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Encyclopedia > British Museum
 London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2.JPG | established = 1753 | collection = 13+ million objects | area = 13.5 acres/ 588,000 ft²/ 94 Galleries[1] | location = Great Russell Street, London WC1, England | visitors = 4,903,000 (2006–2007)[2] | tube = Holborn, Tottenham Court Road, Russell Square |director = Neil MacGregor | website = www.britishmuseum.org 

}} The British Museum front entrance on Great Russell Street. ... Map of central postal districts The WC (Western Central) postcode area, also known as the London WC postcode area,[1] is a group of postcode districts in central London, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Holborn tube station Decorated metal panels on Central Line platforms at Holborn, near the British Museum. ... Tottenham Court Road is a station on the London Underground, serving as an interchange between the Central Line and the Charing Cross branch of the Northern Line. ... Russell Square is a London Underground station on Bernard Street, Bloomsbury, not far from the British Museum and Russell Square Gardens. ... Robert Neil MacGregor (born 1946) is an art historian and museum director. ...


The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. Its collections, which number more than 13 million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.[a] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ...

The wonders of the museum brought here to Bloomsbury from all around the world's imagined corners are numberless. How can they be named? As well tally each leaf of a tree. They come here out of the living minds of generations of men and women now dead – Greek and Assyrian, Aztec and Inuit, Chinese and Indian – who have conceived and carved and hammered and tempered and cast these objects to represent the worlds around them, visible and invisible.[3]

The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759 in Montagu House in Bloomsbury, on the site of the current museum building. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum of Natural History in South Kensington in 1887. Until 1997, when the current British Library building opened to the public, the British Museum was unique in that it housed both a national museum of antiquities and a national library in the same building. Since 2001 the director of the Museum has been Neil MacGregor.[4] Bloomsbury may refer to: Bloomsbury, London, an area in the centre of the city the Bloomsbury group, an English literary group active around from around 1905 to the start of World War II. the Bloomsbury Gang, a political grouping centred on the local landowner, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Hans Sloane. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... Bloomsbury is an area of central London between Holborn and Euston station, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. ... The Director of the British Museum is the head of the British Museum in London, a post currently held by Neil MacGregor. ... Robert Neil MacGregor (born 1946) is an art historian and museum director. ...


As with all other national museums and art galleries in Britain, the Museum charges no admission fee, although charges are levied for some temporary special exhibitions.[5]

The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room.
The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1557, 536 KB) The Great Court of the British Museum, with the new tessellated roof designed by w:Foster and Partners arching around the original, circular, Reading Room of the British Library. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1557, 536 KB) The Great Court of the British Museum, with the new tessellated roof designed by w:Foster and Partners arching around the original, circular, Reading Room of the British Library. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... View of the Great Court. ... The British Museum Reading Room, situated in the centre of the Great Court of the British Museum, used to be the main reading room of the British Library. ...

History

Sir Hans Sloane, founder of the British Museum

Though principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities today, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum". Its foundations lie in the will of the physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753). During the course of his lifetime Sloane gathered an enviable collection of curiosities and whilst not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for the princely sum of £20,000.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hans Sloane. ... “Ancient” redirects here. ... Hans Sloane. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


At that time, Sloane’s collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds[7] including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants, prints and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Egypt, Greece, Rome, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas[8] A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The history of the Americas is the collective history of North and South America, including Central America and the Caribbean. ...


Foundation (1753)

On 7 June 1753 King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum [b]. The Foundation Act, added two other libraries to the Sloane collection. The Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dated back to Elizabethan times and the Harleian library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford. They were joined in 1757 by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library[9] including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf.[c] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years 1701 to 1800. ... The Lindisfarne Gospels is but one of the treasures collected by Sir Robert Cotton. ... Portrait of Robert Cotton, commissioned 1626 and attributed to Cornelius Johnson (or Janssen), (1593-1661). ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... Earl of Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Folio 27r from the Lindisfarne Gospels contains the incipit from the Gospel of Matthew. ... This article is about the epic poem. ...


The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum - national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, whilst including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.[10] The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both national museum and library.[citation needed] Portrait of Robert Cotton, commissioned 1626 and attributed to Cornelius Johnson (or Janssen), (1593-1661). ... Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ...


Cabinet of curiosities (1753-78)

The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location.[11][d] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... Ralph Montagu, 1st Duke of Montagu (c. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. In 1757 King George II gave the Old Royal Library and with it the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the Museum's library would expand indefinitely. The predominance of natural history, books and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the Museum acquired its first antiquities of note; Sir William Hamilton's collection of Greek vases. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays, but yet contained few ancient relics recognisable to visitors of the modern museum.[citation needed] Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... This office, in the Royal Collection Department of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, is responsible for the care and maintenance of the royal collection of books and manuscripts owned by the Sovereign in an official capacity - as distinct from those owned privately and displayed at... William Richard Hamilton (1777-1859) British antiquarian and traveller, son of Rev. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... The Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts consists of more than 22,000 pamphlets, broadsides, manuscripts, books, and news sheets, most of which were printed and distributed in London from 1640 to 1661. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ...


Indolence and energy (1778-1800)

Colossal Marble Foot
Colossal Marble Foot

From 1778 a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of previously unknown lands. The bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins, prints and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the Museum's reputation however Montagu House became increasingly crowded and decrepit and it was apparent that it would be unable to cope with further expansion.[12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 km². It is the largest sea body after the five... This article is about the British explorer. ...


The museum’s first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton (1730–1803), British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to the museum in 1784 together with a number of other antiquities and natural history specimens. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784 refers to the Hamilton bequest of a "Colossal Foot of an Apollo in Marble". It was one of two antiquities of Hamilton's collection drawn for him by Francesco Progenie, a pupil of Pietro Fabris, who also contributed a number of drawings of Mount Vesuvius sent by Hamilton to the Royal Society in London. William Richard Hamilton (1777-1859) British antiquarian and traveller, son of Rev. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Growth and change (1800-25)

In the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek, Roman and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. After the defeat of the French Campaign in the Battle of the Nile, in 1801, the British Museum acquired more Egyptian sculpture and in 1802 King George III presented the Rosetta Stone - key to the deciphering of hieroglyphs.[13] Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British Consul General in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, laid the foundations of the collection of Egyptian Monumental Sculpture.[14] Many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805. In 1806, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from 1799 to 1803 removed the large collection of marble sculptures from the Parthenon, on the Acropolis in Athens and transferred them to Britain. In 1816 these masterpieces of western art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament and deposited in the museum thereafter.[15] The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815. The Ancient Near Eastern collection also had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (677 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rosetta Stone - British Museum Photographer: Nina Aldin Thune - Nina sept. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (677 × 1,024 pixels, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rosetta Stone - British Museum Photographer: Nina Aldin Thune - Nina sept. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ... By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218... George III redirects here. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ... Henry Salt (June 14, 1780 – October 30, 1827) was an English artist, traveler, diplomat, and Egyptologist. ... See also: consulate (disambiguation). ... The Younger Memnon statue is one of two colossal granite heads from the Ancient Egyptian mortuary temple called the Ramesseum at Thebes, depicting the pharaoh Ramesses II wearing the nemes head-dress with a cobra diadem on top. ... Much of the following text is taken from the public domain Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, as such it may contain errors and inaccuracies Charles Towneley (1737-1805), English archaeologist and collector of marbles, was born at Towneley, the family seat, near Burnley in Lancashire, on the ist of October 1737. ... Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1766 - November 14, 1841) was a British nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens -- popularly known as the Elgin Marbles. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The Sacred Rock) in the world. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with temple of Apollo at Bassae. ... Phigalia, or Phigaleia (Greek Φιγαλεία or Φιγάλεια) is an ancient Greek city in the south-west angle of Arcadia. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Claudius James Rich (March 28, 1787 - October 5, 1821), English traveller and scholar, was born near Dijon. ...


In 1802 a Buildings Committee was set up to plan for expansion of the museum, and further highlighted by the donation in 1822 of the King's Library, personal library of King George III's, comprising 65,000 volumes, 19,000 pamphlets, maps, charts and topographical drawing.[17] The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an eastern extension to the Museum "... for the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it ..."[18] and put forward plans for today's quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the King's Library Gallery began in 1823. The extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. However, following the founding of the National Gallery, London in 1824,[e] the proposed Picture Gallery was no longer needed, and the space on the upper floor was given over to the Natural History collections.[19] The King’s Library was the original name applied both to the British Royal Collection of over 60,000 books and to the room in the British Museum that housed them. ... George III redirects here. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... This office, in the Royal Collection Department of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, is responsible for the care and maintenance of the royal collection of books and manuscripts owned by the Sovereign in an official capacity - as distinct from those owned privately and displayed at... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... The King’s Library was the original name applied both to the British Royal Collection of over 60,000 books and to the room in the British Museum that housed them. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ...


The largest building site in Europe (1825-50)

Left to Right: Montagu House, Townley Gallery and Sir Robert Smirke's west wing under construction (July 1828)
Left to Right: Montagu House, Townley Gallery and Sir Robert Smirke's west wing under construction (July 1828)

The Museum became a construction site as Sir Robert Smirke's grand neo-classical building gradually arose. The King's Library, on the ground floor of the East Wing, was handed over in 1827, and was described as one of the finest rooms in London although it was not fully open to the general public until 1857, however, special openings were arranged during The Great Exhibition of 1851. In spite of dirt and disruption the collections grew, outpacing the new building.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixel Image in higher resolution (1454 × 643 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Left to right: Montagu House, Townley Gallery and Sir Robert Smirkes west wing under construction (July 1828) +/- File links The following pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 354 pixel Image in higher resolution (1454 × 643 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Left to right: Montagu House, Townley Gallery and Sir Robert Smirkes west wing under construction (July 1828) +/- File links The following pages... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The King’s Library was the original name applied both to the British Royal Collection of over 60,000 books and to the room in the British Museum that housed them. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ...

Archaeological excavations
The Grenville Library, (1875)
The Grenville Library, (1875)

In 1840 the Museum became involved in its first overseas excavations, Charles Fellows's expedition to Xanthos, in Asia Minor, whence came remains of the tombs of the rulers of ancient Lykia, among them the Nereid and Payava monuments. In 1857 Charles Newton was to discover the 4th-century BC Mausoleum of Halikarnassos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In the 1840s and 1850s the Museum supported excavations in Assyria by A.H. Layard and others at sites such as Nimrud and Nineveh. Of particular interest to curators was the eventual discovery of Ashurbanipal's great library of cuneiform tablets, which helped to make the Museum a focus for Assyrian studies.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas Grenville (1755-1846), was a British politician and bibliophile. ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... Sir Charles Fellows (August, 1799 - 8 November 1860) was a British archaeologist. ... In Greek mythology, Xanthos (yellow) was an alternate spelling for Xanthus. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, the Nereids (NEER-ee-eds) are blue-haired sea nymphs, the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris. ... Sir Charles Thomas Newton (September 16, 1816–November 28, 1894) was a British archaeologist. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in Greek, ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ...


Sir Thomas Grenville (1755–1846) was a Trustee of The British Museum from 1830 assembled a fine library of 20,240 volumes, which he left to the Museum in his will. The books arrived in January 1847 in twenty-one horse-drawn vans. The only vacant space for this large library was a room originally intended for manuscripts, between the Front Entrance Hall and the Manuscript Saloon. The books remained here until the British Library moved to St Pancras in 1998. Thomas Grenville (1755-1846), was a British politician and bibliophile. ... St Pancras is the name of a place in London. ...


Collecting from the wider world (1850-75)

The opening of the forecourt in 1852 marked the completion of Robert Smirke's 1823 plan, but already adjustments were having to be made to cope with the unforeseen growth of the collections. Infill galleries were constructed for Assyrian sculptures and Sydney Smirke's Round Reading Room, with space for a million books, opened in 1857. Because of continued pressure on space the decision was taken to move natural history to a new building in South Kensington, which would later become the British Museum of Natural History. Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Sydney Smirke (born 1798; died 1877) was a British architect during the 19th century. ... The British Museum Reading Room, situated in the centre of the Great Court of the British Museum, used to be the main reading room of the British Library. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ...


Roughly contemporary with the construction of the new building was the career of a man sometimes called the "second founder" of the British Museum, the Italian librarian Anthony Panizzi. Under his supervision, the British Museum Library (now the British Library) quintupled in size and became a well-organised institution worthy of being called a national library. The quadrangle at the centre of Smirke's design proved to be a waste of valuable space and was filled at Panizzi's request by a circular Reading Room of cast iron, designed by Smirke's brother, Sydney Smirke.[21] Sir Antonio Genesio Maria Panizzi (17 September 1797 - 8 April 1879), better known as Anthony Panizzi, was a naturalized British librarian of Italian birth and an Italian patriot. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...

Until the mid 19th century the Museum's collections were relatively circumscribed but, in 1851, with the appointment to the staff of Augustus Wollaston Franks to curate the collections, the Museum began for the first time to collect British and European medieval antiquities, prehistory, branching out into Asia and diversifying its holdings of ethnography. Overseas excavations continued and John Turtle Wood discovered the remains of the 4th century BC Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, another Wonder of the Ancient World.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4968x1572, 3083 KB) Summary The British Museum Reading Room. ... Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks (March 20, 1826 - May 21, 1897), English antiquary, was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... John Turtle Wood was a British architect and engineer. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ...


Scholarship and legacies (1875-1900)

The natural history collections were an integral part of the British Museum until their removal to the new British Museum of Natural History, now the Natural History Museum, in 1887. With the departure and the completion of the new White Wing (fronting Montague Street) in 1884, more space was available for antiquities and ethnography and the library could further expand. This was a time of innovation as electric lighting was introduced in the Reading Room and exhibition galleries.[23] For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...


In 1882 the Museum was involved in the establishment of the independent Egypt Exploration Fund (now Society) the first British body to carry out research in Egypt. A bequest from Miss Emma Turner in 1892 financed excavations in Cyprus. In 1897 the death of the great collector and curator, A.W. Franks, was followed by an immense bequest of 3,300 finger rings, 153 drinking vessels, 512 pieces of continental porcelain, 1,500 netsuke, 850 inro, over 30,000 bookplates and miscellaneous items of jewellery and plate, among them the Oxus Treasure.[24] The Egypt Exploration Society (abbreviated EES) is the foremost learned society in the United Kingdom promoting the field of Egyptology. ... Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks (March 20, 1826 - May 21, 1897), English antiquary, was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Finger rings worn by Mary Nevill, Baroness Dacre, 1559. ... a monkey-shaped netsuke a netsuke maintains an inro (box) in the obi (belt) Japanese artists starting in the 17th century cleverly invented the miniature sculptures known as netsuke (Japanese:根付) to serve a very practical function. ... Inro An inro (印籠) was a case for holding small objects. ... Figure 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1898 Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild bequeathed the glittering contents, from his New Smoking Room at Waddesdon Manor. This consisted of almost 300 pieces of objets d'art et de vertu which included exquisite examples of jewellery, plate, enamel, carvings, glass and maiolica, in the tradition of a schatzkammer or treasure houses such as those formed by the Renaissance princes of Europe.[25] Baron Ferdinand's will was most specific, and failure to observe the terms would make it void, the collection should be, Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in the House of Commons, caricatured in Vanity Fair, 1889. ... Waddesdon Manor. ... Majolica is earthenware with a white tin glaze, decorated by applying colorants on the raw glazed surface. ... Schatzkammer in German translates as Treasury (Chamber/Vault). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

placed in a special room to be called the Waddesdon Bequest Room separate and apart from the other contents of the Museum and thenceforth for ever thereafter, keep the same in such room or in some other room to be substituted for it.[25]

New century, new building (1900-25)

Opening of The White Wing, King Edward VII's Galleries (1914)
Opening of The White Wing, King Edward VII's Galleries (1914)

By the last years of the nineteenth century, The British Museum's collections had increased so much that the Museum building was no longer big enough for them. In 1895 the trustees purchased the 69 houses surrounding the Museum with the intention of demolishing them and building around the West, North and East sides of the Museum. The first stage was the construction of the northern wing beginning 1906. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Left to Right; T. E. Lawrence and Sir Leonard Woolley standing beside a Hittite slab, Carchemish, Syria (1911-14)

All the while, the collections kept growing, Emily Torday collected in Central Africa, Aurel Stein in Central Asia, D.G. Hogarth, Leonard Woolley and T. E. Lawrence excavated at Carchemish. In 1918, because of the threat of wartime bombing, some objects were evacuated to a Postal Tube Railway at Holborn, the National Library of Wales (Aberystwyth) and a country house near Malvern. On the return of antiquities from wartime storage in 1919, some objects were found to have deteriorated. A temporary conservation laboratory was set up in May 1920 and became a permanent department in 1931. It is today the oldest in continuous existence.[26] In 1923, the British Museum, welcomed over one million visitors.
Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 749 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1275 × 1021 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Left to Right; Sir T.E.Lawrence and Sir Leonard Woolley standing beside a Hittitie slab found during excavations at Carchemish, Syria (1911... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 749 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1275 × 1021 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Left to Right; Sir T.E.Lawrence and Sir Leonard Woolley standing beside a Hittitie slab found during excavations at Carchemish, Syria (1911... Lawrence of Arabia redirects here. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Carchemish (pr. ... Image:AurelStein. ... David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Lawrence of Arabia redirects here. ... Carchemish (pr. ... The front of the building The National Library of Wales (Welsh: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) is the national legal deposit library of Wales, located in Aberystwyth. ... Malvern is a town and civil parish in Worcestershire, England . ...


Disruption and reconstruction (1925-50)

New mezzanine floors were constructed and book stacks rebuilt in an attempt to cope with the flood of books. In 1931 the art dealer Sir Joseph Duveen offered funds to build a gallery for the Parthenon sculptures. Designed by the American architect John Russell Pope, it was completed in 1938. The appearance of the exhibition galleries began to change as dark Victorian reds gave way to modern pastel shades [f]. However, in August 1939, due to the imminence of war and the likelihood of air-raids the Parthenon Sculptures along with Museum's most valued collections were dispersed to secure basements, country houses, Aldwych tube station, the National Library of Wales and a quarry. The evacuation was timely, for in 1940 the Duveen Gallery was severely damaged by bombing.[27] The Museum continued to collect from all countries and all centuries: among the most spectacular additions were the 2,600 BC Mesopotamian treasure from Ur, discovered during Leonard Woolley's 1922–34 excavations. Gold, silver and garnet grave goods from the Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo (1939) and late Roman silver tableware from Mildenhall, Suffolk (1946). The immediate post-war years were taken up with the return of the collections from protection and the restoration of the museum after the blitz. Work also began on restoring the damaged Duveen Gallery. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mezzanine may refer to: Mezzanine (architecture), an intermediate floor between main floors of a building In technology, a mezzanine can refer to a thin sheet of plastic insulating different parts of circuitry from each other in cramped environments, such as laptop interiors. ... Joseph Duveen (1869 – 1939), later made Baron Duveen of Millbank, was one of the most influential art dealers of all time. ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... A country house is a large dwelling, such as a mansion, located on a country estate. ... Aldwych tube station is a disused station formerly on the Piccadilly Line of the London Underground. ... The front of the building The National Library of Wales (Welsh: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) is the national legal deposit library of Wales, located in Aberystwyth. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Sutton Hoo ceremonial helmet (British Museum, restored). ... This article is about the village of Mildenhall, Suffolk. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary The term post-war is generally used for the period after the end of World War II, i. ... For other uses, see Blitz. ...


A new public face (1950-75)

The re-opened Duveen Gallery, (1980)
The re-opened Duveen Gallery, (1980)

In 1953 the Museum celebrated its bicentenary. Many changes followed: the first full time in house designer and publications officer were appointed in 1964, A Friends organisation was set up in 1968, an Education Service established in 1970 and publishing house in 1973. In 1963 a new Act of Parliament introduced administrative reforms. It became easier to lend objects, the constitution of the Board of Trustees changed and the Natural History Museum became fully independent. By 1959 the Coins and Medals office suite, completely destroyed during the war, was rebuilt and re-opened, attention turned towards the gallery work with new tastes in design leading to the remodelling of Robert Smirke's Classical and Near Eastern galleries.[28] In 1962 the Duveen Gallery was finally restored and the Parthenon Sculptures were moved back into it, once again at the heart of the museum.[g] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2132 × 2988 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 428 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2132 × 2988 pixel, file size: 2. ... La Belle Ferronière, sold by Duveen as a Leonardo da Vinci Joseph Duveen, 1st Baron Duveen (October 14, 1869 Hull – May 25, 1939 London) was one of the most influential art dealers of all time. ... Two hundred year anniversary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Board of directors. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ...


By the 1970s the Museum was again expanding. More services for the public were introduced; visitor numbers soared, with the temporary exhibition "Treasures of Tutankhamun" in 1972, attracting 1,694,117 visitors, the most successful in British history. In the same year the Act of Parliament establishing the British Library was passed, separating the collection of manuscripts and printed books from the British Museum. This left the Museum with antiquities; coins, medals and paper money; prints & drawings; and ethnography. A pressing problem was finding space for additions to the library which now required an extra 1 1/4 miles of shelving each year. The Government suggested a site at St Pancras for the new British Library but the books did not leave the museum until 1997. King Tut redirects here. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Things called Saint Pancras or St Pancras include: The saint after whom the others are directly or indirectly named: Saint Pancras. ...


The Great Court emerges (1975-2000)

Great Court - Quadrangle and Robert Smirke's Round Reading Room
Great Court - Quadrangle and Robert Smirke's Round Reading Room

The departure of the British Library to a new site at St Pancras, finally achieved in 1998, provided the space needed for the books. It also created the opportunity to redevelop the vacant space in Robert Smirke's 19th-century central quadrangle into the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court – the largest covered square in Europe – which opened in 2000. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixel Image in higher resolution (2100 × 1353 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 515 pixel Image in higher resolution (2100 × 1353 pixel, file size: 1. ... View of the Great Court. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... St Pancras is the name of a place in London. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... View of the Great Court. ...


The ethnography collections, which had been housed in the short-lived Museum of Mankind at 6 Burlington Gardens from 1970, were returned to new purpose-built galleries. The Museum of Mankind was a museum in Burlington Gardens, Piccadilly, London. ...


The Museum again readjusted its collecting policies as interest in "modern" objects: prints, drawings, medals and the decorative arts reawakened. Ethnographical fieldwork was carried out in places as diverse as New Guinea, Madagascar, Romania, Guatemala and Indonesia and there were excavations in the Near East, Egypt, Sudan and the UK. The Weston Gallery of Roman Britain, opened in 1997, displayed a number of recently discovered hoards which demonstrated the richness of what had been considered an unimportant part of the Roman Empire. The Museum turned increasingly towards private funds for buildings, acquisitions and other purposes.[29] Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The Weston family of Canada and the United Kingdom are prominent businesspeople with global interests in food and clothing businesses. ... For the software, see hoard memory allocator. ...


The Museum today

African Garden - The British Museum Facade - created by BBC TV programme Ground Force
African Garden - The British Museum Facade - created by BBC TV programme Ground Force

The Museum was founded 250 years ago as an encyclopædia of nature and of art. Today it no longer houses collections of natural history, and the books and manuscripts it once held now form part of the independent British Library. The Museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world, ancient and modern. The original 1753 collection has grown to over thirteen million objects at the British Museum, 70 million at the Natural History Museum and 150 million at the British Library. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Ground Force Team From (L) Tommy Walsh, Alan Titchmarsh and Charlie Dimmock. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ...


The Round Reading Room, which was designed by the architect Sydney Smirke, opened in 1857. For almost 150 years researchers came here to consult the Museum's vast library. The Reading Room closed in 1997 when the national library (the British Library) moved to a new building at St Pancras. Today it has been transformed into the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Centre. This contains the Paul Hamlyn Library of books about the Museum's collections, which is open to all visitors.[30] The British Museum Reading Room, situated in the centre of the Great Court of the British Museum, used to be the main reading room of the British Library. ... Sydney Smirke (born 1798; died 1877) was a British architect during the 19th century. ... St Pancras is the name of a place in London. ... The Annenberg Foundation, a charitable family trust, was created on July 1, 1989 by media magnate and former Ambassador to the Court of St. ... Paul Hamlyn (12 February 1926 – 31 August 2001) was a German-born British publisher and philanthropist. ...


With the bookstacks in the central courtyard of the museum now empty, the process of demolition for Lord Foster's glass-roofed Great Court could begin. The Great Court, opened in 2000, while undoubtedly improving circulation around the museum, was criticised for having a lack of exhibition space at a time when the museum was in serious financial difficulties and many galleries were closed to the public. At the same time the African and Oceanic collections that had been temporarily housed in 6 Burlington Gardens were given a new gallery in the North Wing funded by the Sainsbury family.[31] Reichstag, German parliamant The Armadillo, Sir Norman Fosters Clyde Auditorium in Glasgow Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect. ... View of the Great Court. ... David John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville (born 24 October 1940) is a British businessman, politician and life peer for the Labour Party. ...


Governance

See also: Director of the British Museum

In technical terms, the British Museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport through a three-year funding agreement. Its head is the Director. The British Museum was run from its inception by a 'Principal Librarian' (when the book collections were still part of the Museum), a role that was renamed 'Director and Principal Librarian' in 1898, and 'Director' in 1973 (on the separation of the British Library).[32] The Director of the British Museum is the head of the British Museum in London, a post currently held by Neil MacGregor. ... The acronyms Qango and Quango, variously spelt out as QUAsi Non Governmental Organisation, Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation, and Quasi-Autonomous National Government Organisation have been used, notably in the United Kingdom, but also in Australia, Ireland and other countries, to describe a range of organisations to which governments have... DCMS Logo DCMS headquarters in Cockspur Street The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (sometimes abbreviated DCMS) is a department of the British government. ...


A board of 25 trustees (with the Director as their accounting officer for the purposes of reporting to Government) is responsible for the general management and control of the Museum, in accordance with the British Museum Act of 1963 and the Museums and Galleries Act of 1992.[33] Prior to the 1963 Act, it was chaired by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor and the Speaker of the House of Commons. The board was formed on the Museum's inception to hold its collections in trust for the nation without actually owning them themselves, and now fulfil a mainly advisory role. Trustee appointments are governed by the regulatory framework set out in the code of practice on public appointments issued by the Office of the Commissioner for Public Appointments. For a list of current trustees, see here. The word trustee is a legal term that refers to a holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary. ... CAO is the bizspeak acronym for Chief Accounting Officer. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Building

The Greek Revival façade facing Great Russell Street is a characteristic building of Sir Robert Smirke, with 44 columns in the Ionic order 13.7 m (45 ft) high, closely based on those of the temple of Athena Polias at Priene in Asia Minor. The pediment over the main entrance is decorated by sculptures by Sir Richard Westmacott depicting The Progress of Civilisation, consisting of fifteen allegorical figures, installed in 1852. The Tower of the Winds, Athens from The Antiquities of Athens, 1762. ... Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1867) was a leading 19th century British architect. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Priene (mod. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... Sir Richard Westmacott, Jr. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


The construction commenced around the courtyard with the East Wing (The King's Library) in 1823–1828, followed by the North Wing in 1833–1838, which originally housed among other galleries a reading room, now the Wellcome Gallery. Work was also progressing on the northern half of the West Wing (The Egyptian Sculpture Gallery) 1826–1831, with Montagu House demolished in 1842 to make room for the final part of the West Wing, completed in 1846, and the South Wing with its great colonnade, initiated in 1843 and completed in 1847, when the Front Hall and Great Staircase were opened to the public.[34] The Museum is faced with Portland stone, but the perimeter walls and other parts of the building were built using Haytor granite from Dartmoor in South Devon, transported via the unique Haytor Granite Tramway.[35] The King’s Library was the original name applied both to the British Royal Collection of over 60,000 books and to the room in the British Museum that housed them. ... The entrance front of Montagu House Montagu House (sometimes spelled Montague) was a late 17th century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London which became the first home of the British Museum. ... Haytor Haytor or Hay Tor is a granite tor on Dartmoor in the English county of Devon. ... The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway on Hay Tor, Dartmoor, Devon. ...


In 1846 Robert Smirke was replaced as the Museum's architect by his brother Sydney Smirke, whose major addition was the Round Reading Room 1854–1857; at 42.6 m (140 ft) in diameter it was then the second widest dome in the world, the Pantheon in Rome being slightly wider. Sydney Smirke (born 1798; died 1877) was a British architect during the 19th century. ... The British Museum Reading Room, situated in the centre of the Great Court of the British Museum, used to be the main reading room of the British Library. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The next major addition was the White Wing 1882–1884 added behind the eastern end of the South Front, the architect being Sir John Taylor. Sir John Taylor KCB FRIBA (15 November 1833 – 30 April 1912) was a British architect. ...

Proposed British Museum Extension, 1906
Proposed British Museum Extension, 1906

In 1895, Parliament gave the Museum Trustees a loan of £200,000 to purchase from the Duke of Bedford all 69 houses which backed onto the Museum building in the five surrounding streets - Great Russell Street, Montague Street, Montague Place, Bedford Square and Bloomsbury Street.[36] The Trustees planned to demolish these houses and to build around the West, North and East sides of the Museum new galleries that would completely fill the block on which the Museum stands. The architect Sir John James Burnet was petitioned to put forward ambitious long-term plans to extend the building on all three sides. Most of the houses in Montague Place were knocked down a few years after the sale. Of this grand plan only the Edward VII galleries in the centre of the North Front were ever constructed, these were built 1906-14 to the design by J.J. Burnet, and opened by George V and Queen Mary in 1914. They now house the Museum's collections of Prints and Drawings and Oriental Antiquities. There was not enough money to put up more new buildings, and so the houses in the other streets are nearly all still standing. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1484x567, 308 KB) Description: The British Museum, Archive - Impression of Museum Extension Author: Mujtaba Chohan Source: British Museum Visit File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The British... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1484x567, 308 KB) Description: The British Museum, Archive - Impression of Museum Extension Author: Mujtaba Chohan Source: British Museum Visit File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): The British... Sir John James Burnet (1857 - 1938) , son of the architect John Burnet was born in Glasgow. ...

The British Museum, Great Court
The British Museum, Great Court

The Duveen Gallery, sited to the west of the Egyptian, Greek & Assyrian sculpture galleries, was designed to house the Elgin Marbles by the American Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope. Although completed in 1938, it was hit by a bomb in 1940 and remained semi-derelict for 22 years, before reopening in 1962. Other areas damaged during World War II bombing included: in September 1940 two unexploded bombs hit the Edward VII galleries, the King's Library received a direct hit from a high explosive bomb, incendiaries fell on the dome of the Round Reading Room but did little damage; on the night of 10 to 11 May 1941 several incendiaries fell on the south west corner of the Museum, destroying the book stack and 150,000 books in the courtyard and the galleries around the top of the Great Staircase – this damage was not fully repaired until the early 1960s.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Joseph Duveen (1869 – 1939), later made Baron Duveen of Millbank, was one of the most influential art dealers of all time. ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


The Queen Elizabeth II Great Court is a covered square at the centre of the British Museum designed by the engineers Buro Happold and the architects Foster and Partners.[38] The Great Court opened in December 2000 and is the largest covered square in Europe. The roof is a glass and steel construction with 1,656 uniquely shaped panes of glass. At the centre of the Great Court is the Reading Room vacated by the British Library, its functions now moved to St Pancras. The Reading Room is open to any member of the public who wishes to read there. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... // View of the Great Court Buro Happold is a professional services firm providing engineering consultancy, design, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of buildings, infrastructure and the environment. ... 30 St Mary Axe, one of Londons most popular new buildings, towers above its neighbours. ...


Today, the British Museum has grown to become one of the largest Museums in the world, covering an area of over 13.5 acres or 75,000 m² of exhibition space, showcasing approximately 50,000 items from its collection.[39] There are nearly one hundred galleries open to the public, representing 2 miles (3.2 km) of exhibition space, although the less popular ones have restricted opening times. However, the lack of a large temporary exhibition space has led to the £100 million North West Development Project to provide one and to concentrate all the Museum's conservation facilities into one Conservation Centre. This project was announced in July 2007, with the architects Rogers Stirk Harbour and Partners, and is expected for completion by 2011.[40] For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ...


Departments

Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan

The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal Granite head of Amenhotep III (1350 BC)
The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal Granite head of Amenhotep III (1350 BC)

The British Museum houses the world's largest and most comprehensive collection of Egyptian antiquities outside the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.[41][h] A collection of immense importance for its range and quality, it includes objects of all periods from virtually every site of importance in Egypt and the Sudan. Together they illustrate every aspect of the cultures of the Nile Valley (including Nubia), from the Predynastic Neolithic period (c. 10,000 BC) through to the Coptic (Christian) times (12th century AD), a time-span over 11,000 years. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 700 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal granite head of Amenhotep III (Room 4) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 456 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 700 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal granite head of Amenhotep III (Room 4) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... AD redirects here. ... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... AD redirects here. ...

The British Museum, Room 4 - Colossal bust of Ramesses II (1250 BC)

Egyptian antiquities have formed part of the British Museum collection ever since its foundation in 1753 after receiving 160 Egyptian objects[42] from Sir Hans Sloane. After the defeat of the French forces under Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1801, the Egyptian antiquities collected were confiscated by the British army and presented to the British Museum in 1803. These works, which included the famed Rosetta Stone, were the first important group of large sculptures to be acquired by the Museum. Thereafter, Britain appointed Henry Salt as consul in Egypt who amassed a huge collection of antiquities. Most of the antiquities Salt collected were purchased by the British Museum and the Musée du Louvre. By 1866 the collection consisted of some 10,000 objects. Antiquities from excavations started to come to the Museum in the later 19th century as a result of the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund under the efforts of E.A. Wallis Budge. The collection stood at 57,000 objects by 1924. Active support by the Museum for excavations in Egypt continued to result in useful acquisitions throughout the 20th century until changes in antiquities laws in Egypt led to the suspension of policies allowing finds to be exported. The size of the Egyptian collections now stands at over 110,000 objects.[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the Younger Memnon (1250 BC) (Room 4) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the Younger Memnon (1250 BC) (Room 4) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... This article has been tagged since January 2007. ... Hans Sloane. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ... Henry Salt (June 14, 1780 – October 30, 1827) was an English artist, traveler, diplomat, and Egyptologist. ... See also: consulate (disambiguation). ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... The Egypt Exploration Society (abbreviated EES) is the foremost learned society in the United Kingdom promoting the field of Egyptology. ... E. A. Wallis Budge in his office at the British Museum around the turn of the century. ...


In autumn 2001 the eight million objects forming the Museum's permanent collection were further expanded by the addition of six million objects from the Wendorf Collection of Egyptian and Sudanese Prehistory.[44] These were donated by Professor Fred Wendorf of Southern Methodist University in Texas, and comprise the entire collection of artefacts and environmental remains from his excavations between 1963 and 1997. They are in the care of the Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Dallas Hall at Dedman College at SMU The Laura Lee Blanton Hall during a rare snow storm Southern Methodist University (commonly SMU) is a nationally recognized, private, coeducational university in University Park, Texas (an enclave of Dallas). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


The seven permanent Egyptian galleries at the British Museum, which include its largest exhibition space (Room 4, for monumental sculpture), can display only 4% of its Egyptian holdings. The second-floor galleries have a selection of the Museum's collection of 140 mummies and coffins, the largest outside Cairo. A high proportion of the collection comes from tombs or contexts associated with the cult of the dead, and it is these pieces, in particular the mummies, that remain among the most eagerly sought after exhibits by visitors to the Museum.[citation needed] This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ...

Key highlights of the collections Include
  • The Rosetta Stone (196 BC)
  • Limestone statue of a husband and wife (1300 BC)
  • Colossal bust of Ramesses II, the "Younger Memnon" (1250 BC)
  • Colossal granite head of Amenhotep III (1350 BC)
  • Colossal head from a statue of Amenhotep III (1350 BC)
  • Colossal limestone bust of Amenhotep III (1350 BC)
  • Fragment of the beard of the Great Sphinx (1300 BC)
The British Museum, Room 4 - Egyptian Sculpture
The British Museum, Room 4 - Egyptian Sculpture

Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities

The British Museum, Room 18 - Parthenon Galleries, Temple of Athena Parthenos (447-438 B.C)
The British Museum, Room 18 - Parthenon Galleries, Temple of Athena Parthenos (447-438 B.C)

The Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum has one of the world's largest and most comprehensive collections of antiquities from the Classical world, with over 100,000 objects. These mostly range in date from the beginning of the Greek Bronze Age (about 3200BC) to the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century AD, with some pagan survivals.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1048 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 18 - The Parthenon Galleries (North Slip Room) Room 18 is also known as the Duveen gallery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1048 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 18 - The Parthenon Galleries (North Slip Room) Room 18 is also known as the Duveen gallery. ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


The Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean cultures are represented, and the Greek collection includes important sculpture from the Parthenon in Athens, as well as elements of two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Mausoleum at Halikarnassos and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos. The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in Greek, ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ...

The British Museum, Room 83 - Roman Sculpture
The British Museum, Room 83 - Roman Sculpture

The Department also houses one of the widest-ranging collections of Italic and Etruscan antiquities and extensive groups of material from Cyprus. The collections of ancient jewellery and bronzes, Greek vases and Roman glass and silver are particularly important.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1003 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 83 - Roman Sculptures Room 83 is occupied by Roman sculptures, including sarcophagi and large sculptures from public buildings in cities such as Sardis, Ephesos, Alexandria and Cyrene. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1003 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 83 - Roman Sculptures Room 83 is occupied by Roman sculptures, including sarcophagi and large sculptures from public buildings in cities such as Sardis, Ephesos, Alexandria and Cyrene. ... Sarcophagus with battle scene between Romans and Germans. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... This article is about the material. ...


Key highlights of the collections include:

Athenian Akropolis
The Parthenon Gallery ("Elgin Marbles")
The British Museum, Room 21 - Mausoleum of Halikarnassos
The British Museum, Room 21 - Mausoleum of Halikarnassos
Erechtheion
  • The finest of six remaining Caryatids
  • Surviving Column
Athena Nike
The British Museum, Room 22 - The Hellenistic World
Bassae Sculptures
  • Twenty three surviving blocks of the frieze from the interior of the temple are exhibited on an upper level.
Mausoleum of Halikarnassos
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
  • Two colossal free-standing figures identified as Maussollos and his wife Artemisia.
  • Part of an impressive horse from the chariot group adorning the summit of the Mausoleum
  • The Amazonomachy frieze - A long section of relief frieze showing the battle between Greeks and Amazons
Temple of Artemis at Ephesos
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Asia Minor
Nereid Monument
  • Partial reconstruction of the Monument, a large and elaborate Lykian tomb from the site of Xanthos in south-west Turkey
  • Payava Tomb from Xanthos in south west Turkey
Wider Museum Collection

Department of the Middle East

Formerly the Department of the Ancient Near East, the Department recently became the Department of the Middle East when the collections from the Islamic world were moved from the Department of Asia into this department.


With approximately 290,000 objects[47] in the collection, the British Museum has the greatest collection of Mesopotamian antiquities outside Iraq. The holdings of Assyrian, Babylonian and Sumerian antiquities are among the most comprehensive in the world. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term...

Image:BM; RM7 - ANE, Nimrud Palace Reliefs 1 Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 B.C) ~ Full Elevation & Viewing South.JPG
The British Museum, Room 7 - Reliefs from the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud

The collections represent the civilisations of the ancient Near East and its adjacent areas. These include Mesopotamia, Persia (13,000 objects),[48] the Arabian Peninsula, Anatolia, the Caucasus, parts of Central Asia, Syria, Palestine and Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean from the prehistoric period until the beginning of Islam in the 7th century. The collection includes six iconic winged human-headed statues from Nimrud and Khorsabad. Stone bas-reliefs, including the famous Royal Lion Hunt relief's (Room 10), that were found in the palaces of the Assyrian kings at Nimrud and Nineveh. The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh and Sumerian treasures found in Royal Cemetery's at Ur of the Chaldees. Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashur-nasir-pal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashur-nasir-pal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Persia redirects here. ... Arabia redirects here. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demons, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... One of the most remarkable archaeological discoveries of all times, credited to Austen Henry Layard. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Ur Kaśdim or Ur of the Chaldees (אור כשדים) is the town in the Hebrew Bible and related literature where Abraham was said to have been born. ...


The earliest Mesopotamian objects to enter collections purchased by the British Museum in 1772 from Sir William Hamilton. The Museum also acquired at this early date a number of sculptures from Persepolis. The next significant addition (in 1825) was from the collection of Claudius James Rich. The collection was dramatically enlarged by the excavations of A.H. Layard at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh between 1845–1851. This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... William Hamilton Sir William Douglas Hamilton (December 13, 1730–April 6, 1803) was a Scottish diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and volcanologist. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Claudius James Rich (March 28, 1787 - October 5, 1821), English traveller and scholar, was born near Dijon. ... The Right Honourable Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 1817–5 July 1894) was a British author and diplomatist, best known as the excavator of Nineveh. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...

The British Museum, Room 6 - Pair of Human Headed Winged Lions and Reliefs from Nimrud with The Gates of Balawat.
The British Museum, Room 6 - Pair of Human Headed Winged Lions and Reliefs from Nimrud with The Gates of Balawat.

At Nimrud, Layard discovered the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, as well as three other palaces and various temples. He also opened in the Palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh with 'no less than seventy-one halls'. As a result a large numbers of Lamassu's, bas-reliefs, stelae, including the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III were brought to the British Museum. Layard's work was continued by his assistant, Hormuzd Rassam and in 1852–1854 he went on to discover the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh with many magnificent reliefs, including the famous Royal Lion Hunt scenes. He also discovered the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, a large collection of cuneiform tablets of enormous importance. W.K. Loftus excavated in Nimrud between 1850–1855 and found a remarkable hoard of ivories in the Burnt Palace. Between 1878–1882 Rassam greatly improved the Museum's holdings with exquisite objects including the Cyrus Cylinder from Babylon, the bronze gates from Balawat, and a fine collection of Urartian bronzes. Rassam collected thousands of cuneiform tablets, today with the acquisition of further tablets in the 20th century, the collection now numbers around 130,000 pieces. In the 20th Century excavations were carried out at Carchemish, Syria between 1911–1914 and in 1920 by D.G. Hogarth and Leonard Woolley, the latter assisted by T.E. Lawrence. The Mesopotamian collections were greatly augmented by excavations in southern Iraq after the First World War. From Tell al-Ubaid in 1919 and 1923–1924, directed by H.R. Hall came the bronze furnishings of a Sumerian temple, including life-sized lions and a panel featuring the lion-headed eagle Imdugud. Woolley went onto to excavate Ur between 1922–1934, discovering the 'Royal Cemeteries' of the 3rd millennium BC. Some of the masterpieces include the 'Standard of Ur', the 'Ram in a Thicket', the 'Royal Game of Ur', and two bull-headed lyres. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 284 KB) Description: The British Musuem, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture Winged human-headed lions and reliefs from the Northwest Palace of King Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud lead to a statue of the king and to a replica of the huge... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 284 KB) Description: The British Musuem, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture Winged human-headed lions and reliefs from the Northwest Palace of King Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud lead to a statue of the king and to a replica of the huge... In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demons, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Balawat is a village in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq, 25 km (15 miles) southeast from the city of Mosul. ... Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashurnasirpal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashurnasirpal succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to the growing Assyrian empire. ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demons, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. ... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Hormuzd Rassam (1826-1910) was an Assyriologist and traveller, born at Mosul of Christian parents. ... One of the most remarkable archaeological discoveries of all times, credited to Austen Henry Layard. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ... William Kennett Loftus (b. ... Ivory carving is the process whereby ivory is ornamented with any design, by means of sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Balawat is a village in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq, 25 km (15 miles) southeast from the city of Mosul. ... Urartian can refer to: The ancient kingdom of Urartu the Urartian language spoken there the family of Hurro-Urartian languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Carchemish (pr. ... David George Hogarth (born May 23, 1862 in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire; died November 6, 1927 in Oxford) was an English archaeologist and scholar, associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans. ... Sir Charles Leonard Woolley (17 April 1880–20 February 1960) was a British archaeologist, best known for his excavations at Ur in Sumerancient Mesopotamia. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Pottery jar from Late Ubaid Period The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric chalcolithic culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Dr Henry Reginald Holland Hall MBE, FBA, FSA (30th September 1873 — 13th October 1930) was an English Egyptologist and historian. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... the War panel Peace, detail showing lyrist. ... The Royal Game of Ur refers to two game boards found in Royal Tombs of Ur by Sir Leonard Woolley in the 1920s. ... A Lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity. ...

The British Museum, Room 10 - Human Headed Winged Bulls from Khorsabad, companion pieces in the Musée du Louvre
The British Museum, Room 10 - Human Headed Winged Bulls from Khorsabad, companion pieces in the Musée du Louvre

Although the collections centre on Mesopotamia most of the surrounding areas are well-represented. The Achaemenid collection was enhanced with the addition of the Oxus Treasure in 1897, by acquisition from the German scholar Ernst Herzfeld, and then by the work of Sir Aurel Stein. From Palmyra there is a large collection of nearly forty funerary busts, acquired in the 19th century. A group of stone reliefs from the excavations of Max von Oppenheim at Tell Halaf, purchased in 1920. More excavated material from the excavations of Max Mallowan at Chagar Bazar and Tell Brak in 1935–1938, and from Woolley at Alalakh in the years just before and after the Second World War. The collection of Palestinian material was strengthened with the acquisition in 1980 of around 17,000 objects found at Lachish by the Wellcome-Marston expedition of 1932–1938. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demons, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ... Khorsabad (Khursabad), village in Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul, with well-preserved ruins of the large, rectangular Dur-Sharrukin. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ernst Emil Herzfeld (July 23, 1879–January 21, 1948) was an German archaeologist and Iranologist. ... Image:AurelStein. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... For other meanings, see Relief (disambiguation) In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Max Freiherr von Oppenheim (July 15, 1860, Köln - November 17, 1946, Landshut) was a German ancient historian (Althistoriker), and archaeologist, the last of the great amateur archaeological explorers of the Near East. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan (6 May 1904 – 19 August 1978) was a prominent archaeologist, specialising in ancient Middle Eastern history, and was also (despite his Roman Catholicism) the second husband of Dame Agatha Christie, who was 14 years his senior. ... Chagar Bazar is an ancient site in northern Syria, occupied from the sixth to the second millennium BC. It is situated by the small river Dara, a tributary to the Khabur River. ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ... Alalakh, or Alalah, is the name of an ancient city and its associated city-state of the Amuq River valley, located in the Hatay region of southern Turkey near the city of Antakya (ancient Antioch), and now represented by an extensive city-mound known as Tell Atchana. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ...


A representative selection, including the most important pieces, are on display in 13 galleries and total some 4500 objects. The remainder form the study collection which ranges in size from beads to large sculptures. They include approximately 130,000 cuneiform tablets from Mesopotamia.[49] Cuneiform redirects here. ... Small tablets made out of clay were used from late 4th millennium BC onwards as a writing medium in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Minoan/Mycenaean civilizations. ...


The museum's collection of Islamic art, including archaeological material, numbers about 40,000 objects,[50] one of the largest of its kind in the world. As such, it contains a broad range of Islamic pottery, paintings, tiles, metalwork, glass, seals, and inscriptions.

Key Highlights of the Collections Include
The British Museum, Room 8 - Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull from Nimrud, companion pieces in Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The British Museum, Room 8 - Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull from Nimrud, companion pieces in Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Nimrud:

Alabaster bas-reliefs from: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Central Palace of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B.C) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 908 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Central Palace of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B.C) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... In Mesopotamian mythology, the lammasu were legendary creatures which had the faces of men, the bodies of lions, and the wings of an eagle. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... This article is about the state. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...

  • The North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II
  • Central- Palace of Tiglath-Pileser III
  • South-West Palace of Esarhaddon
  • Palace of Adad-Nirari III
  • South-East Palace ('Burnt Palace')
  • The Nabu Temple (Ezida)
  • The Sharrat-Niphi Temple
  • Temple of Ninurta

Sculptures: Ashurnasirpal II, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California Ashur-nasir-pal II was king of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC. Ashur-nasir-pal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 884 BC. He conquered Mesopotamia and the territory of what is now the Lebanon, adding them to... Tiglath-Pileser III — stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London) Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukultī-Apil-Ešarra) was a prominent king of Assyria in the 8th century BC (ruled 745–727 BC)[1][2] and is widely regarded as the founder of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... Adad-nirari III was King of Assyria from 810 to 783 BC. For the first five years of his reign his mother Sammuramat acted as regent, which gave rise to the legend of Semiramis. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... Ninurta Lord Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ...

The British Museum, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture
The British Museum, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture
The British Museum, Room 55 - Cuneiform Collection, including the Epic of Gilgamesh.
The British Museum, Room 55 - Cuneiform Collection, including the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Nineveh:

Alabaster bas-reliefs from: In Akkadian mythology the shedu were a type of demons, but they were demons of a benevolent nature, protective spirits of the houses, palaces and cities. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1026 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture Stelae and statues from four generations of Assyrian kings: Ashurnasirpal II, Shalmaneser III, Shamshi-Adad V and Adad-Nirari III; the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, the White Obelisk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1026 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 6 - Assyrian Sculpture Stelae and statues from four generations of Assyrian kings: Ashurnasirpal II, Shalmaneser III, Shamshi-Adad V and Adad-Nirari III; the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, the White Obelisk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1148 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 55 - Cuneiform Collection The display also contains the most famous cuneiform tablet of them all, The Epic of Gilgamesh. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1148 KB) Description: The British Museum, Room 55 - Cuneiform Collection The display also contains the most famous cuneiform tablet of them all, The Epic of Gilgamesh. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...

  • North-Palace of Ashurbanipal
  • Royal Lion Hunt Scenes
  • The 'Dying Lion', long been acclaimed as a masterpiece
  • The 'Garden Party' Relief
  • South-West Palace of Sennacherib

Royal Library of Ashurbanipal: Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... One of the most remarkable archaeological discoveries of all times, credited to Austen Henry Layard. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ...

Khorsabad:
  • Alabaster bas-reliefs from the Palace of Sargon II
  • Pair of Human Headed Winged 'Lamassu' Bulls
Wider Collection:

Department of Prints and Drawings

The Department of Prints and Drawings holds the national collection of Western Prints and Drawings. It ranks as one of the largest collections in existence alongside the Musée du Louvre and the Hermitage as one of the top three collections of its kind.[51] The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ...

The British Museum, Room 90 - Michelangelo, Epifania - Last surviving large scale cartoon by the artist
The British Museum, Room 90 - Michelangelo, Epifania - Last surviving large scale cartoon by the artist

Since its foundation in 1808 the Prints and Drawings collection has grown to international renown as one of the richest and most representative collections in the world. There are approximately 50,000 drawings and over two million prints.[52] The collection of Drawings covers the period 14th century to the present, and includes many works of the highest quality by the leading artists of the European school. The collection of Prints covers the tradition of fine printmaking from its beginnings in the 15th century up to the present, with near complete holdings of most of the great names before the 19th century. Image File history File links Michelangelo_Epifania. ... Image File history File links Michelangelo_Epifania. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ...


There are magnificent groups of drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, (including his only surviving full-scale cartoon), Dürer (a collection of 138 drawings is one of the finest in existence), Peter Paul Rubens, Rembrandt, Claude and Watteau, and virtually complete collections of the works of all the great printmakers including unsurpassed holdings of prints by Dürer (99 engravings, 6 etchings and a substantial number of his 346 woodcuts), Rembrandt and Goya. More than 30,000 British drawings and watercolours include important examples work by Hogarth, Sandby, Turner, Girtin, Constable, Cotman, Cox, Gillray, Rowlandson and Cruikshank, as well as all the great Victorians. There are about a million British prints including more than 20,000 satires and outstanding collections of works by William Blake and Thomas Bewick.[citation needed] “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... This article is about the Dutch artist. ... Claude Lorrain. ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French Rococo painter. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... “Goya” redirects here. ... Watercolor (watercolour in the UK and aquarelle in France) designates a painting method, the medium, or the resulting artwork, in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Paul Sandby (1725 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in water-colours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Thomas Girtin (1775 - November 9, 1802), English painter and etcher, was the son of a well-to-do cordage maker in Southwark, London. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Greta Bridge, c. ... David Cox (April 29, 1783 - June 7, 1859) was an English landscape painter. ... James Gillray James Gillray, sometimes spelled Gilray (born August 13, 1757 in Chelsea; died June 1, 1815), was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Thomas Bewick (August 1753 - November 8, 1828) was an English wood engraver and ornithologist. ...

Department of Asia

Amravati Gallery
Amravati Gallery

The scope of the Department of Asia is extremely broad, its collections of over 75,000 objects covers the material culture of the whole Asian continent (from East, South, Central and South-East Asia) and from the Neolithic up to the present day.[53][54][55] The Department of Asia in the British Museum, London is one of the largest collections of historical artifacts from the continent of Asia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1672 × 1254 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1672 × 1254 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Key highlights of the collections include:[56]

  • The most comprehensive collection of sculpture from the Indian subcontinent in the world, including the celebrated Buddhist limestone reliefs from Amaravati[57]
  • An outstanding collection of Chinese antiquities, paintings, and porcelain, lacquer, bronze, jade, and other applied arts
  • A fine collection of Buddhist paintings from Dunhuang and the Admonitions Scroll by Chinese artist Gu Kaizhi (344–406 AD)
  • The most comprehensive collection of Japanese pre-20th century decorative arts in the western world

Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas

The British Museum houses one of the world's greatest and most comprehensive collections of Ethnographic material from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, representing the cultures of indigenous peoples throughout the world. Over 350,000 objects[58] spanning two million years tells the story of the history of man, from three major continents and many rich and diverse cultures.[citation needed] Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...

The British Museum, Room 24 - The Wellcome Trust Gallery with Hoa Hakananai'a in the centre
The British Museum, Room 24 - The Wellcome Trust Gallery with Hoa Hakananai'a in the centre

The Sainsbury African Galleries display 600 objects from the greatest permanent collection of African arts and culture in the world. The three permanent galleries provide a substantial exhibition space for the Museum's African collection comprising over 200,000 objects. A curatorial scope that encompasses both archaeological and contemporary material, including both unique masterpieces of artistry and objects of everyday life. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 422 pixel Image in higher resolution (947 × 500 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wellcome Trust Gallery + Living & Dying (Room 24). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 422 pixel Image in higher resolution (947 × 500 pixel, file size: 314 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Wellcome Trust Gallery + Living & Dying (Room 24). ... The Wellcome Trusts Gibbs Building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ... Hoa Hakananaia on display in the British Museums Wellcome Trust Gallery Hoa Hakananaia is a moai (Easter Island statue) housed in the British Museum in London. ...


Highlights of the African collection include a magnificent brass head of a Yoruba ruler from Ife, Nigeria; Asante goldwork from Ghana and the Torday collection of Central African sculpture, textiles and weaponry.


The Americas collection mainly consists of 19th and 20th century items although the Inca, Aztec, Maya and other early cultures are well represented; collecting of modern artefacts is ongoing. For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...

Department of Coins and Medals

The British Museum is home to one of the world's finest numismatic collections, comprising about a million objects. The collection spans the entire history of coinage from its origins in the 7th century BC to the present day. There are approximately 9,000 coins, medals and banknotes on display around the British Museum. More than half of these can be found in the HSBC Money Gallery (Gallery 68), while the remainder form part of the permanent displays throughout the Museum.[citation needed] Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ...

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. ... The National Museum of American History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution and located in Washington, D.C., on the National Mall. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-Theresien-Platz, Vienna. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Numismatic Museum of Athens is one of the best in the world. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Gold 20-stater of Eucratides I (175-150 BCE), the largest gold coin ever minted in Antiquity. ... The new buildings of the library. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Bode Museum The Bode Museum belongs to the group of museums on Museum Island in Berlin and is a historically preserved building. ... Old Museum (June 2003) Museum Island (or, in German, Museumsinsel) in Berlin, Germany, is the name of the northern half of an island in the Spree river, in the center of the city. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... The main entrance to the Fitzwilliam Museum, facing Trumpington Sreet. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...

Department of Prehistory and Europe

The prehistoric collections cover Europe, Africa and Asia, the earliest African artefacts being around 2,000,000 years old. Coverage of Europe extends to the present day.[citation needed]


Department of Conservation, Documentation and Science

This department was founded in 1920. Conservation has six specialist areas: ceramics & glass; metals; organic material (including textiles); stone, wall paintings and mosaics; Eastern pictorial art and Western pictorial art. The science department has and continues to develop techniques to date artefacts, analyse and identify the materials used in their manufacture, to identify the place an artefact originated and the techniques used in their creation. The department also publishes its findings and discoveries.[citation needed]


Libraries and Archives

This department covers all levels of education, from casual visitors, schools, degree level and beyond. The Museum's various libraries hold in excess of 350,000 books, journals and pamphlets covering all areas of the museum's collection. Also the general Museum archives which date from its foundation in 1753 are overseen by this department; the individual departments have their own separate archives covering their various areas of responsibility.[citation needed]


Controversy

A few of the Elgin Marbles (also known as the Parthenon Marbles) from the East Pediment of the Parthenon.
A few of the Elgin Marbles (also known as the Parthenon Marbles) from the East Pediment of the Parthenon.

It is a point of controversy whether museums should be allowed to possess artefacts taken from other countries, and the British Museum is a notable target for criticism.[citation needed] The Elgin Marbles and the Benin Bronzes are among the most disputed objects in its collections, and organisations have been formed demanding the return of both sets of artefacts to their native countries of Greece and Nigeria respectively. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x694, 154 KB) The left hand group of surviving figures from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, exhibited as part of the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1242x694, 154 KB) The left hand group of surviving figures from the East Pediment of the Parthenon, exhibited as part of the Elgin Marbles in the British Museum. ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ... Metope from the Parthenon marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting The Elgin Marbles is the popular term for the Parthenon Marbles, a large collection of marble sculptures brought to Britain between 1801 and 1805 by Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin, the official British resident in Ottoman Athens... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ... The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 1,000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin. ...


The British Museum has refused to return either set, stating that the "restitutionist premise, that whatever was made in a country must return to an original geographical site, would empty both the British Museum and the other great museums of the world".[59] The Museum has also argued that the British Museum Act of 1963 legally prevents any object from leaving its collection once it has entered it. Nevertheless, it has returned items such as the Tazmanian Ashes after a 20 year long battle with Australia.[60] Critics have particularly argued against the right of the British Museum to own objects which it does not share with the public.[citation needed]


Supporters of the Museum claim that it has provided protection for artefacts that might have otherwise been damaged or destroyed if they had been left in their original environments.[citation needed] While some critics have accepted this, they also argue that the artefacts should now be returned to their countries of origin if there is sufficient expertise and desire there to preserve them.[citation needed]


The British Museum continues to assert that it is an appropriate custodian and has an inalienable right to its disputed artefacts under British law.


Disputed Items in the Collection

Metope from the Elgin marbles depicting a Centaur and a Lapith fighting. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Benin Bronzes are a collection of more than 1,000 brass plaques from the royal palace of the Kingdom of Benin. ... Tabot, sometimes tabout, is an Amharic word commonly referring to a replica of the Tablets of Law, onto which the Biblical Ten Commandments were inscribed, used in the practices of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Nazi plunder stored in a church at Elligen, Germany, 1945 Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized spoliation of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Mold (Welsh: ) is a town in Flintshire, Wales, on the River Alyn. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the ancient Rosetta Stone found in Egypt. ...

Galleries

Building
Floor Plans
Museum Galleries

Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan

Department of the Ancient Near East

Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities

Exhibitions

Forgotten Empire Exhibition (October 2005 - January 2006)

See also

  • Employees of the British Museum
  • People associated with the British Museum

Notes

a. ^  Sculptures and applied art are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the British Museum houses earlier art, non-Western art, prints and drawings, and art of a later date is at Tate Modern. The National Gallery, holds the National Collection of Western European Art, with Tate Britain deposited with British Art from 1500. The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ... Tate Britain is a part of the Tate gallery network in Britain, along with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. ...


b. ^  By the Act of Parliament it received a name - the British Museum. The origin of the name is not known; the word 'British' had some resonance nationally at this period, so soon after the Jacobite rebellion of 1745; itmust be assumed that the Museum was christened in this light.[69]


c. ^  The estimated footage of the various libraries as reported to the Trustees has bee summarised by Harris (1998), 3,6: Sloane 4,600, Harley 1,700, Cotton 384, Edwards 576, The Royal Library 1,890.


d. ^  This was perhaps rather unfortunate as the title to the house was complicated by the fact that part of the building had been erected on leasehold property (the Crown lease of which ran out in 1771); perhaps that is why George III paid such a modest price (nominally £28,000) for what was to become Buckingham Palace. See Colvin et al. (1976), 134. George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


e. ^  Understanding of the foundation of the National Gallery is complicated by the fact that there is no documented history of the institution. At first the National Gallery functioned effectively as part of the British Museum, to which the Trustees transferred most of their most important pictures (ex. portraits). Full control was handed over to the National Gallery in 1868, after the Act of Parliament of 1856 established the Gallery as an independent body. Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ... The word trustee is a legal term that refers to a member of a trust, which can be set up for any of a variety of purposes, and is entrusted with the administration of property on behalf of others. ... This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1840-1859. ...


f. ^  Ashmole, the Keeper of the Greek and Roman Antiquities appreciated the original top-lighting of these galleries and removed the Victorian colour scheme, commenting:

The old Elgin Gallery was painted a deep terracotta red, which, though in some ways satisfactory, diminished its apparent size, and was apt to produce a depressing effect on the visitor. It was decided to experiment with lighter colours, and the walls of the large room were painted with what was, at its first application, a pure cold white, but which after a year's exposure had unfortunately yellowed. The small Elgin Room was painted with pure white tinted with prussian blue, and the Room of the metopes was painted with pure white tinted with cobalt blue and black; it was necessary, or practical reasons, to colour all the dadoes a darker colour[70]

g. ^  Ashmole had never liked the Duveen Gallery:

It is, I suppose, not positively bad, but it could have been infinitely better. It is pretentious, in that it uses the ancient Marbles to decorate itself. This is a long outmoded idea, and the exact opposite of what a sculpture gallery should do. And, although it incorporates them, it is out of scale, and tends to dwarf them with its bogus Doric features, including those columns, supporting almost nothing which would have made an ancient Greek artist architect whince. The source of daylight is too high above the sculptures, a fault that is only concealed by the amount of reflection from the pinkish marble walls. These are too similar in colour to the marbles...These half-dozen elementary errors were pointed out by everyone in the Museum, and by many scholars outside, when the building was projected.[71]

It was not until the 1980s that the installation, of a lighting scheme removed his greatest criticism of the building.


h. ^  The Cairo Museum has 150,000 artefacts, with leading collections reposited at the Musee du Louvre (60,000), Petrie Museum (80,000), The Metropolitan Museum of art (36,000), University of Pennsylvania (42,000), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (40,000), Museo Egizio, Turin (32,500 objects).

References

  1. ^ http://www.uwosh.edu/cambridge/journals/morgan1.htm
  2. ^ Reports and accounts for the year ended 31 March 2007 (PDF). British Museum (12 July 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  3. ^ Mark Fisher. Britain's Best Museums and Galleries (2004) ISBN 0-713-99575-0
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1682270.stm
  5. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/visit/index.html#admis
  6. ^ http://www.fathom.com/course/21701728/session1.html
  7. ^ http://www.britishmuseum.org/the_museum/history/general_history.aspx
  8. ^ Gavin R de Beer, Sir Hans Sloane and the British Museum (London, 1953).
  9. ^ Letter to Charles Long (1823), BMCE115/3,10. Scrapbooks and illustrations of the Museum. {Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press, pg 346)
  10. ^ http://www.bmimages.com/preview.asp?image=00032676001&imagex=90&searchnum=0001
  11. ^ Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press, pg 25
  12. ^ BMCE1/5, 1175 (13 May 1820). Minutes of General Meeting of the Trustees, 1754-63. {Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History, pg 78)
  13. ^ Wondrous Curiosities - Ancient Egypt at the British Museum, pg 66-72 (Stephanie Moser, 2006, ISBN 0226542092
  14. ^ The Story of the British Museum, pg 24 (Marjorie Caygill, 2003, ISBN 0714127728)
  15. ^ The British Museum - The Elgin Marbles, pg 85 (B.F.Cook, 2005, ISBN 0714121347
  16. ^ The British Museum - Assyrian Sculpture, pg 6-7 (Julian Reade, 2004, ISBN 071412141X)
  17. ^ http://www.bl.uk/collections/early/georgeiii.html
  18. ^ Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press, pg 79
  19. ^ The Story of the British Museum, pg 25 (Marjorie Caygill, 2003, ISBN 0714127728)
  20. ^ Reade, Julian (2004). Assyrian Sculpture. London: The British Museum Press, pg 16
  21. ^ Dickens, Charles, Jr (1879). "Museum, British". Dickens's Dictionary of London. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. “Beyond the new Lycian room is the READING ROOM: [...] ; circular structure; original suggestion of Thomas Watts, improved by A. (Sir A.) Panizzi, carried out by Mr. Sidney Smirke; [...]”
  22. ^ South from Ephesus - An Escape From The Tyranny Of Western Art, pg 33-34,(Brian Sewell, 2002, ISBN 1903933161)
  23. ^ The Electric Light in the British Museum - Excerpt from London Times, November 25, 1879 December 18, 1879 (pdf). New York Times (December 18, 1879). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  24. ^ Caygill, Marjorie (2006). The British Museum: 250 Years. London: The British Museum Press, pg 5
  25. ^ a b Caygill, Marjorie. Creating a Great Museum: Early Collectors and The British Museum. Fathom.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  26. ^ Permanent establishment of the Research Laboratory (now the oldest such establishment in continuous existence) http://www.britishmuseum.org/visit/datelist.html
  27. ^ Cook, B.F. (2005). The Elgin Marbles. London: The British Museum Press, pg 92
  28. ^ Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press, pg 270
  29. ^ Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press, pg 327
  30. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/libraries/#hamlyn
  31. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/africangalleries/index.html
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ Building the British Museum, Marjorie Caygill & Christopher Date 1999
  35. ^ http://www.es.ucl.ac.uk/department/collections/RockRoom/building.htm
  36. ^ Title deed of the 'perimeter properties' of The British Museum, BM Archives CA TD
  37. ^ pages 65-66, Building the British Museum, Marjorie Caygill & Christopher Date 1999
  38. ^ Norman Foster and the British Museum, Norman Foster, Deyan Sudjic & Spencer de Grey 2001
  39. ^ http://www.taiwanheadlines.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=60974&CtNode=10
  40. ^ Higgins, Charlotte. "British Museum plans £100m complex for blockbusters", The Guardian, 5 July 2007, p. 10. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (English) 
  41. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/world/egypt/egypt.html
  42. ^ Reported in the list of Sloane's collection given to his executors in 1753. Reproduced in MacGregor (1994a:29)
  43. ^ http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/spencer.htm
  44. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/aes/aesnot.html
  45. ^ http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/amarna/cuneiform2.html
  46. ^ Tony Kitto, "The celebrated connoisseur: Charles Townley, 1737-1805" Minerva Magazine May/June 2005, in connection with a British Museum exhibition clebrating the bicentennial of the Townley purchase. [3]
  47. ^ http://http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/the_museum/departments/me.aspx
  48. ^ http://www.untoldlondon.org.uk/collections/SE000073.html#Asian:_Sri_Lankan
  49. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/ane/anecoll2.html
  50. ^ http://www.discoverislamicart.org/pm_partner.php?id=Mus01;uk&type=museum&theme=ISL&
  51. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/pd/pdhome.html
  52. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/newsroom/archive1999/landmarks.html
  53. ^ http://www.untoldlondon.org.uk/collections/SE000073.html
  54. ^ http://www.uk.emb-japan.go.jp/en/japaninfo/culture/britishmuseum.html
  55. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/asia/ashome.html
  56. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/asia/ascoll.html
  57. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/explore/galleries/asia/room_33a_amaravati.aspx
  58. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/the_museum/departments/africa,_oceania_and_americas.aspx
  59. ^ http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/gr/andart.html
  60. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/arts/story/2006/03/26/aboriginal-ashes.html
  61. ^ http://www.parthenonuk.com/article.php?id=79
  62. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,675202,00.html
  63. ^ http://feeds.bignewsnetwork.com/?sid=50968
  64. ^ http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/arts_entertainment/art/getting+the+nazi+stolen+art+back/339147
  65. ^ http://arts.guardian.co.uk/art/news/story/0,,2053344,00.html
  66. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/arts/story/2006/03/26/aboriginal-ashes.html
  67. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/576945.stm
  68. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/3084215.stm
  69. ^ The question of the use of the term 'British' at this period has recently received some attention, e.g. Colley (1992), 85ff. There never has been a serious attempt to change the Museum's name.
  70. ^ Qouted Ashmole(1994), 125
  71. ^ Ashmole (1994), 126
  72. ^ 2005 Annual Report - Tableau récapitulatif de l’état d'avancement de l'informatisation des collections fin 2005, pg 185
  73. ^ 2005 Annual Report - Tableau récapitulatif de l’état d'avancement de l'informatisation des collections fin 2005, pg 185
  74. ^ 2005 Annual Report - Tableau récapitulatif de l’état d'avancement de l'informatisation des collections fin 2005, pg 185
  75. ^ Wen, Lianxi (ed.) (1925). 故宫物品点查报告 [Palace items auditing report]. Beijing: Caretaker Committee of the Qing Dynasty Imperial Family. Reprint (2004): Xianzhuang Book Company. ISBN 7-80106-238-8

is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Dickens, Jr, born Charles Culliford Boz Dickens (6 January 1837 – 1896), was the first child of the novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870). ... Charles Dickens, Jr, born Charles Culliford Boz Dickens (6 January 1837 – 1896), was the first child of the novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Anderson, Robert (2005). The Great Court and The British Museum. London: The British Museum Press
  • Caygill, Marjorie (2006). The British Museum: 250 Years. London: The British Museum Press
  • Caygill, Marjorie (2002). The Story of the British Museum. London: The British Museum Press
  • Cook, B.F. (2005). The Elgin Marbles. London: The British Museum Press
  • Jenkins, Ian (2006). Greek Architecture and its Sculpture in The British Museum. London: The British Museum Press
  • Moser, Stephanie (2006). Wondrous Curiosities: Ancient Egypt at The British Museum. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
  • Reade, Julian (2004). Assyrian Sculpture. London: The British Museum Press
  • Reeve, John (2003). The British Museum: Visitor's Guide. London: The British Museum Press
  • Wilson, David, M. (2002). The British Museum: A History. London: The British Museum Press

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
British Museum
  • Official website of the British Museum
  • A list of important dates in the British Museum's history from the official website

Coordinates: 51°31′10″N 0°7′37″W / 51.51944, -0.12694 (British Museum) Image File history File links En-british_museum. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
British Museum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1918 words)
The British Museum in London is one of the world's largest and most important museums of human history and culture.
The British Museum is home to over seven million objects from all continents illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
The British Museum offers a range of learning experiences for everyone including schools, families and adults, one of which is a Postgraduate Diploma that focuses on the classical and decorative arts of Asia.
British Museum tube station - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (624 words)
British Museum tube station was a station on the London Underground's Central Line, located close to the British Museum.
British Museum station was subsequently re-used up to the 1960s as a military administrative office and emergency command post, but it is now wholly disused.
The station in question is named simply "Museum" and is clearly stated as being "between" Holborn and British Museum stations in a conversation between Pleasance and Clive Swift, and is supposedly part of a completely separate line that was not completed due to the company building it going bankrupt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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