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Encyclopedia > British Malaya
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Langkasuka (2nd-14th century CE)
Pan Pan (3rd-5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)
Gangga Negara (?-11th century)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Sultanate of Malacca (1402 - 1511)
Sultanate of Johor (1528-current)
White Rajahs (1841-1946)
British Malaya (1874-1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895-1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century-1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882-1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896-1900)
World War II (1942-1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941-42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942-1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946-1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948-1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963-present)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962-1966)
Expulsion of Singapore (1965)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971-1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987-88)
Asian financial crisis (1997-98)
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British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, British Malaya comprised of three of the Straits Settlement - namely Malacca, Penang and Singapore - the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States. British Malaya was not placed under a single administration until the Malayan Union was formed. It was also one of the most profitable British protectorates, being the world's largest producer of tin and rubber. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Srivijaya (200s-1400) was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... The White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States was a group of five Malay states, namely Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... The Matt Salleh Rebellion happened in Sabah. ... During the early morning hours of December 7th/8th, 1941, before the first bombs started falling on the United States Pacific base at Pearl Harbor (time zone differences), World War Two widened in the Pacific with the Battle for Malaya - the Japanase invasion of the British Malaya. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... The Brunei Revolt broke out on the December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... The history of Singapore had a relatively minor role in the greater history of Southeast Asia until 1819, when the Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded a British port on the island. ... The May 13 Incident is a term for the Chinese-Malay race riots in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on May 13, 1969 which left at least 184 people dead. ... For the Soviet New Economic Policy, see New Economic Policy. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal), formerly Let Penang Lead Capital George Town Governor Tun Dato Seri Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas Chief Minister Tan Sri Dr Koh Tsu Koon Area 1,056 km2 Population  - Est year 2000 1,225,501 State anthem Untuk Negeri Kita (For... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States was a group of five Malay states, namely Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ...


Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced with Federation of Malaya in 1948. It became independent on August 31, 1957. On September 16, 1963, the federation, along with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore formed a larger federation called Malaysia. The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya Capital Kota Kinabalu Governor Ahmadshah Abdullah Chief Minister Hj. ... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ...

Contents


Initial British involvement in Malay politics

The British first became involved with Malay politics when it tried to set up trading posts in Penang, then part of Kedah in 1771 and Singapore in 1819. State motto: no State motto Capital Alor Star Royal Capital Anak Bukit Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Chief Minister Syed Razak Syed Zain Barakbah Area 9,426 km2 Population  - Est year 2000 1 572 107 State anthem Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. ...


Penang and Kedah

In the mid-18th century, British firms could be found trading in the Malay Peninsula. In April 1771, Jourdain, Sulivan and de Souza, a British firm based in Madras, India sent Sir Francis Light to meet the sultan of Kedah, Muhammad Jiwa Shah, to open up the state's market for trading. Light was also a captain within the British East India Company. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Captain Francis Light (1740-1794) was the founder of the British colony of Penang (in modern-day Malaysia) and its capital George Town in 1786. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Alor Star Royal Capital Anak Bukit Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Chief Minister Syed Razak Syed Zain Barakbah Area 9,426 km2 Population  - Est year 2000 1 572 107 State anthem Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company string of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1599, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ...


At the same time, the sultan was facing multiple external threats that could challenge the sultan's power in Kedah. Siam of which was at war with Burma and saw Kedah as its vassal state, frequently demanded Kedah to send in reinforcement. Kedah in many cases was a reluctant ally to the Siam. For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


Through negotiation between the sultan and Light, the sultan agreed to allow the firm to build a trading post and operate in Kedah if the British agree to protect Kedah from external pressure. Light conveyed the message to his superior in India. The British however decided against the proposal.


Two years later, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa died and was replaced by Sultan Abdullah Mahrum Shah. The sultan was getting desperate and offered Light, who became a British representative, the island of Penang in return for military assistance for Kedah. Light informed the British East India company of the sultan's offer. The Company however ordered Light to take over Penang and gave him no guarantee of the military aid the sultan had asked earlier. Light later took over Penang and assured the sultan of military assistance despite the Company's position. Soon, the Company made up its mind and told Light that they would not give any military aid to Kedah. In June 1788, Light informed the sultan of the Company's decision. Felt cheated, the sultan ordered Light to move out of Penang but Light refused. State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal), formerly Let Penang Lead Capital George Town Governor Tun Dato Seri Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas Chief Minister Tan Sri Dr Koh Tsu Koon Area 1,056 km2 Population  - Est year 2000 1,225,501 State anthem Untuk Negeri Kita (For...


Light's refusal made the sultan to strengthen Kedah military and fortified Prai. Prai is a stretch of beach opposite to Penang. Recognizing the threat, the British moved in and razed the fort in Prai. With the defeat, the British forced the sultan to sign an agreement that legally allowed the British to occupy Penang. In return, the sultan received an annual rent of 6,000 Spanish peso. On May 1, 1791, the Union Jack was officially raised in Penang for the first time. In 1800, Kedah ceded Prai to the British and the sultan received further 4,000 peso as an annual rent. Seberang Perai (formerly known as Province Wellesley) is a narrow hinterland opposite Penang island on the Malay Peninsula, which together with the island forms the Malaysian state of Penang. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag or Union Jack is the flag most commonly associated with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and was also used throughout the former British Empire. ...


Penang was named Prince of Wales Island while Prai was called Province Wellesley. A few years later, Kedah was invaded by Siam.


Malacca

From the 16th to the early 19th century, Malacca was a Dutch colony. During the Napoleonic Wars, between 1811 and 1815, Malacca as with other Dutch holdings in Southeast Asia, was under the care of British. This was done in order to prevent the French from claiming Dutch processions in there. When the war ended in 1815, Malacca was returned to the Dutch. In 1824, the British and the Dutch signed a treaty known as Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. The treaty, among other things, legally transferred Malacca to British administration. The treaty also became the one agreement that officially divided the Malay world into two separate entities and the basis for current Indonesian-Malaysian boundary. Combatants Allies: • United Kingdom, • Prussia, • Austria, • Russia France Casualties Full list Full list The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Malay World or Nusantara refers to the Malay cultural and linguistic sphere of influence, covering the archipelago of modern-day Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Brunei, and East Timor. ...


Singapore

Modern Singapore was found by Sir Stamford Raffles. Before establishing Singapore, Raffles was the Lieutenant Governor of Java from 1811 till 1815. In 1818, he was appointed as of Bencoolen. Realizing how the Dutch was monopolizing trade in the Malay Archipelago, he was convinced that the British needed a new trading colony to counter Dutch trade power. Months worth of research brought him to Singapore, an island at the tip of the Malay Peninsula. The island was ruled by a temenggung. Thomas Stamford Raffles. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Provinces of Indonesia ... The Malay Archipelago refers to the vast group of islands located between mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The current sultan of Johor, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis. Hence, he would never agree to a British base in Singapore. However, Tengku Abdul Rahman was became a sultan only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away getting married in Penang when their father, the previous sultan died in 1812. According to Malay culture, a person has to be by the dying sultan in order to be considered as a new ruler. Tengku Abdul Rahman was present when their father passed away. The older brother was not happy with the development while the temenggung that was in charge of Singapore preferred Tengku Hussien to the younger brother.


Upon learning the situation, Raffles made a deal with Tengku Hussein. The agreement stated that the British would acknowledge Tengku Hussien as the legitimate ruler of Johor if they allow the British to establish a trading post in Singapore. Furthermore, Tengku Hussein and the temenggung would receive yearly stipend from the British. The treaty was ratified on February 6, 1819. With the Temenggung's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore.


The Dutch were extremely displeased with Raffles' action. However, with the signing of Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the Dutch receded its opposition to the British presence in Singapore. The treaty also divided the Sultanate of Johor into modern Johor and the new Sultanate of Riau.


Straits Settlements

Main article: Straits Settlements

After the British secured Singapore from the Dutch through the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the British aimed to centralized the administration of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. As such, in 1826, a framework known as the Straits Settlements was established with Penang as its capital. Later in 1832, the capital was moved to Singapore. While the three holdings formed the backbone of the Settlements, throughout the years Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Labuan and Dinding of Perak were placed under the authority of the Straits Settlements. The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... State motto: Capital Victoria Governor  ? Chief Minister  ? Area 92 km2 Population 78,000 (est. ... Manjung also known previously as Dinding, is a district located in the southwest part of the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Ipoh Royal Capital Kuala Kangsar Sultan Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Diraja Tajol Rosli bin Mohd Ghazali Area 21,006 km2 Population  - Est. ...


Until 1867, the Settlements was answerable to British administrator in Calcutta. The Settlements however was unsatisfied with Calcutta handling of the Settlements' affair and complaint to London. As a result in 1867, the colony was placed directly under the power of the Colonial Office in London and was declared as a crown colony. The declaration gave the colony considerable independence and power within the British Empire. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation) and Defining London (below). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ...


In 1946 after the Second World War, the colony was dissolved and was absord into the Malayan Union while Singapore was separated from the Union and formed a new crown colony. The Malayan Union later was replared with Federation of Malaya in 1948 and in 1963, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed Malaysian. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ...


British intervention in the Malay States

to be completed


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