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Encyclopedia > British Mandate Palestine
Mandate for Palestine
Mandate of the United Kingdom

1920 – 1948

Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Anthem عاش المليك As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni(transliteration)1 Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Amman Official languages Arabic Government  -  King Abdullah II  -  Prime Minister Marouf al-Bakhit Independence  -  End of British League of Nations mandate 25 May 1946  Area  -  Total 89,342 km² (112th) 45,495 sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Anthem: Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital  Jerusalem Largest city Jerusalem Official languages Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav1  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert  - Knesset Speaker Dalia Itzik Independence from the League of Nations mandate administered by the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 20,770... Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ...


Flag Proportions 1:2 The Palestinian flag was originally designed by Sharif Hussein for the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire in 1916. ...

The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. In September 1922 Britain organized the territory east of the Jordan river, "Transjordan," as an autonomous state.
Capital Not specified
Political structure League of Nations Mandate
High Commissioner
 - 19201925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel
 - 19451948 Sir Alan G. Cunningham
Historical era Interwar Period
 - Mandate assigned 25 April, 1920
 - Britain officially assumes control 29 September 1923
 - Transjordanian independence 25 May 1946
 - Founding of Israel 14 May, 1948

The Mandate for Palestine (Hebrew:  (פלשתינה (ארץ-ישראל Palestina (Eretz Yisrael); Arabic: فلسطي Filastin), also known as the Mandate of Palestine or British Mandate of Palestine, was a territory in the Middle East from 1920-1948, now comprising modern-day Jordan, Israel, and territories governed in different degrees of control by the Palestinian Authority. This League of Nations mandate was created in the aftermath of World War I, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which had controlled the area since the 16th Century. It was originally bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the West, the French Mandate of Lebanon, French Mandate of Syria, and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia to the North, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to the East and South, and the Kingdom of Egypt to the Southwest. Image File history File links BritishMandatePalestine1920. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... A government is a body that has the power to make, and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Alan Cunningham, British Army Officer Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1st May 1887 _ 30th January 1983) was a British Army officer noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II. He was the younger brother of the renowned Admiral Andrew Cunningham. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The French Mandate of Lebanon was a League of Nations Mandate created at the end of World War I. When the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles, four mandate territories were created, with the rest of the territory, aside from Turkey, being placed under monarchies. ... The French Mandate of Syria was a League of Nations Mandate created after the First World War when the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles. ... The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the Sanremo conference in... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


British victories during World War I and years of delay before formal treaties were ratified left the bulk of this territory under British military occupation from 1917 to 1920, at which time the British government placed Palestine under civil rule, in anticipation of the granting of a formal League of Nations Mandate to the United Kingdom, which was approved in July 1922 and came into effect in September 1923. The League explicitly tasked the British with recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country" and “secur[ing] the establishment of the Jewish national home” while simultaneously safeguarding "the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine.”[1] The precise geographical boundaries of the Mandate, and whether or not it was wholly intended to become a "Jewish National Home" have historically been disputed, with conflicting and shifting British promises to Jewish and Arab interests made in the Balfour Declaration of 1917, the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, and the Churchill White Paper, 1922. Territory under British control east of the Jordan River was formed in September 1922 into a separate administration known as Transjordan. Transfer of authority to an Arab government in Transjordan took place gradually, starting with the recognition of a local administration in 1923 and transfer of most administrative functions in 1928.[2] Britain retained mandatory authority over the region until it became fully independent as the Hashemite Kingdom of Trans-Jordan in 1946. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... Arthur James Balfour. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Anthem عاش المليك As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni(transliteration)1 Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Amman Official languages Arabic Government  -  King Abdullah II  -  Prime Minister Marouf al-Bakhit Independence  -  End of British League of Nations mandate 25 May 1946  Area  -  Total 89,342 km² (112th) 45,495 sq...


The territory west of the Jordan remained under British administration until 1948. Following World War II, the United Nations succeeded the League of Nations as overseer of Mandate territories, and took up the question of Jewish and Arab self-government in the Mandate. On September 30, 1947 Britain decided to terminate the British mandate of Palestine, later setting the withdrawal date of May 15th, 1948.[3] Subsequently, a majority of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem to be placed under international administration, and on November 29, 1947 the UN General Assembly voted 33 to 13 in favor of the 1947 UN Partition Plan. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was a United Nations special committee that was formed in the May of 1947, in response to the handover of the British Mandate of Palestine to the United Nations to vote upon which solution to use for partitioning the land. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ...


The partition plan was rejected out of hand by the leadership of the Palestinian Arabs, by the Arab League, and by most of the Arab population. Most of the Jews accepted the proposal, in particular the Jewish Agency, which was the Jewish state-in-formation. The British refused to implement any parts of the Plan deemed unacceptable by either side, and refused to co-administrate the Mandate with the UN Commission. Jewish leaders declared the independent State of Israel the day prior to British withdrawal, on 14 May 1948, and the ensuing 1948 Arab-Israeli War ended with the former mandatory territory controlled by the State of Israel, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and the Kingdom of Egypt. The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominantly Arab states (compare Arab world). ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising...

Contents

Early History

Ancient to modern history

Main articles: History of Palestine and History of ancient Israel and Judah

This territory was inhabited by the Canaanites then Israelites then it became part of the Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Roman Empires with periods of independence or autonomy for the Jews. When the Roman Empire split it was ruled by the Eastern Roman Empire called the Byzantine Empire. Then it was ruled by the Sassanians, Omayyads, Crusaders, Mamelukes then the Ottoman Empire from 1517-1922. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Umayyad dynasty (Banu Umayyah), deriving its name from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first great dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


The Ottomans gained control of the Middle East under Selim I (1465-1520), and incorporated the region into an administrative unit, the eyalet of Syria. The name "Palestine" disappeared as the official name of an administrative unit, and much of the region became part of the vilayet (province) of Damascus-Syria until 1660, then the vilayet of Saida (Sidon), briefly interrupted by the 7 March 1799 - July 1799 French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea. On 10 May 1832 it was one of the Turkish provinces annexed by Muhammad Ali's briefly imperialistic Egypt (nominally still Ottoman), but in November 1840 direct Ottoman rule was restored. Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... mary elline m. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا á¹¢aydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the viceroy of Egypt. ...


World War I

General Allenby's final attacks of the Palestine Campaign gave Britain control of the area by driving out the Ottomans.

Before the end of World War I, the British, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign under General Allenby and the Arab Revolt stirred up by the intelligence officer T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), defeated Ottoman Turkish forces in 1917 and occupied Palestine and Syria. The land was administered by the British for the remainder of the war. The British military administration ended starvation with the aid of food supplies from Egypt, successfully fought typhus and cholera epidemics and significantly improved the water supply to Jerusalem. They reduced corruption by paying the Arab and Jewish judges higher salaries. Communications were improved by new railway and telegraph lines. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x848, 103 KB) Summary Allenbys final attack, September 1918. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x848, 103 KB) Summary Allenbys final attack, September 1918. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... // T. E. Lawrence in the white silk robes of the Sherifs of Mecca. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


During World War I the British had made two promises regarding territory in the Middle East. Britain had promised the local Arabs, through Lawrence, independence for a united Arab country covering most of the Arab Middle East, in exchange for their supporting the British; and Britain had promised to create and foster a Jewish national home as laid out in the Balfour Declaration, 1917. The British had, in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, previously promised the Hashemite family lordship over most land in the region in return for their support. At the same time, British interest in Zionism dates to the rise in importance of the British Empire’s South Asian enterprises in the early 19th century, concurrent with "the Great Game" and planning for the Suez Canal. Eminent British figures such as Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, Lloyd George, Lord Palmerston and Arthur Balfour were among the enthusiastic proponents of Zionism. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth realms, and the Emperor of India. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British Prime Minister and Liberal politician. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, (25 July 1848-19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. ...


In October British forces in Syria and the last British soldiers stationed east of the Jordan were withdrawn and the region was under exclusive control of Faisal bin Hussein from Damascus.[4]


On November 23, 1918, a military edict was issued dividing Ottoman territories into occupied enemy territories (OET). The Middle East would be divided into three OETs, and OET-South extended from the Egyptian border of Sinai into Palestine and Lebanon as far north as Acre and Nablus and as tar east as the River Jordan. A temporary British military governor (General Moony) would administer this sector.[5][6][7] At that time General Allenby assured Amir Faisal "that the Allies were in honour bound to endeavour to reach a settlement in accordance with the wishes of the peoples concerned and urged him to place his trust whole-heartedly in their good faith."[8] The city of Acre [1] is in the Western Galilee district in northern Israel. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ...


Interwar period

Borders, legal status, and administration to 1923

Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement

In the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916, Britain and France had proposed to divide the Middle East between them into spheres of influence, with "Palestine" as an international enclave.[9] In a meeting at Deauville in 1919, David Lloyd George and Georges Clemenceau revised this agreement, with Palestine and the Vilayet of Mosul in modern-day Iraq falling into the British sphere in exchange for British support of French influence in Syria and Lebanon.[10] According to historian Ilan Pappe, Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Deauville is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... In 1879 Mosul Vilayet (province) was separated from Baghdad Vilayet. ...

"The borders of mandatory Palestine, first drawn up in the Sykes-Picot Agreement, were given their definitive shape during lengthy and tedious negotiations by British and French officials between 1919 and 1922...In October 1919 the British envisaged the area that is today southern Lebanon and most of southern Syria as being part of British mandatory Palestine...In the East, matters were more complicated...[Transjordan] was part of the Ottoman province of Damascus which in the Sykes-Picot agreement had been allocated to the French."[11]

At the San Remo Conference (19-26 April 1920) the Allied Supreme Council granted the mandates for Palestine and Mesopotamia to Britain without precisely defining the boundaries of the mandated territories.[12][13] Although the land east of the Jordan had been part of the Syrian administrative unit under the Ottomans, it was excluded from the French Mandate at the San Remo conference, "on the grounds that it was part of Palestine."[14] The Sanremo conference was an international meeting held in Sanremo, Italy, from 19-26 April 1920. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Regardless of the territorial boundaries, from an administrative standpoint, the 1947 UNSCOP report in the Official Records of the Second Session of the [United Nations] General Assembly noted: "Following its occupation by British troops in 1917-1918, Palestine had been controlled by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration of the United Kingdom Government. Anticipating the establishment of the Mandate, the United Kingdom Government, as from 1 July 1920, replaced the military with a civilian administration, headed by a High Commissioner ultimately responsible to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in Great Britain."[15][16] David Lloyd George approved the appointment of Herbert Samuel as this High Commissioner. Samuel arrived in Palestine on June 20, 1920 and complied with a demand from the head of the military administration, General Sir Louis Bols, that he sign a receipt for ‘one Palestine, complete’: Samuel famously added the common commercial escape clause, ‘E&OE’ (errors and omissions excepted).[17] UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel GCB OM GBE PC (November 6, 1870 - February 2, 1963) was an Anglo-Jewish politician and diplomat. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 194 days remaining. ...


French war in Syria and separation of Transjordan

At the Battle of Maysalun on 23 July 1920 the French removed the newly-proclaimed nationalist government of Hashim al-Atassi and expelled King Faisal from Syria. British Foreign Secretary Earl Curzon wrote to Samuel in August 1920, stating, "I suggest that you should let it be known forthwith that in the area south of the [Sykes-Picot] line, we will not admit French authority and that our policy for this area to be independent but in closest relations with Palestine."[18] Samuel replied to Curzon, "After the fall of Damascus a fortnight ago...Sheiks and tribes east of Jordan utterly dissatisfied with Shareefian Government most unlikely would accept revival"[19] and subsequently announced that Transjordan was under British Mandate.[20] Without authority from London Samuel then visited Transjordan and at a meeting with 600 leaders in Salt announced the independence of the area from Damascus and its absorption into the mandate, quadrupling the area under his control. Samuel assured his audience that Transjordan would not be merged with Palestine.[21] The foreign secretary, Lord Curzon, repudiated Samuel's action.[17] Subsequently, Faisal's brother Abdullah arrived in Ma'an in southern Transjordan with 2000 followers announcing his intention to retake Syria from the French.[22] Battle of Maysalun Conflict Franco-Syrian War Date July 23, 1920 Place Maysalun Pass, Anti-Lebanon mountains (Syria) Result French Victory The Battle of Maysalun, also called The Battle of Maysalun Pass, took place between Syrian and French forces some 12 miles west of Damascus on July 23, 1920. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... President Hashim al-Atassi Hashim (Bay Khalid) al-Atassi (1875 - Dec. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Viscount Scarsdale and Baron Scarsdale are titles in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Peerage of Great Britain, respectively. ... The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925) was a British Conservative statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... Maan (Arabic: معان) is a city in southern Jordan. ...

The Palestine Ensign, flown by ships registered in the Mandate territory, 1927-1948

Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ... Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ...

Ratification procedure

According to the Council of the League of Nations, meeting of August 1920 (p109-110): "draft mandates adopted by the Allied and Associated Powers would not be definitive until they had been considered and approved by the League ... the legal title held by the mandatory Power must be a double one: one conferred by the Principal Powers and the other conferred by the League of Nations,"[23] and three steps were required to establish a Mandate under international law: (1) The Principal Allied and Associated Powers confer a mandate on one of their number or on a third power; (2) the principal powers officially notify the council of the League of Nations that a certain power has been appointed mandatory for such a certain defined territory; and (3) the council of the League of Nations takes official cognisance of the appointment of the mandatory power and informs the latter that it [the council] considers it as invested with the mandate, and at the same time notifies it of the terms of the mandate, after assertaining whether they are in conformance with the provisions of the covenant."[23][24]


1922 White Paper

In March 1921 Colonial secretary, Winston Churchill, visited Jerusalem and after discussion with Abdullah accepted Transjordan into the mandatory area with the proviso that it would be under the nominal rule of the emir Abdullah (initially for six months) and would not form part of the Jewish national home to be established west of the River Jordan[17], and on June 3, 1922 the Churchill White Paper, 1922 stated explicitly that "the terms of the [Balfour] Declaration referred to do not contemplate that Palestine as a whole should be converted into a Jewish National Home, but that such a Home should be founded `in Palestine.'" June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ...

A stamp from Palestine under the British Mandate

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ...

League of Nations ratifies legal Mandate

In June 1922 the League of Nations approved the Palestine Mandate, to come into effect when a dispute between France and Italy over the Syria Mandate was settled. That occurred in September 1923. According to the League of Nations Official Journal', "the mandates for Palestine and Syria would now enter into force automatically and at the same time."[25] The Palestine Mandate was an explicit document regarding Britain's responsibilities and powers of administration in Palestine including recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country" and “secur[ing] the establishment of the Jewish national home” while safeguarding "the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine” and "political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country”.


The document defining Britain’s obligations as Mandate power copied the text of the Balfour Declaration concerning the establishment of a Jewish national home:

His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.[citation needed]

Many articles of the document specified actions in support of Jewish immigration and political status. However, it was also stated that in the large, mostly arid, territory to the east of the Jordan River, then called Transjordan, Britain could ‘postpone or withhold’ application of the provisions dealing with the 'Jewish National Home'. In September 1922, the British government presented a memorandum to the League of Nations stating that Transjordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement, and this memorandum was approved on 23 September. From that point onwards, Britain administered the part west of the Jordan as Palestine (which was 23% of the entire territory), and the part east of the Jordan as Transjordan (constituting 77% of the mandated territories). Technically they remained one mandate but most official documents referred to them as if they were two separate mandates. Transjordan remained under British control until 1946. Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...


The boundary between the forthcoming British and French mandates was defined in broad terms by the Franco-British Boundary Agreement of December 1920 [26]. That agreement placed the bulk of the Golan Heights in the French sphere. The treaty also established a joint commission to settle the precise details of the border and mark it on the ground.[26] The commission submitted its final report on February 3, 1922, and it was approved with some caveats by the British and French governments on March 7, 1923, several months before Britain and France assumed their Mandatory responsibilities on 29 September, 1923.[27][28] In accordance with the same process, a nearby parcel of land that included the ancient site of Dan was transferred from Syria to Palestine early in 1924. The Golan Heights thus became part of the French Mandate of Syria. American President Woodrow Wilson protested British concessions in a cable to the British Cabinet.[29] When the French Mandate of Syria ended in 1944, The Golan Heights became part of the newly independent state of Syria. The Franco-British Boundary Agreement of 1920, properly called the Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, was an agreement signed between the British and French governments in Paris, December 23, 1920. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tel Dan is an area in upper Galilee in Northern Israel; fed by melt water from the snows of mount Hermon, it is well watered by streams and covered with lush vegetation that seems out of place amidst its arid surroundings. ... The French Mandate of Syria was a League of Nations Mandate created after the First World War when the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ...


In October 1923, Britain provided the League with two reports on the administration of Palestine and Iraq for the period 1920-1922. The Secretary General's statement accepting the reports says: "The mandate for Palestine only came into force on September 29th, 1923. The two reports cover periods previous to the application of the mandates."[30]


Immigration

Kibbutz Degania Alef, during the 1930s

According to official records, 367,845 Jews and 33,304 non-Jews immigrated legally between 1920 and 1945.[31] It was estimated that another 50-60,000 Jews and a small number of non-Jews immigrated illegally during this period.[32] Immigration accounts for most of the increase of Jewish population, while the non-Jewish population increase was largely natural. These figures have been supported by later studies[33], though estimates of Arab immigration have been disputed.[34] Public photo of Kibbutz Deganya Alef in the 1930s, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of Kibbutz Deganya Alef in the 1930s, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Degania, the mother of kvutzot (small kibbutzim) in the 1930s. ...


Initially, Jewish immigration to Palestine met little opposition from the Palestinian Arabs. However, as anti-Semitism grew in Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Jewish immigration (mostly from Europe) to Palestine began to increase markedly, creating much Arab resentment. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


There was violent incitement from the Palestine Muslim leadership that led to violent attacks against the Jewish population.[citation needed] In some cases, land purchases by the Jewish agencies from absentee landlords led to the eviction of the Palestinian Arab tenants, who were replaced by the Jews of the kibbutzim.[citation needed] Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ...


The British government placed limitations on Jewish immigration to Palestine. These quotas were controversial, particularly in the latter years of British rule, and both Arabs and Jews disliked the policy, each side for its own reasons. In response to numerous Arab attacks on Jewish communities, the Haganah, a Jewish paramilitary organization, was formed on June 15, 1920 to defend Jewish residents. Tensions led to widespread violent disturbances on several occasions, notably in 1921, 1929 (primarily violent attacks by Arabs on Jews — see Hebron) and 1936-1939. Beginning in 1936, several Jewish groups such as Etzel (Irgun) and Lehi (Stern Gang) conducted their own campaigns of violence against British military and Arab targets. This prompted the British government to label them both as terrorist organizations. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Cave of the Patriarchs, also site of the Ibrahimi Mosque. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Avraham Stern Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) was a radical underground Jewish paramilitary group, a terrorist group according to both its own description and that of its opponents. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Infrastructure and development

From the 1920s to the start of the Second World War, the Mandate territory underwent enormous economic and cultural development. The institutions founded in this period included an elected assembly, the Asefat Hanivharim, the National Council for welfare, education, and religious service Vaad Leumi in 1920, a centralized Hebrew school system in 1919, the Histadrut labor federation in 1920, the Technion university in 1924, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1925.[35] The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון - מכון טכנולוגי לישראל) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is one of Israels oldest, largest, and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Jewish immigration was controlled by the Histadrut, which selected between applicants on the grounds of their political creed.[citation needed] Land purchased by Jewish agencies was leased on the conditions that it be worked only by Jewish labor and that the lease should not be held by non-Jews.[citation needed] The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ...


Great Uprising

Main article: 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

In 1937, the Peel Commission proposed a partition between Jewish and Arab areas that was rejected by both the Arabs and the Zionist Congress. The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ...


In 1936-1939 the mandate experienced an upsurge in militant Arab nationalism that became also known as "the Great Uprising." The revolt was triggered by increased Jewish immigration, primarily Jews that escaped the Nazi regime in Germany as well as rising anti-Semitism throughout Europe. The revolt was led or co-opted by the Grand Mufti, Haj Amin Al-Husseini and his Husseini family. The Arabs felt they were being marginalized in their own country, but in addition to non-violent strikes, they resorted to violence, including numerous attacks on Jewish civilians[citation needed]. The Jewish organization Irgun replied with its own campaign, with marketplace bombings and other violent acts that also killed hundreds. Eventually, the uprising was put down by the British using severe measures. Haj Amin El Husseini fled first to Lebanon, then to Iraq, and finally to Germany in late 1941. National Socialism redirects here. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... During the Great Uprising (1936-1939) of the Arabs in Palestine, in which more than 320 Jews were killed by Arab attacks, the Irgun carried out sixty retaliatory attacks against Arabs, reflecting its worldview that political violence and terrorism were legitimate tools in the Jewish national struggle for the Land...


The British placed restrictions on Jewish land purchases in the remaining land, directly contradicting the provisions of the Mandate. A similar proposal to limit immigration in 1931 had been termed a violation of the mandate by the League of Nations. According to the Israeli side, the British had by 1949 allotted over 8500 acres (34 km²) to Arabs, and about 4100 acres (16 km²) to Jews.


World War II and post-war end of Mandate

Allied and Axis activity

As in most of the Arab world, there was no unanimity amongst the Palestinian Arabs as to their position regarding the combatants in WWII. Many signed up for the British army, but others saw an Axis victory as a likely outcome and a way of securing Palestine back from the Zionists and the British. Some of the leadership went further, especially the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al-Husseini (who had by then escaped to Iraq), who on November 25, 1941, formally declared jihad against the Allied Powers seen as the occupiers.[citation needed] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The title Grand Mufti of Jerusalem is predominantly used to refer to Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, or Cihad, (Arabic: IPA: ) as an Islamic term, is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in Sunni Islam. ...


Even though Arabs were only marginally higher than Jews in Nazi racial theory, the Nazis naturally encouraged Arab support as much as possible as a counter to British hegemony throughout the Arab world.[36] Nazis claimed to scientifically measure a strict hierarchy among races; at the top was the Aryan race (minus the Slavs, who were seen as below Aryan), then lesser races. ...


Arabs who opposed the persecution of the Jews at the hand of the Nazis included Habib Bourguiba in Tunisia and Egyptian intellectuals such as Tawfiq al-Hakim and Abbas Mahmoud al-Arkad. (Source: Yad Vashem). The mandate recruited soldiers in Palestine. About 6,000 Palestinian Arabs joined the British forces and about 26,000 Jews. Habib Bourguiba - 1980 Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (Arabic: حبيب بورقيبة) (born August 3, 1903 in Monastir, Tunisia – died April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the first President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 to November 7, 1987. ... Tawfiq al-Hakim (1898-1987) was an Egyptian thinker, author, novelist and dramatist who played a pivotal role in the creation of modern Arabic literature from the 1930s onwards. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...


In World War II, Italy, which in 1940 declared war on the British Commonwealth on Germany's side, attacked Palestine from the air. In 1942 there was a period of anxiety for the Yishuv, when the German forces of general Erwin Rommel advanced east in North Africa towards the Suez Canal and there was fear that they would conquer Palestine. This period was referred to as the two hundred days of anxiety. This event was the direct cause for the founding, with British support, of the Palmach[37] - a highly-trained regular unit belonging to Haganah (which was mostly made up of reserve troops). The Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II started in July 1940. ... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic North Africa, including the UN subregion North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided politically from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... The Palmach (Hebrew: פלמח, an acronym for Plugot Mahatz (Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ), Strike Companies) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ...


The Holocaust and Jewish immigration

The Holocaust had a major effect on the situation in Palestine. During the war, the British forbade entry into Palestine of European Jews escaping Nazi persecution, placing them in detention camps or deporting them to places such as Mauritius.[citation needed] Avraham Stern, the leader of the Jewish Lehi underground group, whose will to fight the British was so strong he offered to fight on the Nazi side, and other Zionists, tried to convince the Nazis to continue seeing emigration from Europe as the "solution" for their "Jewish problem", but the Nazis gradually abandoned this idea in favor of containment and physical extermination. “Shoah” redirects here. ... Avraham Stern Avraham Stern (Hebrew: אברהם שטרן Avraham Shtern), alias Yair (Hebrew: יאיר) (December 23, 1907 - February 12, 1942) was the founder and leader of the Zionist underground organization later known as Lehi and also known as the Stern Gang. Stern was born in Suwalki, Poland, immigrated to Israel in 1925, and studied... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish...


Starting in 1939, the Zionists organized an illegal immigration effort, known as Aliya Beth, conducted by "Hamossad Le'aliyah Bet", that rescued tens of thousands of European Jews from the Nazis by shipping them to Palestine in rickety boats. Many of these boats were intercepted. The last immigrant boat to try to enter Palestine during the war was the Struma, torpedoed in the Black Sea by a Soviet submarine in February 1942. The boat sank with the loss of nearly 800 lives. Illegal immigration resumed after WW II. Aliya Beth was a term used for illegal immigration to British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Mossad Lealiyah Bet (Hebrew: המוסד לעלייה ב) was a branch of the Haganah that operated as the organizing body for the Yishuv leaderships Haapala programme: the illegal Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from Romania to British-controlled Palestine. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet Zuri, members of the Jewish Lehi underground, assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo on 6 November 1944. Moyne was the British Minister of State for the Middle East. The assassination is said by some to have turned British Prime Minister Winston Churchill against the Zionist cause, but for Lehi the priority was to allow Jewish refugees to enter the country and to establish the state on their own. Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne (29 March 1880 - 6 November 1944) was a British politician. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid...


The British considered it more important to get Arab backing, because of their important interests in Egypt and other Arab lands, and especially to guarantee the friendship of oil-rich Saudi Arabia, and therefore continued the ban on immigration.


As a result of the assassination of Lord Moyne, the Haganah kidnapped, interrogated, and turned over to the British many members of the Irgun (ironically Lehi members were not harmed as a result of an understanding with Haganah, even though Lehi committed the assassination). This period is known as the 'Hunting Season'. Irgun ordered its members not to resist or retaliate with violence, so as to prevent a spiraling to civil war.


Following the war, 250,000 Jewish refugees were stranded in displaced persons (DP) camps in Europe. Despite the pressure of world opinion, in particular the repeated requests of US President Harry S. Truman and the recommendations of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, the British refused to lift the ban on immigration and admit 100,000 displaced persons to Palestine. The Jewish underground forces then united and carried out several attacks against the British. In 1946, the Irgun blew up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, the headquarters of the British administration, killing 92 people. President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The hotel after the bombing The King David Hotel bombing (July 22, 1946) was a bombing attack against the British government of Palestine by members of Irgun — a militant Zionist organization. ...


Seeing that the situation was quickly spiraling out of hand, the British announced their desire to terminate their mandate and to withdraw by May 1948.


United Nations Partition Plan

The UN Partition Plan.

The British Peel Commission proposed a Palestine divided between a Jewish and an Arab State, but in time changed their position and sought to limit Jewish immigration from Europe to a minimum. This was seen by Zionists and their sympathisers as betrayal of the terms of the mandate, especially in light of the increasing persecution in Europe and was met with a popular uprising and guerilla war from Jewish militant groups, often viewed as one of several factors that led the British to hand the problem over to the United Nations. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 327 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (627 × 1147 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png) I created this image, based on Image:UN Partition Plan Palestine, which is an image licensed under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 327 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (627 × 1147 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/png) I created this image, based on Image:UN Partition Plan Palestine, which is an image licensed under the terms of the GNU Free... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour of Jews and... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The UN, the successor to the League of Nations, attempted to solve the dispute, creating the UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on Palestine) on May 15, 1947. After spending three months conducting hearings and general survey of the situation in Palestine, UNSCOP officially released its report on August 31. A majority of nations (Canada, Czechoslovakia, Guatemala, Netherlands, Peru, Sweden, Uruguay) recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem to be placed under international administration. A minority (India, Iran, Yugoslavia) supported the creation of a single federal state containing both Jewish and Arab constituent states. Australia abstained. On November 29, the UN General Assembly voted 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions, in favour of the Partition Plan, while making some adjustments to the boundaries between the two states proposed by it. The division was to take effect on the date of British withdrawal. Both the United States and Soviet Union agreed on the resolution. In addition, pressure was exerted on some small countries by Zionist sympathizers in the United States.[38] The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...


The partition plan was rejected out of hand by the leadership of the Palestinian Arabs and by most of the Arab population. Most of the Jews accepted the proposal, in particular the Jewish Agency, which was the Jewish state-in-formation. Numerous records indicate the joy of Palestine's Jewish inhabitants as they attended the U.N. session voting for the division proposal. Up to this day, Israeli history books mention 29 November, the date of this session, as the most important date leading to the creation of the Israeli state. The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meeting in Cairo in November and December of 1947, the Arab League then adopted a series of resolutions aimed at a military solution to the conflict. The United Kingdom refused to implement the plan arguing it was not acceptable to both sides. It also refused to share with the UN Palestine Commission the administration of Palestine during the transitional period, and decided to terminate the Mandate on May 15th, 1948.[38][38] The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominantly Arab states (compare Arab world). ...


Several Jewish organizations also declined the proposal. Menachem Begin, Irgun's leader, announced: "The partition of the homeland is illegal. It will never be recognized. The signature by institutions and individuals of the partition agreement is invalid. It will not bind the Jewish people. Jerusalem was and will for ever be our capital. The Land of Israel will be restored to the people of Israel. All of it. And for ever". His views were publicly rejected by the majority of the nascent Jewish state.   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ...


Expiration of the Mandate and 1948 War

Main article: 1948 Arab-Israeli War
David Ben Gurion pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. Tel Aviv, Israel, beneath a large portrait of Theodore Herzl, founder of modern political Zionism.

The British mandate over Palestine was due to expire on 15 May 1948, but Jewish Leadership led by future Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, declared independence on 14 May. The State of Israel declared itself as an independent nation, and was quickly recognized by the Soviet Union, the United States, and many other countries. Over the next few days, approximately 1,000 Lebanese, 5,000 Syrian, 5,000 Iraqi, 10,000 Egyptian troops invaded the newly-established state. Four thousand Transjordanian troops invaded the Corpus separatum region encompassing Jerusalem and its environs, as well as areas designated as part of the Arab state by the UN partition plan. They were aided by corps of volunteers from Saudi Arabia, Libya and Yemen. Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... Caption: Source: jpg of Image:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948. ... ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Theodor Herzl Theodor Herzl (May 2, 1860–July 3, 1904) was an Austrian Jewish journalist who became the founder of modern political Zionism. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (135th in leap years). ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Corpus separatum means a divided body in Latin, it is used to describe cities that are split in two such as Jerusalem. ...


The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 stated: The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ...

We appeal ... to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions.

In an official cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the UN Secretary-General on 15 May 1948, the Arab states publicly proclaimed their aim of creating a "United State of Palestine" in place of the Jewish and Arab, two-state, UN Plan. They claimed the latter was invalid, as it was opposed by Palestine's Arab majority, and maintained that the absence of legal authority made it necessary to intervene to protect Arab lives and property.[39] On the date of British withdrawal the Jewish provisional government declared the formation of the State of Israel, and the provisional government said that it would grant full civil rights to all within its borders, whether Arab, Jew, Bedouin or Druze. May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Mandatory borders and 1949 Armistice

British Mandate: Proposed 1947 partition borders and 1949 armistice lines; main differences are in light red and magenta.

Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the State of Israel retained nearly all the territory that would have been assigned to it in the 1947 UN Partition Plan, as well as half of the land intended to become the Arab state of Palestine and a portion of the territory intended for international administration around Jerusalem. The remaining half of the land that had been intended to become Palestine along the West Bank of the Jordan River was annexed by Jordan, as was most of the Jerusalem enclave; the Gaza Strip along the Mediterranean coast, also included in the Arab state territory, was captured by Egypt. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (367x1029, 26 KB) Summary Comparison between the boundaries in the November 29th 1947 United Nations General Assembly partition plan (Resolution 181) for the British Mandate Territory of Palestine and the eventual armistice boundaries of 1949-1950. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (367x1029, 26 KB) Summary Comparison between the boundaries in the November 29th 1947 United Nations General Assembly partition plan (Resolution 181) for the British Mandate Territory of Palestine and the eventual armistice boundaries of 1949-1950. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ...

Population

Demographics, 1920

In 1920 the majority of the approximately 750,000 people in this multi-ethnic region were Arabic-speaking Muslims, including a Bedouin population (estimated at 103,331 at the time of the 1922 census[40] and concentrated in the Beersheba area and the region south and east of it), as well as Jews (who comprised some 11% of the total) and smaller groups of Druze, Syrians, Sudanese, Circassians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Hejazi Arabs. Hebrew   (Standard) Bəʼer ŠévaÊ» Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ ( ) Name Meaning Well of the Oath(see also) Government City Also Spelled Beer Sheva (officially) District South Population 185,500 (Metro 531,000) (2005) Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²) Mayor Yaacov Turner Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva), the largest city in the... Druze star The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion stemmed primarily from an offshoot of an Islamic sect, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western Province (Saudi Arabia). ...


In 1922 the British undertook the first census of the mandate. The population was 752,048, comprising 589,177 Muslims, 83,790 Jews, 71,464 Christians and 7,617 persons belonging to other groups. After a second census in 1931, the population had grown to 1,036,339 in total, comprising 761,922 Muslims, 175,138 Jews, 89,134 Christians and 10,145 people belonging to other groups. There were no further censuses but statistics were maintained by counting births, deaths and migration. Some components such as illegal immigration could only be estimated approximately. The White Paper of 1939, which placed immigration restrictions on Jews, stated that the Jewish population "has risen to some 450,000" and was "approaching a third of the entire population of the country". In 1945 a demographic study showed that the population had grown to 1,764,520, comprising 1,061,270 Muslims, 553,600 Jews, 135,550 Christians and 14,100 people of other groups. The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour...

Year Total Muslim Jewish Christian Other
1922 752,048 589,177(78%) 83,790(11%) 71,464(10%) 7,617(1%)
1931 1,036,339 761,922(74%) 175,138(17%) 89,134(9%) 10,145(1%)
1945 1,764,520 1,061,270(60%) 553,600(31%) 135,550(8%) 14,100(1%)

By district

The following table gives the demographics of each of the 16 districts of the Mandate.

Demographics of Palestine by district as of 1945
District Muslim Percentage Jewish Percentage Christian Percentage Total
Acre 51,130 69% 3,030 4% 11,800 16% 73,600
Beersheba 6,270 90% 510 7% 210 3% 7,000
Beisan 16,660 67% 7,590 30% 680 3% 24,950
Gaza 145,700 97% 3,540 2% 1,300 1% 150,540
Haifa 95,970 38% 119,020 47% 33,710 13% 253,450
Hebron 92,640 99% 300 <1% 170 <1% 93,120
Jaffa 95,980 24% 295,160 72% 17,790 4% 409,290
Jenin 60,000 98% Negligible <1% 1,210 2% 61,210
Jerusalem 104,460 42% 102,520 40% 46,130 18% 253,270
Nablus 92,810 98% Negligible <1% 1,560 2% 94,600
Nazareth 30,160 60% 7,980 16% 11,770 24% 49,910
Ramallah 40,520 83% Negligible <1% 8,410 17% 48,930
Ramle 95,590 71% 31,590 24% 5,840 4% 134,030
Safad 47,310 83% 7,170 13% 1,630 3% 56,970
Tiberias 23,940 58% 13,640 33% 2,470 6% 41,470
Tulkarm 76,460 82% 16,180 17% 380 1% 93,220
Total 1,076,780 58% 608,230 33% 145,060 9% 1,845,560
Data from the Survey of Palestine[41]

Land ownership of the British Mandate of Palestine

As of 1931, the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine was 26,625,600 dunums, of which 8,252,900 dunums or 33% were cultivable.[42]Official statistics show that Jews privately and collectively owned 1,393,531 dunums of land in 1945.[43] Estimates of the total volume of land that Jews had acquired by May 15, 1948 are complicated by illegal and unregistered land transfers, as well as by the lack of data on land concessions from the Palestine administration after March 31, 1936.[44] According to Avneri, Jews held 1,850,000 dunums of land in 1947.[45] Stein gives the estimate of 2,000,000 dunums as of May 1948.[46] A dunam (or dönüm, dunum) is a unit of land area enclosing 1000 square metres. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Land Ownership by district

The following table shows the land ownership of Palestine by district:

Land ownership of Palestine by district as of 1945
District Arab owned Jewish owned Public and other
Acre 87% 3% 10%
Beersheba 15% <1% 85%
Beisan 44% 34% 22%
Gaza 75% 4% 21%
Haifa 42% 35% 23%
Hebron 96% <1% 4%
Jaffa 47% 39% 14%
Jenin 84% <1% 16%
Jerusalem 84% 2% 14%
Nablus 87% <1% 13%
Nazareth 52% 28% 20%
Ramallah 99% <1% 1%
Ramle 77% 14% 9%
Safad 68% 18% 14%
Tiberias 51% 38% 11%
Tulkarm 78% 17% 5%
Data from the Land Ownership of Palestine[47]

Land ownership by type

The land owned privately and collectively by Arabs and Jews can be classified as urban, rural built-on, cultivable (farmed), and uncultivable. The following chart shows the ownership by Arabs and Jews in each of the categories.

Land ownership of Palestine (in dunums) as of April 1st, 1943
Category of land Arab and other non-Jewish ownership Jewish ownership Total Land
Urban 76,662 70,111 146,773
Rural built-on 36,851 42,330 79,181
Cereal (taxable) 5,503,183 814,102 6,317,285
Cereal (not taxable) 900,294 51,049 951,343
Plantation 1,079,788 95,514 1,175,302
Citrus 145,572 141,188 286,760
Banana 2,300 1,430 3,730
Uncultivable 16,925,805 298,523 17,224,328
Total 24,670,455 1,514,247 26,184,702
Data is from Survey of Palestine.[48][citation needed]

Land Laws of Palestine

  • Ottoman Land Code of 1858
  • Land Transfer Ordinance of 1920
  • 1926 Correction of Land Registers Ordinance
  • Land Settlement Ordinance of 1928
  • Land Transfer Regulations of 1940

British High Commissioners for Palestine

Name Term
Sir Herbert Louis Samuel 1920–1925
Herbert Onslow Plumer 1925–1928
Sir Harry Charles Luke (acting) 1928
Sir John Chancellor 1928–1931
Arthur Grenfell Wauchope 1931–1938
Sir Harold MacMichael 1938–1944
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort 1944–1945
Sir Alan G. Cunningham 1945–1948

Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... Herbert Onslow Plumer (1857-1932) was a British colonial official and soldier. ... Sir Harry Charles Luke (1884-1969) was a British colonial official. ... Sir John Robert Chancellor (1870–1952) was a British soldier and colonial official. ... Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope (1874-1947) was a British soldier and colonial administrator. ... Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael (1882-1969) was a British colonial administrator. ... Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort VC GCB CBE DSO and two Bars MVO MC (commonly known as Lord Gort) (10 July 1886 - 31 March 1946) was a British soldier who served in both World War I and II, rising to the rank of field marshal... The Viscountcy of Gort has been created twice, once in the Peerage of Ireland and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Alan Cunningham, British Army Officer Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1st May 1887 _ 30th January 1983) was a British Army officer noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II. He was the younger brother of the renowned Admiral Andrew Cunningham. ...

See also

Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... The Balfour Declaration was a letter of November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation. ... The Italian bombings on Palestine in World War II started in July 1940. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... 1804 print, in which Napoleon grants the Jews freedom to worship, represented by the hand given to the Jewish woman The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as the many... The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish... In the last 60 years, there have been a number of conflicts in the Middle East. ... The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ... Sir Herbert Layard Dowbiggin, C.M.G. (1880-1966) was the British colonial Inspector General of Police of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) from 1913 to 1937, the longest tenure of office of an Inspector General of Police (IGP). ... The pound was the currency of Palestine between 1927 and 1948. ...

Notes

  1. ^ This is text of the Balfour Declaration (see [1]) that was incorporated into the Treaty of Sèvres and the League of Nations' grant of the Mandate to Britain.
  2. ^ History of Transjordan at Government of Jordan site
  3. ^ Brown, Judith, and W.M. Roger Lewis, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol IV. "The Twentieth Century," p. 336. See:[2]
  4. ^ Biger, 2005, p. 173.
  5. ^ Biger, 2005, p. 55, p. 164.
  6. ^ The others included Occupied Enemy Territories North (Lebanon) under the command of French Colonel De Piape and Occupied Enemy Territories East (Syria and Transjordan) under the command of Faisal's chief of staff General Ali Riza el-Riqqabi.
  7. ^ See also "The Armistice in the Middle East," in [3]
  8. ^ Report of a Committee Set up to Consider Certain Correspondence Between Sir Henry McMahon and the Sharif of Mecca in 1915 and 1916, UNISPAL, Annex H.
  9. ^ Pappe, Ilan. The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951, I. B. Tauris; New Ed edition (August 15, 1994), p. 3.
  10. ^ Pappe, p. 3-4. Pappe suggests the French concessions were made to guarantee British support for French aims at the post-war peace conference concerning Germany and Europe.
  11. ^ Pappe, pp. 4-5.
  12. ^ Biger, 2005, p. 173.
  13. ^ Chaim Weizmann, subsequently reported to his colleagues in London: "There are still important details outstanding, such as the actual terms of the mandate and the question of the boundaries in Palestine. There is the delimitation of the boundary between French Syria and Palestine, which will constitute the northern frontier and the eastern line of demarcation, adjoining Arab Syria. The latter is not likely to be fixed until the Emir Feisal attends the Peace Conference, probably in Paris." See: 'Zionist Aspirations: Dr Weizmann on the Future of Palestine', The Times, Saturday, 8 May, 1920; p. 15.
  14. ^ Aruri, Naseer Hasan. Jordan: A Study in Political Development 1923-1965. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1972. p. 17.
  15. ^ Official Records of the Second Session of the General Assembly, Supplement No. 11, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, Report to the General Assembly, Volume 1. Lake Success, NY, 1947. A/364, 3 September 1947, Chapter II.C.68., at [4]
  16. ^ "in April 1920 the Allies decided that so far as the Arabic-speaking world was concerned they would implement the provisions of such a treaty [with Turkey] as they envisaged. Such action was of course, highly illegal...this irregular conduct was more public spirited than otherwise. It was the only sensible thing to do..." Christopher Sykes, Crossroads to Israel
  17. ^ a b c Bernard Wasserstein, ‘Samuel, Herbert Louis, first Viscount Samuel (1870–1963)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2006 accessed 21 April 2007.
  18. ^ Telegram from Earl Curzon to Sir Herbert Samuel, dated August 6, 1920, in Rohan Butler et al., Documents of British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939, first series volume XIII London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963, p. 331, cited in Aruri, p. 17
  19. ^ Telegram August 7, 1920, in Rohan Butler et al., Documents of British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939, first series volume XIII London:Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963, p. 334, in Aruri, p. 18.
  20. ^ Aruri p. 18.
  21. ^ Aruri, 1972, p.18.
  22. ^ Aruri, 1972, p.19.
  23. ^ a b Quincy Wright, Mandates under the League of Nations, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1930.
  24. ^ See also: Temperley, History of the Paris Peace Conference, Vol VI, p505-506; League of Nations, The Mandates System (official publication of 1945); Hill, Mandates, Dependencies and Trusteeship, p133ff.
  25. ^ League of Nations Council minutes Sep 29, 1923, Official Journal, Nov 23, p1355
  26. ^ a b Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia, signed Dec. 23, 1920. Text available in American Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1922, 122-126.
  27. ^ Agreement between His Majesty's Government and the French Government respecting the Boundary Line between Syria and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hámmé, Treaty Series No. 13 (1923), Cmd. 1910. Also Louis, 1969, p. 90.
  28. ^ FSU Law.
  29. ^ "The Zionist cause depends on rational northern and eastern boundaries for a self-maintaining, economic development of the country. This means, on the north, Palestine must include the Litani River and the watersheds of the Hermon, and on the east it must include the plains of the Jaulon and the Hauran. Narrower than this is a mutilation… I need not remind you that neither in this country nor in Paris has there been any opposition to the Zionist program, and to its realization the boundaries I have named are indispensable". Abelson, Meir, Palestine: The Original Sin.
  30. ^ League of Nations, Official Journal, Oct 1923, p1217.
  31. ^ (1946) A Survey of Palestine: Prepared in December, 1945 and January, 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Palestine: Govt. printer, pp. 185. 
  32. ^ Ibid., pp. 210: "Arab illegal immigration is mainly ... casual, temporary and seasonal". pp. 212: "The conclusion is that Arab illegal immigration for the purpose of permanent settlement is insignificant".
  33. ^ J. McCarthy (1995). The population of Palestine: population history and statistics of the late Ottoman period and the Mandate. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press. 
  34. ^ Gottheil, Fred M. "The Smoking Gun: Arab Immigration into Palestine, 1922-1931.". Retrieved on 2007-05-15. Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2003, Volume X, Number 1, at [5]
  35. ^ See: The Jewish Community under the Mandate
  36. ^ Secret World War II documents released by the UK in July, 2001, include documents on an Operation Atlas (See References: KV 2/400-402. A joint German/Arab team, lead by Kurt Wieland, parachuted into Palestine in September 1944. This was one of the last German efforts in the region to attack the Jewish community in Palestine and undermine British rule by supplying local Arabs with cash, arms and sabotage equipment. The team was picked up shortly after landing.
  37. ^ How the Palmach was formed (History Central)
  38. ^ a b c "Palestine". Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition, 2006. 15 May 2006.
  39. ^ 'The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem: 1917–1988. Part II, 1947–1977.
  40. ^ "Hope Simpson report," October 1930, Chapter III, at [6]
  41. ^ (1991) A Survey of Palestine : Prepared in December, 1945 and January, 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-211-3. 
  42. ^ Stein, p. 4
  43. ^ "Land Ownership in Palestine," CZA, KKL5/1878. The statistics were prepared by the Palestine Lands Department for the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, 1945, ISA, Box 3874/file 1. See Khalaf (1991), pp. 26-27, Stein p. 226
  44. ^ Stein, pp. 246-247
  45. ^ Avneri p. 224
  46. ^ Stein, pp. 3-4, 247
  47. ^ Land Ownership of Palestine - Map prepared by the Government of Palestine on the instructions of the UN Ad Hoc Committee on the Palestine Question.
  48. ^ (1991) A Survey of Palestine : Prepared in December, 1945 and January, 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-211-3. 

The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Sir Henry McMahon (* 28. ... Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... The Hope Simpson Royal Commission was an investigation in the British Mandate of Palestine following widespread Arab riots of 1929 and subsequent to Shaw Commission of Enquiry. ...

References

  • Bethell, Nicholas The Palestine Triangle : the Struggle Between the British, the Jews and the Arabs, 1935-48, London : Deutsch, 1979 ISBN 023397069X.
  • Eini, Roza El- (2006). Mandated Landscape: British Imperial Rule in Palestine 1929-1948. London: Routledge. ISBN 0714654264
  • Biger, Gideon (2005). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0714656542
  • Louis, Wm. Roger (1969). The United Kingdom and the Beginning of the Mandates System, 1919-1922. International Organization, 23(1), pp. 73-96.
  • Asher Maoz (1994). "Application of Israeli law to the Golan Heights is annexation". Brooklyn journal of international law 20, afl. 2: 355–96. 
  • Tayseer Maar'i & Usama Halabi (1992). "Life under occupation in the Golan Heights". Journal of Palestine Studies 22: 78–93. 
  • Morris, Benny (2001) Righteous Victims New York, Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7.
  • Eyal Zisser (2002). "June 1967: Israel's capture of the Golan Heights". Israel Studies 7,1: 168-194. 
  • Paris, Timothy J. (2003). Britain, the Hashemites and Arab Rule, 1920-1925: The Sherifian Solution. London: Routledge. ISBN 0714654515
  • Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate, Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 0-8050-6587-3
  • Sherman, A J (1998).Mandate Days: British Lives in Palestine, 1918-1948, Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-8018-6620-0
  • Stein, Kenneth W. The Land Question in Palestine, 1917-1939. University of North Carolina, 1984. ISBN 0-8078-1579-9

Nicholas William Bethell, 4th Baron Bethell (July 19, 1938-) is a British historian of Eastern and Central Europe. ... Tom Segev is a public intellectual, journalist, and Israeli historian. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ...

Primary sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > British Mandate of Palestine (1874 words)
The British Mandate of Palestine was a swathe of territory in the Middle East, formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire, which the League of Nations gave to the United Kingdom to administer.
The British had previously promised the Hashemite family lordship over land in return for their support in the Great Arab Rebellion[?] during World War I. In 1920 at the San Remo conference in Italy, the League of Nations mandate over Palestine and Transjordan was assigned to Britain.
According to some, the British have fulfilled their promise by making an area to the east of Jordan River, consisting of 78% of the whole Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan, into an independent Arab Kingdom of Jordan.
British Mandate of Palestine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2895 words)
The British Mandate of Palestine was a territory in the Middle East including the modern territories of Israel, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire, which the League of Nations entrusted to the United Kingdom to administer in the aftermath of World War I as a Mandate Territory.
6 Population of the British Mandate of Palestine
The British had, in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, previously promised the Hashemite family lordship over most land in the region in return for their support in the Great Arab Revolt during World War I. In 1920 at the Conference of San Remo, Italy, the League of Nations mandate over Palestine was assigned to Britain.
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