, p261
  34. ^ Hansard (1998), House of Commons, publications.parliament.uk
  35. ^ Chandler & Beckett (2003), p418
  36. ^ Permanent Joint Headquarters, armedforces.co.u
  37. ^ BBC (2004), The armed forces of the future, news.bbc.co.uk
  38. ^ a b Delivering Security in a Changing World Future Capabilities, mod.uk
  39. ^ BBC News (2004), Hoon confirms super-regiment plan, news.bbc.co.uk
  40. ^ Future Army Structure, armedforces.co.uk
  41. ^ Queen and Armed Forces, royal.gov.uk
  42. ^ United Kingdom (05/06), state.gov
  43. ^ Civilian personnel by budgetary area and grade equivalence, at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  44. ^ a b Defence Organisation, mod.uk
  45. ^ Defence Council and Chief of the Defence Staff, armedforces.co.uk
  46. ^ Hansard (1998), House of Commons Written Answers, publications.parliament.uk
  47. ^ Personnel Support Brief - Summer 2006, rncom.mod.uk
  48. ^ Fleet Today, royal-navy.mod.uk
  49. ^ RFA Fleet Today, royal-navy.mod.uk
  50. ^ Number of vessels in the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, and squadrons in the Fleet Air Arm at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  51. ^ Hampshire (1975), The Royal Navy Since 1945: its transition to the nuclear age, p248
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  56. ^ Commando Logistic Regiment, royalnavy.mod.uk
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  59. ^ Defence Organisation, mod.uk
  60. ^ Divisions and Brigades, army.mod.uk
  61. ^ Number of Regiments, Infantry battalions & Major Headquarters, in the Regular & Territorial Army at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  62. ^ HQ Land Command, armedforces.co.uk/
  63. ^ The Mercian Regiment is to be formed in August 2007, to become the final regiment created a result of the infantry amalgamations under FAS
  64. ^ Arms and Services, army.mod.uk
  65. ^ Hansard House of Commons, publications.parliament.uk
  66. ^ House of Commons Hansard, publications.parliament.uk
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  68. ^ Transforming the Royal Air Force,raf.mod.uk
  69. ^ Royal Air Force Squadrons, raf.mod.uk
  70. ^ Aircraft Order of Battle, scramble.nl
  71. ^ Royal Air Force - Equipment, .raf.mod.uk
  72. ^ The Royal Air Force Regiment, raf.mod.uk
  73. ^ RAF Regiment, armedforces.co.uk
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  77. ^ Wilson (2006), One in 10 soldiers is recruited overseas, telegraph.co.uk
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  79. ^ Hansard House of Commons, publications.parliament.uk
  80. ^ Strength of UK Regular Forces by sex and Service at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  81. ^ Strength of UK Regular Forces by ethnic origin and rank at 1 April each year, dasa.mod.uk
  82. ^ Naval base appoints female chief, news.bbc.co.uk
  83. ^ Honour for high-flying woman, news.bbc.co.uk
  84. ^ Women in the Armed Forces, .mod.uk
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  87. ^ Ministry of Defence Policy Paper Paper No.2 - Multinational Defence Co-operation, mod.uk
  88. ^ Operation Garron, operations.mod.uk
  89. ^ Pakistan Earthquake Relief Operations: Chronology of Events, operations.mod.uk
  90. ^ Numbers of UK armed forces committed to Northern Ireland, dasa.mod.uk
  91. ^ Jackson, Ireland, 1798-1998: Politics and War, p404
  92. ^ BBC News, Good Friday Agreement, news.bbc.co.uk
  93. ^ BBC News (2006), Troop withdrawal plan published, news.bbc.co.uk
  94. ^ The Royal Gibraltar Regiment, 1rg.gi
  95. ^ More soldiers from Royal Gibraltar Regiment in overseas duties in regiment's history, panorama.gi

The Mercian Regiment is one of the new large infantry regiments of the British Army. ...

References

External links

  • British Ministry of Defence
  • Military Knowledge Online - an MoD website
  • Defence expenditure 2005-2007 (PDF)
  • UK Military News & Information Portal
  • kamouflage.net > global search: Europe > United Kingdom > index
  • The Defence Suppliers Directory
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