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Encyclopedia > British Raj
Indian Empire
British colony

1858 – 1947
 

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
God Save The King-Emperor
The British Indian Empire, 1909
Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912)
New Delhi (1912 - 1947)
Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others
Government Monarchy
Emperor of India
 - 1858-1901 Victoria¹
 - 1901-1910 Edward VII
 - 1910-1936 George V
 - 1936 Edward VIII
 - 1936-1947 George VI
Viceroy²
 - 1858-1862 The Viscount Canning
 - 1947 The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
Historical era New Imperialism
 - Established August 2, 1858
 - Disestablished August 15, 1947
Currency British Indian rupee
¹ Reigned as Empress of India from May 1, 1876, before that as Queen of the United Kingdom.
² Governor-General and Viceroy of India
For the British Colonial Empire, see British Empire.
For the Australian Band, see British India (band).

British Raj (rāj, lit. "reign" in Hindi) refers primarily to the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[1] It can also refer to the region of the rule, or the period of dominion.[2] Officially designated the Indian Empire, the region was commonly referred to as India in contemporary usage. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... // The East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_(1801). ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Anthem God Save The King Capital New Delhi Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy King of India George VI Governor-General  - 1947-48 The Earl Mountbatten of Burma  - 1948-50 C. Rajagopalachari Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru Historical era Cold War  - Independence August 15, 1947  - Indo... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ... Image File history File links British_Raj_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... British India (officially known as Indian Empire) had various flags incorporating the Union Jack. ... Insignia of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 734 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1498 × 1223 pixel, file size: 457 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image of map of the British Indian Empire from Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford University Press, 1909. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The Right Honourable Charles John Canning, 1st & Last Earl Canning (14 December 1812 - 17 June 1862), English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, was the youngest child of George Canning, and was born at Brompton, near London. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... The movement of the Indians at this time were extremely regulated before the work of such prominent Muslims such as Sir Shahaab Uddin Hyderabadi and Khizar Ali Punjabi. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... British Indian 1 rupee, 1917 India has been one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world (circa 6th Century BC). ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... British India is an alternative rock band based in Melbourne, Australia. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


The British Raj included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[3] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The princely states, which had all entered into treaty arrangements with the British Crown, were allowed a degree of local autonomy in exchange for accepting protection and complete representation in international affairs by the United Kingdom. The Indian Empire issued its own passports, and as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, and a member nation of the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... The doctrine of paramountcy is the legal principle that reconciles contradicting or conflicting laws in a federalist state. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Twenty-eight countries were members of the League of Nations for its entire existence. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ...


The system of governance lasted from 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (and who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India), until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states, the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh). The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ...

Contents

Geographical extent of the Raj

The British Indian Empire and surrounding countries in 1909.
The British Indian Empire and surrounding countries in 1909.

The British Indian Empire included the regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and, in addition, at various times, Aden (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867). Burma was directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), which was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens, was a British Crown Colony, but not part of British India. The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, both having fought wars with the British, had subsequently signed treaties with them which recognised them as independent states.[4][5] The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined.[6] The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1867 to 1965, but not part of British India. This article is about the former British Colony of Aden, a former territory in what is now Yemen. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... Flag Capital Aden Religion Islam Political structure Protectorate History  - Established 1884  - Independence June 26, 1960  - Somaliland established 18 May, 1991 Currency British pound British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Motto vision 2020 Anthem Gavmii mi ekuverikan matii tibegen kuriime salaam In National Unity Do We Salute Our Nation Capital Malé Largest city Hulhumalé Official languages Dhivehi Government Republic  -  President Maumoon Abdul Gayyoom Independence  -  from the UK 26 July 1965  Area  -  Total 298 km² (204th) 115 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...


Prelude: Company Rule in India

Main article: Company rule in India

Although the British East India Company had earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its rule in India. The victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar (in Bihar), when the defeated Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II, granted control of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa to the British. The Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Bombay and Madras: the Anglo-Mysore Wars (1766–1799) and the Anglo-Maratha Wars (1772–1818) gave it the control of most of India south of the Narbada river. // The East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shah Alam II (1728–1806) was a Mughal emperor of India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... The Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in India between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ...


Earlier, in 1773, the British Parliament granted regulatory control over East India Company to the British government and established the post of Governor-General of India.[7] Warren Hastings was appointed as the first Governor General of India. Later, in 1774, the British Parliament passed the Pitt's India Act which created a Board of Control overseeing the administration of East India Company. Hastings remained in India until 1784 and was succeeded by Cornwallis, who initiated the Permanent Settlement with the zamindars. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... Pitts India Act of 1784 was the enactment of the British Parliament to bring the administration of the British East India Company under the control of the British Government. ... Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738-October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ... The Permanent Settlement - also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Bangla: চিরস্থায়ী বন্দোবস্ত, Chirosthayi Bandobasto) - was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ...

At the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.[8] This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the Princely States (or Native States) of the Hindu Maharajas and the Muslim Nawabs, prominent among which were: Cochin (1791), Jaipur (1794), Travancore (1795), Hyderabad (1798), Mysore (1799), Cis-Sutlej Hill States (1815), Central India Agency (1819), Kutch and Gujarat Gaikwad territories (1819), Rajputana (1818), and Bahawalpur (1833).[8] The annexed regions included the Northwest Provinces (comprising Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur, and the Doab) (1801), Delhi (1803), and Sindh (1843). Punjab, Northwest Frontier Province, and Kashmir, were annexed after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1849; however, Kashmir was immediately sold under the Treaty of Amritsar (1850) to the Dogra Dynasty of Jammu, and thereby became a princely state. In 1854 Berar was annexed, and the state of Oudh two years later.[8] Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... A subsidiary alliance is an alliance between a dominant nation and a nation that it dominates. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... It has been suggested that Gosree be merged into this article or section. ... Old city of Jaipur, India Jaipur (जयपुर) , also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of Sikh states in modern Punjab and Haryana states of northwestern India, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalaya on the west, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. ... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... The State of Bahawalpur was a princely state of the Punjab in what is now Pakistan, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city at Bahawalpur. ... Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Gorakhpur (Hindi: गोरखपुर, Urdu: Ú¯Û‹Ú™Ú©Ú¾ پور) ) is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Treaty of Amritsar of 1846 settled a dispute over territory in Kashmir, with Britain ceding some land to Maharaja Ranbir Singh. ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Berar is a former province of British India, located in central India. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ...


The East India Company also signed treaties with both Afghan rulers and Ranjit Singh of Lahore to counterbalance Russian support of Persian plans in western Afghanistan. In 1839 the Company's effort to more actively support Shah Shuja as Amir in Afghanistan, brought about the First Afghan War (1839-42) and resulted in a military disaster for the East India Company. In addition, as the British expanded their territory in India, so did Russia in Central Asia, with the taking of Bukhara and Samarkand in 1863 and 1868 respectively, thereby setting the stage for the Great Game of Central Asia.[9] Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Shah Shuja (born June 23, 1616—died 1660) was the second son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. ... Combatants Afghanistan British Empire Commanders Dost Mohammed Akbar Khan John Keane William Elphinstone Casualties 7,000+ killed & wounded 5,062 killed Afghan civilians = unknown British civilians = 12,000 killed The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Great Game is a term, usually attributed to Arthur Connolly, used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ...


In the Charter Act of 1813, the British parliament renewed the Company's charter but terminated its monopoly, opening India both to private investment and missionaries.[8] With increased British power in India supervision of Indian affairs by the British Crown and parliament increased as well; by the 1820s British nationals could transact business under the protection of the Crown in the three Company presidencies with capitals at Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.[8] With the Charter Act of 1833, the British parliament revoked the Company's trade license completely, making the Company a part of British governance, although the administration of British India remained the province of Company officers.[10] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


Starting in 1772, the Company began a series of land revenue "settlements," which would create major changes in landed rights and rural economy in India. In 1793, the Governor-General Lord Cornwallis, promulgated the permanent settlement in the Bengal Presidency, the first socio-economic regulation in colonial India.[11] It was named permanent because it fixed the land tax in perpetuity in return for landed property rights for a class of intermediaries called zamindars, who thereafter became owners of the land.[11] It was hoped that knowledge of a fixed government demand would encourage the zamindars to increase both their average outcrop and the land under cultivation, since they would be able to retain the profits from the increased output; in addition, the land itself would become a marketable form of property that could be purchased, sold, or mortgaged.[12] However, the zamindars themselves were often unable to meet the increased demands that the Company had placed on them; consequently, many defaulted, and by one estimate, up to one-third of their lands were auctioned during the first three decades following the permanent settlement.[13] In southern India, Thomas Munro, who would later become Governor of Madras, promoted the ryotwari system, in which the government settled land-revenue directly with the peasant farmers, or ryots.[12] Based on the utilitarian ideas of James Mill, who supervised the Company's land revenue policy during 1819-1830, and David Ricardo's Law of Rent, it was considered by its supporters to be both closer to traditional practice and more progressive, allowing the benefits of Company rule to reach the lowest levels of rural society.[12] However, in spite of the appeal of the ryotwari system's abstract principles, class hierarchies in southern Indian villages had not entirely disappeared—for example village headmen continued to hold sway—and peasant cultivators came to experience revenue demands they could not meet.[14] Cornwallis redirects here. ... The Permanent Settlement - also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (Bangla: চিরস্থায়ী বন্দোবস্ত, Chirosthayi Bandobasto) - was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... For other uses, see Zamindar (disambiguation). ... Sir Thomas Munro (27 May 1761-6 July 1827), Scottish soldier and statesman, was born at Glasgow, the son of a merchant. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The ryotwari system was a method of direct settlement with the farmer associated with the name of Sir Thomas Munro. ... Utilitarianism is a suggested theoretical framework for morality, law and politics, based on quantitative maximisation of some definition of utility for society or humanity. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ... David Ricardo (18 April 1772–11 September 1823), a political economist, is often credited with systematizing economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus and Adam Smith. ... The Law of Rent was formulated by David Ricardo around 1809. ...


Land revenue settlements constituted a major administrative activity of the various governments in India under Company rule.[15] In all areas other than the Bengal Presidency, land settlement work involved a continually repetitive process of surveying and measuring plots, assessing their quality, and recording landed rights, and constituted a large proportion of the work of Indian Civil Service officers working for the government.[15] After the Company lost its trading rights, it became the single most important source of government revenue, roughly half of overall revenue in the middle of the 19th century.[15] Since, in many regions, the land tax assessment could be revised, and since it was generally computed at a high level, it created lasting resentment which would later come to a head in the rebellion which rocked much of North India in 1857.[16] Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ...


Indian Rebellion of 1857

The rebellion began with mutinies by sepoys of the Bengal Presidency army; in 1857 the presidency consisted of present-day Bangladesh, and the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and UP. However, most rebel soldiers were from the UP region, and, in particular, from Northwest Provinces (especially, Ganga-Jumna Doab) and Oudh, and many came from landowning families.[17] Within weeks of the initial mutinies—as the rebel soldiers wrested control of many urban garrisons from the British—the rebellion was joined by various discontented groups in the hinterlands, in both farmed areas and the backwoods. The latter group, forming the civilian rebellion, consisted of feudal nobility, landlords, peasants, rural merchants, and some tribal groups.[18] Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... A Doab, meaning two waters in Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land between two confluent rivers. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ...

After the annexation of Oudh by the East India Company in 1856, many sepoys were disquieted both from losing their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts and from the anticipation of any increased land-revenue payments that the annexation might augur.[19] Some Indian soldiers, misreading the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were persuaded that the East India Company was masterminding mass conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity.[20] Changes in the terms of their professional service may have created resentment. With British victories in wars or with annexation, as the extent of British jurisdiction expanded, the soldiers were now not only expected to serve in less familiar regions (such as in Burma in the Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1856), but also make do without the "foreign service," remuneration that had previously been their due.[21] There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ...


The civilian rebellion was more multifarious in origin. The rebels consisted of three groups: feudal nobility, rural landlords called taluqdars, and the peasants. The nobility, many of whom had lost titles and domains under the Doctrine of Lapse, which derecognized adopted children of princes as legal heirs, felt that the British had interfered with a traditional system of inheritance. Rebel leaders such as Nana Sahib and the Rani of Jhansi belonged to this group; the latter, for example, was prepared to accept British paramountcy if her adopted son was recognized as the heir.[22] The second group, the taluqdars had lost half their landed estates to peasant farmers as a result of the land reforms that came in the wake of annexation of Oudh. As the rebellion gained ground, the taluqdars quickly reoccupied the lands they had lost, and paradoxically, in part due to ties of kinship and feudal loyalty, did not experience significant opposition from the peasant farmers, many of whom too now joined the rebellion to the great dismay of the British.[23] Heavy land-revenue assessment in some areas by the British may have resulted in many landowning families either losing their land or going into great debt with money lenders, and providing ultimately a reason to rebel; money lenders, in addition to the British, were particular objects of the rebels' animosity.[24] The civilian rebellion was also highly uneven in its geographic distribution, even in areas of north-central India that were no longer under British control. For example, the relatively prosperous Muzaffarnagar district, a beneficiary of a British irrigation scheme, and next door to Meerut where the upheaval began, stayed mostly calm throughout.[25] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Taluqdar. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... The doctrine of paramountcy is the legal principle that reconciles contradicting or conflicting laws in a federalist state. ... , Muzaffarnagar   (Hindi: मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर, Urdu: مظفر نگر) is a city and a municipal board in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Aftermath of the rebellion: the new Raj

The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on November 1, 1858. "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects." (p. 2)
The proclamation to the "Princes, Chiefs, and People of India," issued by Queen Victoria on November 1, 1858. "We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian territories by the same obligation of duty which bind us to all our other subjects." (p. 2)
An 1887 souvenir portrait of Queen Victoria as Empress of India, a full 30 years after the Great Uprising.
An 1887 souvenir portrait of Queen Victoria as Empress of India, a full 30 years after the Great Uprising.

Although the Great Uprising of 1857 had shaken the British enterprise in India, it had not derailed it. After the rebellion, the British became more circumspect. Much thought was devoted to the causes of the rebellion, and from it three main lessons were drawn. Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ...

  • At a more practical level, it was felt that there needed to be more communication and camaraderie between the British and Indians; not just between British army officers and their Indian staff, but in civilian life as well. The Indian army was completely reorganised: units composed of the Muslims and Brahmins of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, who had formed the core of the rebellion, were disbanded.[26] New regiments, like the Sikhs and Baluchis, composed of Indians who, in British estimation, had demonstrated steadfastness, were formed. From then on, the Indian army was to remain unchanged in its organization until 1947.[27]
  • It was also felt that both the princes and the large land-holders, by not joining the rebellion, had proved to be, in Lord Canning's words, "breakwaters in a storm."[26] They too were rewarded in the new British Raj, by being officially recognised in the treaties each state now signed with the Crown.[27] At the same time, it was felt that the peasants, for whose benefit the large land-reforms of the United Provinces had been undertaken, had shown disloyalty, by, in many cases, fighting for their former landlords against the British. Consequently, no more land reforms were implemented for the next 90 years: Bengal and Bihar were to remain the realms of large land holdings (unlike the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh).[27]
  • Lastly, the British felt disenchanted with Indian reaction to social change. Until the rebellion, they had enthusiastically pushed through social reform, like the ban on suttee by Lord William Bentinck.[26] It was now felt that traditions and customs in India were too strong and too rigid to be changed easily; consequently, no more British social interventions were made, especially in matters dealing with religion, even when the British felt very strongly about the issue (as in the instance of the remarriage of Hindu child widows).[27]

Many existing economic and revenue policies remained virtually unchanged in the post-1857 period, but several administrative modifications were introduced, beginning with the creation in London of a cabinet post, the Secretary of State for India. The governor-general (called viceroy when acting as representative to the nominally sovereign "princely states" or "native states"), headquartered in Calcutta, ran the administration in India, assisted by executive and legislative councils. Beneath the governor-general were the governors of Provinces of India, who held power over the division and district officials, who formed the lower rungs of the Indian Civil Service. United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning The Right Honourable Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning KG GCB (14 December 1812–17 June 1862), known as Viscount Canning from 1837 to 1859, was an English statesman, Governor-General of India during the Mutiny of 1857, He was the youngest child of... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Suttee is an ancient Indian funeral practice in which the widow was immolated alive on her husband’s funeral pyre. ... The Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, known as Lord William Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839) was a British statesman who served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince, both terms being taken in the broad sense. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Provinces of India or more correctly, the Provinces of British India were formed in 1858 when the British Crown took direct control of India. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...


The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honour former treaties with princely states and renounced the "Doctrine of Lapse", whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs. About 40 percent of Indian territory and 20–25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes notable for their religious (Islamic, Hindu, Sikh and other) and ethnic diversity. The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Effects on economy

In the second half of the 19th century, both the direct administration of India by the British crown and the technological change ushered in by the industrial revolution, had the effect of closely intertwining the economies of India and Great Britain.[28] In fact many of the major changes in transport and communications (that are typically associated with Crown Rule of India) had already begun before the Mutiny. Since Dalhousie had embraced the technological change then rampant in Great Britain, India too saw rapid development of all those technologies. Railways, roads, canals, and bridges were rapidly built in India and telegraph links equally rapidly established in order that raw materials, such as cotton, from India's hinterland could be transported more efficiently to ports, such as Bombay, for subsequent export to England.[29] Likewise, finished goods from England, were transported back, just as efficiently, for sale in the burgeoning Indian markets.[30] However, unlike Britain itself, where the market risks for the infrastructure development were borne by private investors, in India, it was the taxpayers—primarily farmers and farm-labourers—who endured the risks, which, in the end, amounted to £50 million.[31] In spite of these costs, very little skilled employment was created for Indians. By 1920, with the fourth largest railway network in the world and a history of 60 years of its construction, only ten per cent of the "superior posts" in the Indian Railways were held by Indians.[32] Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


The rush of technology was also changing the agricultural economy in India: by the last decade of the 19th century, a large fraction of some raw materials—not only cotton, but also some food-grains—were being exported to faraway markets.[33] Consequently, many small farmers, dependent on the whims of those markets, lost land, animals, and equipment to money-lenders.[33]. More tellingly, the latter half of the 19th century also saw an increase in the number of large-scale famines in India. Although famines were not new to the subcontinent, these were particularly severe, with tens of millions dying,[34] and with many critics, both British and Indian, laying the blame at the doorsteps of the lumbering colonial administrations.[33] In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines [1] . The prospect of a devastating famine every few years was inherent in Indias ecology [2] From the earliest endeavours of the British East India Company on the Subcontinent but especially since 1857—the year of the first...


Beginnings of self-government

The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act of 1892. Municipal Corporations and District Boards were created for local administration; they included elected Indian members. A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...


The Government of India Act of 1909 — also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (John Morley was the secretary of state for India, and Gilbert Elliot, fourth earl of Minto, was viceroy) — gave Indians limited roles in the central and provincial legislatures, known as legislative councils. Indians had previously been appointed to legislative councils, but after the reforms some were elected to them. At the centre, the majority of council members continued to be government-appointed officials, and the viceroy was in no way responsible to the legislature. At the provincial level, the elected members, together with unofficial appointees, outnumbered the appointed officials, but responsibility of the governor to the legislature was not contemplated. Morley made it clear in introducing the legislation to the British Parliament that parliamentary self-government was not the goal of the British government. Measures announced in 1909 to increase the participation of Indians in their country’s government. ... John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1838 - 1923), known for the first part of his life simply as John Morley, was an English statesman and writer. ... Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmond, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 - March 1, 1914) was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


The Morley-Minto Reforms were a milestone. Step by step, the elective principle was introduced for membership in Indian legislative councils. The "electorate" was limited, however, to a small group of upper-class Indians. These elected members increasingly became an "opposition" to the "official government". The Communal electorates were later extended to other communities and made a political factor of the Indian tendency toward group identification through religion.

World War I and its aftermath

World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. 1.4 million Indian and British soldiers of the British Indian Army would take part in the war and their participation would have a wider cultural fallout: news of Indian soldiers fighting and dying with British soldiers, as well as soldiers from dominions like Canada and Australia, would travel to distant corners of the world both in newsprint and by the new medium of the radio.[35] India’s international profile would thereby rise and would continue to rise during the 1920s.[35] It was to lead, among other things, to India, under its own name, becoming a founding member of the League of Nations in 1920 and participating, under the name, "Les Indes Anglaises" (The British Indies), in the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp.[36] Back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, it would lead to calls for greater self-government for Indians.[35] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Twenty-eight countries were members of the League of Nations for its entire existence. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ...


In 1916, in the face of new strength demonstrated by the nationalists with the signing of the Lucknow Pact and the founding of the Home Rule leagues, and the realization, after the disaster in the Mesopotamian campaign, that the war would likely last longer, the new Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, cautioned that the Government of India needed to be more responsive to Indian opinion.[37] Towards the end of the year, after discussions with the government in London, he suggested that the British demonstrate their good faith – in light of the Indian war role – through a number of public actions, including awards of titles and honors to princes, granting of commissions in the army to Indians, and removal of the much-reviled cotton excise duty, but most importantly, an announcement of Britain's future plans for India and an indication of some concrete steps.[37] After more discussion, in August 1917, the new Liberal Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, announced the British aim of “increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration, and the gradual development of self-governing institutions, with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire.”[37] Although the plan envisioned limited self-government at first only in the provinces – with India emphatically within the British Empire – it represented the first British proposal for any form of representative government in a non-white colony.[37] In 1916, Mohammed Ali Jinnah a member of Indian National Congress was owned by saif aljashamy he negotiated with Muslim League to reach an agreement to pressurise British Government to have a more liberal approach to India and give Indians more authority to run their country. ... Home Rule flag The Home Rule Movement was formed by Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak with the aim of seeking a Dominion status within the British Empire to the Indian Empire in 1917. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, GCMG, GCSI, GCIE, GBE (12 August 1868 - 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ...


Earlier, at the onset of World War I, the reassignment of most of the British army in India to Europe and Mesopotamia had led the previous Viceroy, Lord Harding, to worry about the “risks involved in denuding India of troops.”[35] Revolutionary violence had already been a concern in British India; consequently in 1915, to strengthen its powers during what it saw was a time of increased vulnerability, the Government of India passed the Defence of India Act, which allowed it to intern politically dangerous dissidents without due process and added to the power it already had – under the 1910 Press Act – both to imprison journalists without trial and to censor the press.[38] Now, as constitutional reform began to be discussed in earnest, the British began to consider how new moderate Indians could be brought into the fold of constitutional politics and simultaneously, how the hand of established constitutionalists could be strengthened.[38] However, since the Government of India wanted to ensure against any sabotage of the reform process by extremists,[citation needed] and since its reform plan was devised during a time when extremist violence had ebbed as a result of increased governmental control, it also began to consider how some of its war-time powers could be extended into peace time.[38] Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (20 June 1858 - 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1910 to 1916. ... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Edwin Montagu, left, the Secretary of State for India, whose report, led to the Government of India Act of 1919, also known as the Montford Reforms or the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.
Edwin Montagu, left, the Secretary of State for India, whose report, led to the Government of India Act of 1919, also known as the Montford Reforms or the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.

Consequently in 1917, even as Edwin Montagu, announced the new constitutional reforms a sedition committee chaired by a British judge, Mr. S. A. T. Rowlatt, was tasked with investigating revolutionary conspiracies and the German and Bolshevik links to the violence in India,[39][40][41] with the unstated goal of extending the government's war-time powers.[37] The Rowlatt committee presented its report in July 1918 and identified three regions of conspiratorial insurgency: Bengal, the Bombay presidency, and the Punjab.[37] To combat subversive acts in these regions, the committee recommended that the government use emergency powers akin to its war-time authority, which included the ability to try cases of sedition by a panel of three judges and without juries, exaction of securities from suspects, governmental overseeing of residences of suspects,[37] and the power for provincial governments to arrest and detain suspects in short-term detention facilities and without trial.[42] Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... In order to hasten the participation of the natives of India in the government of India, the British passed the Government of India Act of 1919. ... The Hindu-German Conspiracy(i), also known as the Hindu Conspiracy, the Indo-German Conspiracy or the Ghadar conspiracy refers to plans between Indian Nationalists in India, United States and Germany, the Irish Republicans, and the German Foreign office to initiate a Pan-Indian rebellion against The Raj with German... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Look up Punjab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With the end of World War I, there was also a change in the economic climate. By year’s end 1919, 1.5 million Indians had served in the armed services in either combatant or non-combatant roles, and India had provided £146 million in revenue for the war.[43] The increased taxes coupled with disruptions in both domestic and international trade had the effect of approximately doubling the index of overall prices in India between 1914 and 1920.[43] Returning war veterans, especially in the Punjab, created a growing unemployment crisis[44] and post-war inflation led to food riots in Bombay, Madras, and Bengal provinces,[44] a situation that was made only worse by the failure of the 1918-19 monsoon and by profiteering and speculation.[43] The global influenza epidemic and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 added to the general jitters; the former among the population already experiencing economic woes,[44] and the latter among government officials, fearing a similar revolution in India.[45] The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ...


To combat what it saw as a coming crisis, the government now drafted the Rowlatt committee's recommendations into two Rowlatt Bills.[42] Although the bills were authorised for legislative consideration by Edwin Montagu, they were done so unwillingly, with the accompanying declaration, “I loathe the suggestion at first sight of preserving the Defence of India Act in peace time to such an extent as Rowlatt and his friends think necessary.”[37] In the ensuing discussion and vote in the Imperial Legislative Council, all Indian members voiced opposition to the bills. The Government of India was nevertheless able to use of its "official majority" to ensure passage of the bills early in 1919.[37] However, what it passed, in deference to the Indian opposition, was a lesser version of the first bill, which now allowed extra-judicial powers, but for a period of exactly three years and for the prosecution solely of “anarchical and revolutionary movements,” dropping entirely the second bill involving modification of the Indian Penal Code.[37] Even so, when it was passed the new Rowlatt Act aroused widespread indignation throughout India and brought Mohandas Gandhi to the forefront of the nationalist movement.[42] The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ... Indian Penal Code (IPC, Hindi: भारतीय दण्ड संहिता, Urdu-in-devanagari: ताज़ीरात-ए-हिन्द ) provides a penal code for all of India including Jammu and Kashmir, where it was renamed the Ranbir Penal Code (RPC). ... The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


Meanwhile, Montagu and Chelmsford themselves finally presented their report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India the previous winter.[46] After more discussion by the government and parliament in Britain, and another tour by the Franchise and Functions Committee for the purpose of identifying who among the Indian population could vote in future elections, the Government of India Act of 1919 (also known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) was passed in December 1919.[46] The new Act enlarged both the provincial and Imperial legislative councils and repealed the Government of India’s recourse to the “official majority” in unfavorable votes.[46] Although departments like defense, foreign affairs, criminal law, communications and income-tax were retained by the Viceroy and the central government in New Delhi, other departments like public health, education, land-revenue and local self-government were transferred to the provinces.[46] The provinces themselves were now to be administered under a new dyarchical system, whereby some areas like education, agriculture, infrastructure development, and local self-government became the preserve of Indian ministers and legislatures, and ultimately the Indian electorates, while others like irrigation, land-revenue, police, prisons, and control of media remained within the purview of the British governor and his executive council.[46] The new Act also made it easier for Indians to be admitted into the civil service and the army officer corps. In order to hasten the participation of the natives of India in the government of India, the British passed the Government of India Act of 1919. ... The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. ... The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for India during the British Raj. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... Diarchy (or dyarchy) is a society or an organization with two rulers on an equal standing. ...


A greater number of Indians were now enfranchised, although, for voting at the national level, they constituted only 10% of the total adult male population, many of whom were still illiterate.[46] In the provincial legislatures, the British continued to exercise some control by setting aside seats for special interests they considered cooperative or useful. In particular, rural candidates, generally sympathetic to British rule and less confrontational, were assigned more seats than their urban counterparts.[46] Seats were also reserved for non-Brahmins, landowners, businessmen, and college graduates. The principal of “communal representation,” an integral part of the Minto-Morley reforms, and more recently of the Congress-Muslim League Lucknow Pact, was reaffirmed, with seats being reserved for Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, and domiciled Europeans, in both provincial and Imperial legislative councils.[46] The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms offered Indians the most significant opportunity yet for exercising legislative power, especially at the provincial level; however, that opportunity was also restricted by the still limited number of eligible voters, by the small budgets available to provincial legislatures, and by the presence of rural and special interest seats that were seen as instruments of British control.[46] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Distribution of Christian population in different Indian states [1] Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ...


1930s: Government of India Act (1935), Elections of 1937

British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald to the right of Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference in London, October 1931.

In 1935, after the Round Table Conferences, the British Parliament approved the Government of India Act of 1935, which authorised the establishment of independent legislative assemblies in all provinces of British India, the creation of a central government incorporating both the British provinces and the princely states, and the protection of Muslim minorities.[30] The future Constitution of independent India would owe a great deal to the text of this act.[47] The act also provided for a bicameral national parliament and an executive branch under the purview of the British government. Although the national federation was never realised, nationwide elections for provincial assemblies were held in 1937. Despite initial hesitation, the Congress took part in the elections and won victories in seven of the eleven provinces of British India,[48] and Congress governments, with wide powers, were formed in these provinces. In Great Britain, these victories were to later turn the tide for the idea of Indian independence.[48] James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... The Government of India Act 1935 was the last pre-independence constitution of the British Raj. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


World War II

With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the viceroy, Lord Linlithgow, declared war on India’s behalf without consulting Indian leaders, leading the Congress provincial ministries to resign in protest. The Muslim League, in contrast, supported Britain in the war effort; however, it now took the view that Muslims would be unfairly treated in an independent India dominated by the Congress. The British government—through its Cripps' mission—attempted to secure Indian nationalists' cooperation in the war effort in exchange for independence afterwards; however, the negotiations between them and the Congress broke down. Gandhi, subsequently, launched the “Quit India” movement in August 1942, demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British from India or face nationwide civil disobedience. Along with all other Congress leaders, Gandhi was immediately imprisoned, and the country erupted in violent demonstrations led by students and later by peasant political groups, especially in Eastern United Provinces, Bihar, and western Bengal. The large war-time British Army presence in India led to most of the movement being crushed in a little more than six weeks;[49] nonetheless, a portion of the movement formed for a time an underground provisional government on the border with Nepal.[49] In other parts of India, the movement was less spontaneous and the protest less intensive, however it lasted sporadically into the summer of 1943.[50] Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... Sir Stafford Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British War Cabinet to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. Led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the majority Indian National Congress and its supporters were engaged in a program of... Sir Stafford Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British War Cabinet to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. Led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the majority Indian National Congress and its supporters were engaged in a program of... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


With Congress leaders in jail, attention also turned to Subhas Bose, who had been ousted from the Congress in 1939 following differences with the more conservative high command;[51] Bose now turned to the Axis powers for help with liberating India by force.[52] With Japanese support, he organised the Indian National Army, composed largely of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured at Singapore by the Japanese. From the onset of the war, the Japanese secret service had promoted unrest in South east Asia to destabilise the British War effort,[53] and came to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, including those in Burma, the Philippines and Vietnam, the Provisional Government of Azad Hind (Free India), presided by Bose.[54] Bose's effort, however, was short lived; after the reverses of 1944, the reinforced British Indian Army in 1945 first halted and then reversed the Japanese U Go offensive, beginning the successful part of the Burma Campaign. Bose's Indian National Army surrendered with the recapture of Singapore, and Bose died in a plane crash soon thereafter. The trials of the INA soldiers at Red Fort in late 1945 however caused widespread public unrest and nationalist violence in India.[55] ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The Fujiwara kikan, or the F-Kikan, was an Japanese Army intelligence unit set up in Bangkok in late 1941. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... Combatants United Kingdom Indian Empire Republic of China  United States Burmese resistance  Empire of Japan Azad Hind Thailand Commanders William Slim Geoffrey Scoones Jack Baldwin (air) Montagu Stopford Philip Christison Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San Renya Mutaguchi Masakazu Kawabe Kotoku Sato Tohutaro Sakurai Subhas C. Bose Strength 7... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... The INA trials or the Red Fort Trials refer to the courts martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army between November 1945 and May 1946 variously for treason, torture, murder and abettment to murder. ... The Delhi Fort also known as Lal Qilah, or Lal Qila, meaning the Red Fort, located in Delhi, India is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ...


Post-war developments: Transfer of Power

1909 Prevailing Religions, Map of British Indian Empire, 1909, showing the prevailing majority religions of the population for different districts.
1909 Prevailing Religions, Map of British Indian Empire, 1909, showing the prevailing majority religions of the population for different districts.
Map of India and Pakistan as envisaged in the Partition Plan
Map of India and Pakistan as envisaged in the Partition Plan
Viceroy Louis Mountbatten eleven days before the Transfer of Power.
Viceroy Louis Mountbatten eleven days before the Transfer of Power.

In January 1946, a number of mutinies broke out in the armed services, starting with that of RAF servicemen frustrated with their slow repatriation to Britain.[56] The mutinies came to a head with mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay in February 1946, followed by others in Calcutta, Madras, and Karachi. Although the mutinies were rapidly suppressed, they found much public support in India and had the effect of spurring the new Labour government in Britain to action, and leading to the Cabinet Mission to India led by the Secretary of State for India, Lord Pethick Lawrence, and including Sir Stafford Cripps, who had visited four years before.[56] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1650 × 1275 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map Prevailing Religions of the British Indian Empire, 1909 from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford University Press, 1909. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1650 × 1275 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map Prevailing Religions of the British Indian Empire, 1909 from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Oxford University Press, 1909. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... RIN Mutineer’s Memorial in Mumbai. ... Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence (December 28, 1871 - September 10, 1961) was a British Labour politician. ... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years after the Second World War. ...


Also in early 1946, new elections were called in India in which the Congress won electoral victories in eight of the eleven provinces.[57] The negotiations between the Congress and the Muslim League, however, stumbled over the issue of the partition. Jinnah proclaimed August 16, 1946, Direct Action Day, with the stated goal of highlighting, peacefully, the demand for a Muslim homeland in British India. The following day Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Calcutta and quickly spread throughout India. Although the Government of India and the Congress were both shaken by the course of events, in September, a Congress-led interim government was installed, with Jawaharlal Nehru as united India’s prime minister. Direct Action Day, also known as the Affirmative Action Plan, the Calcutta Riots, the Great Calcutta killings, and The Week of the Long Knives [1][2], started on August 16, 1946. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Later that year, the Labor government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, decided to end British rule of India, and in early 1947 Britain announced its intention of transferring power no later than June 1948.


As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal continued unabated. With the British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, the new viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, allowing less than six months for a mutually agreed plan for independence. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders, including Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad on behalf of the Congress, Jinnah representing the Muslim League, B. R. Ambedkar representing the Untouchable community, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs, agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines. The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal. Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement. ... Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Marathi: डा. भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर) (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was an Indian jurist, scholar, Bahujan political leader and a Buddhist revivalist, who is the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. ... Dalit is a demeaning term referred to the so-called outcast people of India in a hindu religion. ... Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, Rawalpindi, Punjab - 22 November 1967, Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is under construction. ...


Many millions of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees trekked across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Gandhi's presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, anywhere between 250,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence.[58] On August 14, 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being, with Muhammad Ali Jinnah sworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi. The following day, August 15, 1947, India, now a smaller Union of India, became an independent country with official ceremonies taking place in New Delhi, and with Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of the prime minister, and the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its first Governor General. The Radcliffe Line became the border between India and Pakistan in 1947. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ...


Provinces of British India

At the time of independence, British India consisted of the following provinces: The Provinces of India were those portions of India ruled directly by officials of the British East India Company and, from 1858 to Indian Independence in 1947, by the British Crown. ...

Eleven provinces (Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Bombay, Central Provinces, Madras, North-West Frontier, Orissa, Punjab, and Sindh) were headed by a governor. The remaining six (Ajmer Merwara, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Baluchistan, Coorg, Delhi, and Panth-Piploda) were governed by a chief commissioner. Ajmer-Merwara (also Ajmere-Merwara) is a former province of British India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: Å›imāl maÄ¡ribÄ« sarhadÄ« sÅ«ba شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ... Panth-Piploda was a province of British India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... United Provinces, 1903 A province of the British Raj, which corresponds to modern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


There were also several hundred Princely States, under British protection but ruled by native rulers. Among the most notable of these were Jaipur, Gwalior, Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore and Jammu and Kashmir. Hundreds of Princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Rajasthan Capital), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ...

See also

British Empire Portal

Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... The Anglo-Burmese, also known as the Anglo-Burmans, are a community of Eurasians of Burmese and European descent, and emerged as a distinct community through mixed relations (sometimes permanent, sometimes temporary) between the British and other European settlers and the local Burmese ethnic groups from 1826 until 1948 when... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... Hundreds of princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan (including the present Bangladesh) in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989. "b. spec. the British dominion or rule in the Indian sub-continent (before 1947). In full, British raj.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989. Examples: 1955 Times 25 Aug. 9/7 It was effective against the British raj in India, and the conclusion drawn here is that the British knew that they were wrong. 1969 R. MILLAR Kut xv. 288 Sir Stanley Maude had taken command in Mesopotamia, displacing the raj of antique Indian Army commanders. 1975 H. R. ISAACS in H. M. Patel et al. Say not the Struggle Nought Availeth 251 The post-independence régime in all its incarnations since the passing of the British Raj.
  3. ^ First the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland then, after 1927, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  4. ^ "Nepal." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
  5. ^ "Bhutan." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
  6. ^ "Sikkim." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 Aug. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46212>.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ a b c d e Ludden 2002, p. 133
  9. ^ Ludden 2002, p. 135
  10. ^ Ludden 2002, p. 134
  11. ^ a b Robb 2004, pp. 126-129
  12. ^ a b c Peers 2006, pp. 45-47
  13. ^ Tomlinson 1993, p. 43
  14. ^ Peers 2006, p. 47, Brown 1994, p. 65
  15. ^ a b c Brown 1994, p. 67
  16. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 79
  17. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 169-172 Bose & Jalal 2003, pp. 88-103 Quote: "The 1857 rebellion was by and large confined to northern Indian Gangetic Plain and central India.", Brown 1994, pp. 85-87, and Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 100-106
  18. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 101
  19. ^ Brown 1994, p. 88
  20. ^ Metcalf 1991, p. 48
  21. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 171, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 90
  22. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 172, Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Brown 1994, p. 92
  23. ^ Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, p. 102
  24. ^ Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 91, Metcalf 1991, Bandyopadhyay 2004, p. 173
  25. ^ Brown 1994, p. 92
  26. ^ a b c Spear 1990, p. 147
  27. ^ a b c d Spear 1990, pp. 147-148
  28. ^ (Stein 2001, p. 259), (Oldenburg 2007)
  29. ^ (Oldenburg 2007), (Stein 2001, p. 258)
  30. ^ a b (Oldenburg 2007)
  31. ^ (Stein 2001, p. 258)
  32. ^ (Stein 2001, p. 159)
  33. ^ a b c (Stein 2001, p. 260)
  34. ^ (Bose & Jalal 2003, p. 117)
  35. ^ a b c d Brown 1994, pp. 197-198
  36. ^ Olympic Games Antwerp 1920: Official Report, Nombre de bations representees, p. 168. Quote: "31 Nations avaient accepté l'invitation du Comité Olympique Belge: ... la Grèce - la Hollande Les Indes Anglaises - l'Italie - le Japon ..."
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brown 1994, pp. 203-204
  38. ^ a b c Brown 1994, pp. 201-203
  39. ^ Lovett 1920, p. 94, 187-191
  40. ^ Sarkar 1921, p. 137
  41. ^ Tinker 1968, p. 92
  42. ^ a b c Spear 1990, p. 190
  43. ^ a b c Brown 1994, pp. 195-196
  44. ^ a b c Stein 2001, p. 304
  45. ^ Ludden 2002, p. 208
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brown 1994, pp. 205-207
  47. ^ (Low 1993, pp. 40, 156)
  48. ^ a b (Low 1993, p. 154)
  49. ^ a b (Metcalf & Metcalf 2006, pp. 206-207)
  50. ^ Bandyopadhyay 2004, pp. 418-420
  51. ^ Nehru 1942, p. 424
  52. ^ (Low 1993, pp. 31-31)
  53. ^ Lebra 1977, p. 23
  54. ^ Lebra 1977, p. 31, (Low 1993, pp. 31-31)
  55. ^ Chaudhuri 1953, p. 349, Sarkar 1983, p. 411,Hyam 2007, p. 115
  56. ^ a b (Judd 2004, pp. 172-173)
  57. ^ (Judd 2004, p. 172)
  58. ^ (Khosla 2001, p. 299)

This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of northern India. ...

References

Contemporary General Histories

  • Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004), From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, New Delhi and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548., ISBN 8125025960, <https://www.orientlongman.com/display.asp?isbn=978-81-250-2596-2>.
  • Bose, Sugata & Ayesha Jalal (2003), Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy, London and New York: Routledge, 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 304, ISBN 0-415-30787-2, <http://www.amazon.com/Modern-South-Asia-Sugata-Bose/dp/0415307872/>.
  • Brown, Judith M. (1994), Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474, ISBN 0198731132, <http://www.oup.com/uk/catalogue/?ci=9780198731139>.
  • Copland, Ian (2001), India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire (Seminar Studies in History Series), Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. 160, ISBN 0582381738.
  • Judd, Dennis (2004), The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280, ISBN 0192803581, <http://www.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryWorld/India/?view=usa&ci=9780192803580>.
  • Kulke, Hermann & Dietmar Rothermund (2004), A History of India, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0415329205, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Hermann-Kulke/dp/0415329205/>.
  • Ludden, David (2002), India And South Asia: A Short History, Oxford: Oneworld Publications. Pp. xii, 306, ISBN 1851682376, <http://www.oneworld-publications.com/cgi-bin/cart/commerce.cgi?pid=145&log_pid=yes>
  • Markovits, Claude (ed) (2005), A History of Modern India 1480-1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies), Anthem Press. Pp. 607, ISBN 1843311526, <http://www.amazon.com/History-Modern-1480-1950-Anthem-Studies/dp/1843311526/>.
  • Metcalf, Barbara & Thomas R. Metcalf (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372, ISBN 0521682258, <http://www.amazon.com/Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-Histories/dp/0521682258/>.
  • Peers, Douglas M. (2006), India under Colonial Rule 1700-1885, Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. xvi, 163, ISBN 058231738.
  • Robb, Peter (2004), A History of India (Palgrave Essential Histories), Houndmills, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Pp. xiv, 344, ISBN 0333691296, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Palgrave-Essential-Histories/dp/0333691296/>.
  • Sarkar, Sumit (1983), Modern India: 1885-1947, Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd. Pp. xiv, 486, ISBN 0333904257.
  • Spear, Percival (1990), A History of India, Volume 2, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298, ISBN 0140138366, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-Vol-2/dp/0140138366/ref=pd_ybh_a_6/104-7029728-9591925>.
  • Stein, Burton (2001), A History of India, New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiv, 432, ISBN 0195654463, <http://www.amazon.com/History-India-World/dp/0631205462/ref=pd_ybh_a_7/104-7029728-9591925>.
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2003), A New History of India, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 544, ISBN 0195166787, <http://www.amazon.com/New-History-India-Stanley-Wolpert/dp/0195166787/>.

Sugata Bose is the Gardiner Professor of History at Harvard University. ... Dr. Ayesha Jalal (Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani historian. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Prof. ...

Monographs and Collections

  • Anderson, Clare (2007), Indian Uprising of 1857–8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, New York: Anthem Press, Pp. 217, ISBN 9781843312499, <http://atlantis.terrassl.net/anthempress.com/product_info.php?cPath=52&products_id=293&osCsid=9a2s9o8mdu8066m551rr407123>
  • Ansari, Sarah (2005), Life after Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh: 1947–1962, Oxford and London: Oxford University Press, Pp. 256, ISBN ISBN 019597834X
  • Bayly, C. A. (1990), Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (The New Cambridge History of India), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 248, ISBN 0521386500.
  • Bayly, C. A. (2000), Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870 (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society), Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 426, ISBN 0521663601
  • Brown, Judith M. (ed.) & Wm. Roger Louis (ed.) (2001), Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 800, ISBN 0199246793, <http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-History-British-Empire-Twentieth/dp/0199246793>
  • Butalia, Urvashi (1998), The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, Pp. 308, ISBN 0822324946
  • Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan (1998), Imperial Power and Popular Politics: Class, Resistance and the State in India, 1850-1950, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 400, ISBN 0521596920, <http://www.amazon.com/Imperial-Power-Popular-Politics-Resistance/dp/0521596920/>.
  • Chatterji, Joya (1993), Bengal Divided: Hindu Communalism and Partition, 1932–1947, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 323, ISBN 0521523281.
  • Copland, Ian (2002), Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire, 1917-1947, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 316, ISBN 0521894360, <http://www.amazon.com/Princes-Endgame-19171947-Cambridge-Studies/dp/0521894360/>.
  • Fay, Peter W. (1993), The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence, 1942-1945., Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press., ISBN 0472083422.
  • Gilmartin, David. 1988. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press. 258 pages. ISBN 0520062493.
  • Gould, William (2004), Hindu Nationalism and the Language of Politics in Late Colonial India, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society). Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 320, ISBN 0521830613, <http://www.amazon.com/Nationalism-Language-Politics-Colonial-Cambridge/dp/0521830613/>.
  • Hyam, Ronald (2007), Britain's Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonisation 1918-1968., Cambridge University Press., ISBN 0521866499..
  • Jalal, Ayesha (1993), The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 334 pages, ISBN 0521458501.
  • Khan, Yasmin (September 18, 2007), The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 250 pages (published 2007), ISBN 0300120788
  • Khosla, G. D. (2001), "Stern Reckoning", in Page, David; Anita Inder Singh & Penderal Moon et al., The Partition Omnibus: Prelude to Partition/the Origins of the Partition of India 1936-1947/Divide and Quit/Stern Reckoning, Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195658507, <http://www.amazon.com/Partition-Omnibus-comprising-Imperial-Contribution/dp/0195671767/>
  • Low, D. A. (1993), Eclipse of Empire, Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xvi, 366, ISBN 0521457548, <http://www.amazon.com/Eclipse-Empire-D-Low/dp/0521457548/>.
  • Low, D. A. (2002), Britain and Indian Nationalism: The Imprint of Amibiguity 1929-1942, Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 374, ISBN 0521892619, <http://www.amazon.com/Britain-Indian-Nationalism-Amibiguity-19291942/dp/0521892619/>.
  • Low, D. A. (ed.) (1977, 2004), Congress & the Raj: Facets of the Indian Struggle 1917-47, New Delhi and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xviii, 513, ISBN 0195683676.
  • Metcalf, Thomas R. (1991), The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857-1870, Riverdale Co. Pub. Pp. 352, ISBN 8185054991
  • Metcalf, Thomas R. (1997), Ideologies of the Raj, Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press, Pp. 256, ISBN 0521589371
  • Pandey, Gyanendra (2002), Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India, ISBN 0521002508
  • Porter, Andrew (ed.) (2001), Oxford History of the British Empire: Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 800, ISBN 0199246785, <http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-History-British-Empire-Nineteenth/dp/0199246785>
  • Shaikh, Farzana. 1989. Community and Consensus in Islam: Muslim Representation in Colonial India, 1860—1947. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 272 pages. ISBN 0521363284.
  • Talbot, Ian and Gurharpal Singh (eds). 1999. Region and Partition: Bengal, Punjab and the Partition of the Subcontinent. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 420 pages. ISBN 0195790510.
  • Talbot, Ian. 2002. Khizr Tiwana: The Punjab Unionist Party and the Partition of India. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 216 pages. ISBN 0195795512.
  • Wainwright, A. Martin (1993), Inheritance of Empire: Britain, India, and the Balance of Power in Asia, 1938-55, Praeger Publishers. Pp. xvi, 256, ISBN 0275947335, <http://www.amazon.com/Inheritance-Empire-Britain-Balance-1938-55/dp/0275947335/>.
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2006), Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 272, ISBN 0195151984.

Professor Sir Christopher Alan Bayly is a British historian specializing in Indian, British Imperial, and Global History. ... Professor Sir Christopher Alan Bayly is a British historian specializing in Indian, British Imperial, and Global History. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

Articles in Journals or Collections

  • Banthia, Jayant & Tim Dyson (1999), "Smallpox in Nineteenth-Century India", Population and Development Review 25 (4): 649-689, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0098-7921%28199912%2925%3A4%3C649%3ASINI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K>
  • Brown, Judith M., "India", in Brown, Judith M. & Wm. Roger Louis, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Twentieth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 421-446, ISBN 0199246793
  • Caldwell, John C. (1998), "Malthus and the Less Developed World: The Pivotal Role of India", Population and Development Review 24 (4): 675-696, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0098-7921%28199812%2924%3A4%3C675%3AMATLDW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23>
  • Derbyshire, I. D. (1987), "Economic Change and the Railways in North India, 1860-1914", Population Studies 21 (3): 521-545, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%281987%2921%3A3%3C521%3AECATRI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O>
  • Drayton, Richard, "Science, Medicine, and the British Empire", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 264-276, ISBN 0199246807
  • Dyson, Tim (1991), "On the Demography of South Asian Famines: Part I", Population Studies 45 (1): 5-25, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-4728%28199103%2945%3A1%3C5%3AOTDOSA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V>
  • Dyson, Tim (1991), "On the Demography of South Asian Famines: Part II", Population Studies 45 (2): 279-297, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-4728%28199107%2945%3A2%3C279%3AOTDOSA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S>
  • Frykenberg, Robert E., "India to 1858", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 194-213, ISBN 0199246807
  • Gilmartin, David (1994), "Scientific Empire and Imperial Science: Colonialism and Irrigation Technology in the Indus Basin", The Journal of Asian Studies 53 (4): 1127-1149, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9118%28199411%2953%3A4%3C1127%3ASEAISC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S>
  • Goswami, Manu (1998), "From Swadeshi to Swaraj: Nation, Economy, Territory in Colonial South Asia, 1870 to 1907", Comparative Studies in Society and History 40 (4): 609-636, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4175%28199810%2940%3A4%3C609%3AFSTSNE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q>
  • Harnetty, Peter (1991), "'Deindustrialization' Revisited: The Handloom Weavers of the Central Provinces of India, c. 1800-1947", Modern Asian Studies 25 (3): 455-510, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199107%2925%3A3%3C455%3A%27RTHWO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5>
  • Heuman, Gad, "Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Abolition", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 315-326, ISBN 0199246807
  • Klein, Ira (1988), "Plague, Policy and Popular Unrest in British India", Modern Asian Studies 22 (4): 723-755, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%281988%2922%3A4%3C723%3APPAPUI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B>
  • Klein, Ira (2000), "Materialism, Mutiny and Modernization in British India", Modern Asian Studies 34 (3): 545-580, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28200007%2934%3A3%3C545%3AMMAMIB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I>
  • Kubicek, Robert, "British Expansion, Empire, and Technological Change", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 247-269, ISBN 0199246785
  • Moore, Robin J., "Imperial India, 1858-1914", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 422-446, ISBN 0199246785
  • Moore, Robin J., "India in the 1940s", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 231-242, ISBN 0199246807
  • Raj, Kapil (2000), "Colonial Encounters and the Forging of New Knowledge and National Identities: Great Britain and India, 1760-1850", Osiris, 2nd Series 15 (Nature and Empire: Science and the Colonial Enterprise): 119-134, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0369-7827%282000%292%3A15%3C119%3ACEATFO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9>
  • Ray, Rajat Kanta (1995), "Asian Capital in the Age of European Domination: The Rise of the Bazaar, 1800-1914", Modern Asian Studies 29 (3): 449-554, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199507%2929%3A3%3C449%3AACITAO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J>
  • Raychaudhuri, Tapan, "India, 1858 to the 1930s", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 214-230, ISBN 0199246807
  • Robb, Peter (1997), "The Colonial State and Constructions of Indian Identity: An Example on the Northeast Frontier in the 1880s", Modern Asian Studies 31 (2): 245-283, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%28199705%2931%3A2%3C245%3ATCSACO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K>
  • Roy, Tirthankar (2002), "Economic History and Modern India: Redefining the Link", The Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 (3): 109-130, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0895-3309%28200222%2916%3A3%3C109%3AEHAMIR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-F>
  • Simmons, Colin (1985), "'De-Industrialization', Industrialization and the Indian Economy, c. 1850-1947", Modern Asian Studies 19 (3): 593-622, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-749X%281985%2919%3A3%3C593%3A%27IATIE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K>
  • Talbot, Ian, "Pakistan's Emergence", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 253-263, ISBN 0199246807
  • Tinker, Hugh (1968), India in the First World War and after. Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1918-19: From War to Peace. (Oct., 1968), pp. 89-107, Sage Publications, ISSN: 00220094.
  • Tomlinson, B. R., "Economics and Empire: The Periphery and the Imperial Economy", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 53-74, ISBN 0199246785
  • Washbrook, D. A., "India, 1818-1860: The Two Faces of Colonialism", in Porter, Andrew, Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 395-421, ISBN 0199246785
  • Watts, Sheldon (1999), "British Development Policies and Malaria in India 1897-c. 1929", Past and Present (no. 165): 141-181, <http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0031-2746%28199911%290%3A165%3C141%3ABDPAMI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1>
  • Wylie, Diana, "Disease, Diet, and Gender: Late Twentieth Century Perspectives on Empire", in Winks, Robin, Oxford History of the British Empire: Historiography, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 277-289, ISBN 0199246807

Classic Histories

  • Lovett, Sir Verney (1920), A History of the Indian Nationalist Movement, New York, Frederick A. Stokes Company, ISBN 81-7536-249-9
  • Majumdar, R. C.; H. C. Raychaudhuri & Kalikinkar Datta (1950), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan and Company Limited. 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 1122, 7 maps, 5 coloured maps..
  • Smith, Vincent A. (1921), India in the British Period: Being Part III of the Oxford History of India, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. 2nd edition. Pp. xxiv, 316 (469-784).

Tertiary Sources

  • Oldenburg, Philip (2007), ""India: Movement for Freedom"", Encarta Encyclopedia.
  • Wolpert, Stanley (2007), "India: British Imperial Power 1858-1947 (Indian nationalism and the British response, 1885-1920; Prelude to Independence, 1920-1947)", Encyclopædia Britannica.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Related Reading

  • Bairoch, Paul, Economics and World History, University of Chicago Press, 1995
  • Bhatia, B. M., Famines in India: A study in Some Aspects of the Economic History of India with Special Reference to Food Problem, Delhi: Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1985
  • Bowle, John, The Imperial Achievement, Secker & Warburg, London, 1974, ISBN-13: 978-0316104098
  • Coates, Tim, (series editor), The Amritsar Massacre 1919 - General Dyer in the Punjab (Official Reports, including Dyer's Testimonies), Her Majesty's Stationary Office (HMSO) 1925, abridged edition, 2000, ISBN 0-11-702412-0
  • Davis, Mike, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World 2001, ISBN 1-85984-739-0
  • Dutt, Romesh C. Open Letters to Lord Curzon on Famines and Land Assessments in India, first published 1900, 2005 edition by Adamant Media Corporation, Elibron Classics Series, ISBN 1-4021-5115-2
  • Dutt, Romesh C. The Economic History of India under early British Rule, first published 1902, 2001 edition by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24493-5
  • Forbes, Rosita, India of the Princes', London, 1939
  • Forrest, G. W., CIE, (editor), Selections from The State Papers of the Governors-General of India - Warren Hastings (2 vols), Blackwell's, Oxford, 1910
  • James, Lawrence, Raj - The Making and Unmaking of British India, London, 1997, ISBN 0-316-64072-7
  • Keay, John, The Honourable Company - A History of the English East India Company, HarperCollins, London, 1991, ISBN 0-00-217515-0
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey, India Britannica, Book Club Associates, UK, 1983
  • Morris, Jan, with Simon Winchester, Stones of Empire - The Buildings of the Raj, Oxford University Press, 1st edition 1983 (paperback edition 1986, ISBN 0-19-282036-2
  • Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1982
  • Srivastava, H.C., The History of Indian Famines from 1858-1918, Sri Ram Mehra and Co., Agra, 1968
  • Voelcker, John Augustus, Report on the Improvement of Indian Agriculture, Indian Government publication, Calcutta, 2nd edition, 1897.
  • Woodroffe, Sir John, Is India Civilized - Essays on Indian Culture, Madras, 1919.

The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Late Victorian Holocausts - El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World is a book by Mike Davis concerning the connection between a set of large famines in the late 1870s and again in the late 1890s and a meteorological phenomenon called ENSO, the El Ni... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... CIE is an acronym which can stand for Córas Iompair Éireann, Irish transport company; the International Commission on Illumination; the postnominal of a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire; Cambridge International Examinations, an international examination board. ... Front of the original Blackwells bookshop. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his contributions to welfare economics for his work on famine, human development theory... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...

Fiction

Edward Morgan Forster, OM (January 1, 1879 – June 7, 1970), was an English novelist, short story writer, and essayist. ... A Passage to India (1924) is a novel by E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. ... This article is about the British author. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikisource has original works written by or about: Plain Tales from the Hills Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Plain Tales from the Hills Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888) is the first collection of short... The Man Who Would Be King DVD The Man Who Would Be A King is a short story written by Rudyard Kipling that tells the tale of two soldier adventurers, Daniel Dravot and Peachy Taliaferro Carnahan, who disguise themselves and set off from 19th century India to become kings of... Samuel Bourne. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Gunga Din Gunga Din (1892) is one of Rudyard Kiplings most famous poems, perhaps best known for its often-quoted last line, Youre a better man than I am, Gunga Din![1] The poem is a rhyming narrative from the... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Jungle Book, 1894, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) For other uses, see The Jungle Book (disambiguation). ... Embossed cover from the original MacMillan edition of The Second Jungle Book, 1895, based on art by John Lockwood Kipling (Rudyards father) The Second Jungle Book is a sequel to The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. ... This article is about the novel. ... John Masters (1914–1983) was an English officer in the British Indian Army and novelist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A drawing of Thug Prisoners published by Illustrated London News, C. 1857 Thuggee (or tuggee) (from Hindi ‘thief’, from Sanskrit ‘scoundrel’, from ‘to conceal’) was an Indian network of secret fraternities who were engaged in murdering and robbing travellers, operating from the 17th century (possibly as early as 13th century... Nightrunners of Bengal is the title of the first novel by John Masters. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Lotus and the Wind is a Spy Novel by John Masters. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Bhowani Junction is a 1952 novel by John Masters, which became the basis of a successful 1956 film. ... This article is under construction. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Burmese Days is a novel by British writer George Orwell. ... Paul Mark Scott (25 March 1920 – 1 March 1978) was a British novelist, playwright, and poet, best known for his monumental tetralogy the Raj Quartet. ... The Raj Quartet is a four-volume novel, written by Paul Scott, about the concluding years of the British Raj in India. ... The Jewel in the Crown is the 1966 novel by Paul Scott that starts his Raj Quartet. ... The Day of the Scorpion is the 1968 novel by Paul Scott that continues his Raj Quartet. ... The Towers of Silence is the 1971 novel by Paul Scott that continues his Raj Quartet. ... Staying On is a novel by Paul Scott, which was published in 1977 and won the Booker Prize. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
British Raj - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4566 words)
The British Raj refers to the British rule of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma, during which period these lands were under the colonial control of Britain as part of the British Empire.
Much of the territory under British sway during this time was not directly ruled by the British, but were nominally independent Princely States which were directly under the rule of the Maharajas, Rajas, Thakurs and Nawabs who entered into treaties as sovereigns with the British monarch as their feudal superior.
The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act of 1892.
Talk:British Raj - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2695 words)
British Raj is the common name for the part of the British empire including pakistan, india, bangladesh and burma not British India.
British Raj to British India – Article is largely about aspects of the history of British rule in the Indian subcontinent whereas British Raj is an informal term referring to the government.
British Raj is an informal or colloquial term for British authority in British India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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