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Encyclopedia > British Isles (terminology)
An Euler diagram clarifying the terminology.      Geographic-only locations.     Political entities (may also be geographic terms).
An Euler diagram clarifying the terminology.      Geographic-only locations.     Political entities (may also be geographic terms).

The various terms used to describe the different (and sometimes overlapping) geographical and political areas of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and surrounding islands are often a source of confusion, partly owing to the similarity between some of the actual words used, but also because they are often used loosely or inaccurately. The purpose of this article is to explain the meanings of and inter-relationships among those terms. It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... An Euler diagram does not need to show all possible intersections. ...


In brief, the main terms and their simple explanations are as follows.

  • Geographical terms
    • The British Isles is an archipelago consisting of the islands of Britain, Ireland and many smaller surrounding islands.
    • Britain (more fully Great Britain) is the largest island of the archipelago[1][2][3] and lies directly north of France. The term Britain is more commonly used as an alternative term for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[4]
    • Ireland is the second largest island of the archipelago and lies directly to the west of Britain.
  • Political terms
    • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the sovereign state occupying the island of Britain, the small nearby islands (but not the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands), and the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland. Usually, it is shortened to United Kingdom, UK or Britain.[5]
    • The Republic of Ireland is the sovereign state occupying the larger portion of the island of Ireland. To disambiguate it from the island of Ireland, it is often called the "Republic of Ireland" or, when speaking in the context of Irish politics, simply the Republic, in order to distinguish it from Northern Ireland, despite the fact that the country's constitution named the country simply Ireland.
    • England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are the constituent countries of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    • Great Britain - The countries of England, Wales and Scotland considered as a unit.[6][7] Often Great Britain is used synonymously with the UK. However, the UK and Great Britain are not strictly equivalent since the UK is a state formed from the union of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    • England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are legal juristictions within the United Kingdom.
    • British Islands consists of the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. These are the states within the British Isles that have the British monarch as head of state.

Contents

Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... This article is about the British dependencies. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ...

Terminology in detail

  • England and Wales Is a political and administrative term referring to the two home countries of England and Wales, which share the same legal system. Between 1746 and 1967 the term "England" did legally include Wales.
  • The historical United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is Great Britain plus Ireland, for the period 1801 to 1922, although the name change after the secession/independence of most of Ireland only took place in 1927.
N.B.: While "United Kingdom" is normally abbreviated UK, the official ISO 3166 two-letter country code is GB and the three letter code is GBR (Ukraine has the two letter code UA and the three letter code UKR). Due to a pre-existing convention originating in the JANET academic computer network, the UK's Internet top-level domain is .uk, a break from the normal practice of following ISO 3166 (a .gb domain has also been used to a limited extent in the past but is now defunct). GB is used on car number plates to indicate the United Kingdom.
See also United Kingdom (disambiguation) for other united kingdoms and UK (disambiguation) for other meanings of the abbreviation.
  • Ireland (in Irish, Éire) refers, geographically, to the island of Ireland, or to any of the following:
Historically:
The terms Irish Republic, Southern Ireland, the Irish Free State and Éire (in English-language texts) are used synonymously with the Republic of Ireland, although their use can cause offense if used inappropriately, especially Southern Ireland and the Irish Free State.
Present:
  • Ireland (in Irish, Éire) is the political entity consisting of the island of Ireland excepting Northern Ireland, 1937-present. This is the name of the state according to the Irish Constitution.
  • The Republic of Ireland a legal "description" of Ireland excepting Northern Ireland, 1949-present. This form is used where tact or disambiguity demands. It is also the name used by the international football team.
  • Northern Ireland 1922-present. That part of the island of Ireland north of the line of partition of 1922, and which is still part of the United Kingdom. It is sometimes referred to as "the North of Ireland", "the six counties" or (in extremist usage) the "occupied six counties," especially by Irish Nationalists.
  • Ulster The name of one of Ireland's four traditional provinces, or to refer to the smaller Northern Ireland. In the former usage it contains nine counties, six of which make up Northern Ireland, and three of which are part of the Republic of Ireland - primarily used in sporting and cultural contexts. See Ulster (disambiguation).
In sport
  • In Gaelic Games, no distinction is recognised between the counties of the Republic and those of Northern Ireland. County teams play in their provincial championships (where the six counties of Ulster within Northern Ireland and three within the Republic all play in the Ulster championship) and the winners of these play in the All-Ireland championship (which has been recently complicated by the introduction of a back-door system). Even within Northern Ireland, a tricolour, the flag of the Republic of Ireland, is flown at all games. At bigger games, where an anthem is played, it is always the national anthem of the Republic. In the case of the International Rules series against Australia, an Irish national team is chosen from all thirty-two counties.
  • In football, the teams correspond to political entities: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In accordance with UEFA and FIFA's rules, each of these countries has its own football league: the Irish League and the League of Ireland respectively.
  • In rugby union, rugby league, field hockey , cricket, boxing, golf, athletics and others the Ireland team is drawn from the whole island (ie. both the Republic and Northern Ireland). Many sports organisations are subdivided along provincial lines e.g. Gaelic Athletic Association, golf.
  • The British Isles is a term used to mean the island of Great Britain plus the island of Ireland and many smaller surrounding islands, including the Isle of Man and, in some contexts, the Channel Islands (Guernsey and Jersey). See British Isles naming dispute for details of the conflict over use of this term.
  • Great Britain and Ireland, or variants like "Britain and Ireland" or "The UK and Ireland" are sometimes used as alternatives to the term British Isles.
  • Anglo-Celtic Isles is an alternative term (in limited use) for the geographic region more commonly called the British Isles. It is intended as a term free of any political implication, and refers to the peoples from which which the majority of the island group's population are descended – the Anglo-Saxons and the Celts. (However, many historians do not regard the "Celts" as a single ethnic group, but as a collection of various tribes who all spoke similar Celtic dialects and had similar cultures.)
  • Islands of the North Atlantic is another suggested replacement term for the British Isles, without the same political connotations. However, its convolution, its vagueness, and the popularity of the older term have meant that it is not in common use. The term was used as part of the Strand 3 level of negotiations for the Belfast agreement. (Its acronym, IONA, is also the name of the small but historically important island of Iona off the coast of Scotland.)
  • British Islands (a legal term not in common usage) is the UK, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
  • Brittany, itself a diminunative form of 'Britain'[citation needed], and sometimes formerly known as 'Little Britain' is a historical Duchy in the West of France, now a French region; for this modern administrative sense, see Bretagne.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ... A Political Union is a type of state which is composed of smaller states. ... The Home Nations is a name to collectively describe the four nations of the United Kingdom: the countries of England, Scotland and Wales, and the province of Northern Ireland. ... The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 was an act of Parliament explicitly expressing that all future laws applying to England would likewise also be applicable to Wales and Berwick unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. ... The Welsh Language Act 1967 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which gave some rights to use the Welsh language in legal proceedings in Wales and gave the relevant Minister the right to authorise the production of a Welsh version of any documents required or allowed... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital Winchester, then London from 11th century. ... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of... Scotland, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom see British Isles (terminology). ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English2 Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... ISO 3166 is a three-part geographic coding standard for coding the names of countries and dependent areas, and the principal subdivisions thereof. ... JANET is a private British government-funded computer network dedicated to education and research. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .gb is a defunct Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... The term United Kingdom can refer to the following. ... UK or Uk may represent any number of things: United Kingdom: commonly UK, country code GB, internet domain . ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541... The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Capital Dublin Head of State King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Head of Government Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Chairman of the Provisional Government from Jan 1922. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Map of Éire Éire (pronounced ) is the Irish name for Ireland. ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Ulster refers primarily to the province of Ulster, one of the four provinces on the island of Ireland. ... Gaelic games are the native sports of Ireland: principally Hurling, Gaelic Football and Camogie. ... The National Flag of Ireland (Irish: An Bhratach Náisiúnta), also known as the Irish tricolour, was adopted officially in 1919 by the the state called Ireland (Éire in Irish), sometimes known as the Republic of Ireland. ... Amhrán na bhFiann (IPA: ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. ... International Rules Football match at the Telstra Dome - Australia vs Ireland. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Union of European Football Associations, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... The Federation of International Football Associations(French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association), commonly known by its acroymn, FIFA, is the international governing body of association football. ... Official logo of the Carnegie Premier League. ... The Football League of Ireland, usually known simply as the League of Ireland or the eircom League (from the leagues sponsorship by Irish telecommunications company eircom), is a league of football clubs in Ireland. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Rugby league football (often shortened to rugby league) is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left, throwing a left uppercut) versus Rafael Ortiz Boxing, also referred to as prizefighting, the noble art, the sweet science, and pugilism is a combat sport in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a series of... Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... A stylised Celtic cross serves as the traditional logo of the GAA. The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael) is an organisation which is mostly focussed on promoting Gaelic Games - traditional Irish sports, such as hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball, and rounders. ... Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Islands of the North Atlantic (IONA) was suggested by Sir John Biggs-Davison as a less contentious alternative to the term British Isles to refer to Britain and Ireland and the smaller associated islands. ... Iona village viewed from a short distance offshore. ... Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

Geographical distinctions

The British Isles

The British Isles is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Continental Europe. It includes Ireland and Great Britain, and the Isle of Man, but usually excludes the Channel Islands. Also included are the thousands of small islands off the coast of both the larger islands such as Shetland and Orkney. The term is not universally accepted (see British Isles naming dispute) Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Shetland (formerly spelled Zetland, from etland, Scottish Gaelic: ) formerly called Hjaltland, is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ...


Great Britain

Great Britain refers to the largest of the British Isles. The word "Great" simply means "larger" (no connection with "greatness" in other senses is intended) in contrast to Brittany, a historical term for a peninsula in modern France that largely corresponds with the present day French province of Bretagne. That region was settled by many British immigrants during the period of Anglo-Saxon migration into Britain, and named "Little Britain" by them. The French term "Bretagne" now refers to the French "Little Britain", not to the British "Great Britain", which in French is called Grande-Bretagne. Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Rennes Regional President Jean-Yves Le Drian (PS) (since 2004) Departments Côtes-dArmor Ille-et-Vilaine Morbihan Finistère Arrondissements 15 Cantons 201 Communes 1,268 Statistics Land area1 27,208 km² Population (Ranked 7th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


Ireland

The second largest island in the archipelago is Ireland. Most of the island is in the Republic of Ireland. The north east of the island is in the United Kingdom. That Ireland is a part of the geographical "British Isles" does not mean that all of the island is politically "British."


Isle of Man

An island lying between Great Britain and Ireland. It is governed as a British Crown Dependency, having its own parliament, but with the United Kingdom responsible for its defense and external relations. The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to...


Channel Islands

Although the Channel Islands are associated with the United Kingdom politically, they are an outcrop of the nearby French mainland, and historically they are the last remaining parts of the former Duchy of Normandy still under the crown of the United Kingdom. This article is about the British dependencies. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ...


Rockall

The island of Rockall is a disputed territory in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a small, uninhabited island lying some 301.4 km (187.3 miles) west of St Kilda (Outer Hebrides) and 424 km (229.1 miles) north-west of Ireland. It is claimed by the United Kingdom (as part of the Isle of Harris), whilst its surrounding continental shelf (but not the island itself) is claimed by the Republic of Ireland, Iceland and Denmark (through the Faroe Islands). Its remote position, however, means that it is open to question whether or not, geographically, it belongs to the British Isles. In any event The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, states Rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf. Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean Rockall is a small rocky islet in the North Atlantic, in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the United Kingdom. ... St Kilda (Scottish Gaelic: ) is an isolated archipelago situated 64 kilometres (40 mi) west-northwest of North Uist in the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... This article is about Harris in Scotland. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ...


Political distinctions

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is usually shortened to United Kingdom, UK or Britain. Great Britain is also widely used as a synonym for the UK.


The United Kingdom is a sovereign state. Its four constituent countries are sometimes considered to be of different status. This view may be supported by the existence of devolved governments with different levels of power in Scotland and Wales (see Asymmetrical federalism). Due to historical precedent, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are countries and nations in their own right (although none of these is sovereign today). Wales is also a principality of the United Kingdom (Prince of Wales is a title usually given to the heir apparent to the British throne). Northern Ireland is sometimes described by United Kingdom citizens as a province of the United Kingdom, which derives from the Irish province of Ulster, which Northern Ireland is part of. This epithet is also applied because it originally was part of the UK as part of Ireland rather than as a constituent country or nation in its own right. Northern Ireland also had, until 1972, a far greater degree of self-government than the other constituent parts of the UK. A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Asymmetrical federalism is a constitutional structure under which some of the units (such as states or provinces) within a federal system have more extensive powers than others, not relative to each other but relative to the central government. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... The monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ...


The four constituent parts of the UK are also known to some as Home Nations or the "Four Nations"; sporting contests between them are known as "Home internationals" (for example in football, see the British Home Championship). Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The British Home Championship (also known as the Home International Championship) was an annual football competition contested between the UKs four national teams, England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (Northern Ireland after 1921-1922), from the 1883-1884 season until the 1983-1984 season. ...


The governing body for football in Northern Ireland is called the Irish Football Association, having been in existence since some forty years before partition. Its counterpart in the Republic (plus Derry City FC) is the Football Association of Ireland. The Northern Ireland national team retained the name "Ireland" for some fifty years after partition. Since around 1970 the two teams have been consistently referred to as "Northern Ireland" and "Republic of Ireland" respectively. The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for football in Northern Ireland. ... Derry City FC is a Irish football club playing in the Football League of Ireland, it is also the only club in the league from Northern Ireland. ... The Football Association of Ireland (FAI) is the organising body for the sport of association football (soccer) in the Republic of Ireland. ... First international Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest win Ireland (IFA) 7 - 0 Wales (Belfast, Northern Ireland; 1 February 1930) Biggest defeat Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) World Cup Appearances 3 (First in 1958) Best result Quarterfinals, 1958 European Championship Appearances none...


However, in Rugby Union, the four Home Nations are England, Ireland (the whole island, i.e. the Republic of Ireland plus Northern Ireland), Scotland and Wales. A rugby union scrum. ...


Thus, Great Britain is both a geographical and a political entity. Geographically, it is one island, but politically it also contains the islands that belong to its constituent nations - England, Wales and Scotland (most notably England's Isle of Wight, Wales' Anglesey and Scotland's Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands). The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... The Hebrides (Inner Hebrides in red) The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ... Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles) redirects here. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


The abbreviation GB is sometimes officially used for the United Kingdom, for example in the Olympics - where athletes from Northern Ireland may choose whether to represent the UK or the Republic of Ireland - and as the vehicle registration plate country identification code, however the internet code ".gb", although allocated to the UK, is unused (the UK uses ".uk"). UK teams in the Olympics have competed under several different names - most recently in Athens the athletes were presented at the Opening Ceremony under a banner which said simply Great Britain, rather than the full Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Since the Good Friday Agreement, and the subsequent implementation legislation, sporting organisation (and several other organisations, e.g. tourism, Irish Gaelic and Ulster Scots language boards) on the island of Ireland has increasingly been cross-border. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A vehicle registration plate, also called a license plate or number plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. ... This is a list of vehicle country identification codes: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Note * Non-official Note1  There are other, unofficial codes in common... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .gb is a defunct Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... Destinations Armagh - ecclesiastical capital of all Ireland. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Citizens of the UK are called British or Britons. The term Brits may also be used, sometimes pejoratively, for example by supporters of Scottish independence when referring to supporters of the Union. Some older slang names for Britons are Tommy (for British soldiers), Anglo and Limey. Anglo properly refers only to England, but it is sometimes used as a broader reference as an element in compound adjectives: for example, "Anglo-French relations" may be used in newspaper articles when referring to relations between the political entities France and the United Kingdom. Anglo-Saxon may be used when referring to the whole English-speaking world, the Anglosphere, although ethnically very few of the world's one thousand million English-speakers are of Anglo-Saxon origin. A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ... Scotlands (in dark blue) location within the United Kingdom Scottish independence is an ideal advocated by certain political movements within the Scottish electorate that desires that Scotland secede from the United Kingdom and become a sovereign independent state as it was prior to the Act of Union in 1707. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The term Anglo can be used as a prefix to indicate a relation to England, as in the phrases Anglo-American or Anglo-America. It is also used, somewhat loosely, to refer to a person or people of English ethnicity in North America. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: one definition (depicted, all in blue) includes two node countries – the United Kingdom and the United States – and five outliers: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


Ireland

Since 1937 Ireland has been the constitutional name of the state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, with Northern Ireland covering one-sixth in the north-east of the island. Ireland is also the geographical term for the entire island. (see above) Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Since the Republic of Ireland Act in 1949, the term "Republic of Ireland" is the term used as the official description of the state. This term is useful in avoiding ambiguity between the name of the island and the name of the state. The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ...


Before the introduction of the 1937 constitution and the new name, the Irish Free State occupied the same territory as the modern state of Ireland. The Irish Free State became independent from the United Kingdom in 1922 after completion of the negotiations which followed the Irish War of Independence. Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...


Northern Ireland remained, and remains, a constituent part of the United Kingdom.


Traditionally Ireland is divided into four provinces - Leinster, Connacht, Munster and Ulster, with each of the provinces further divided into counties. The Republic of Ireland takes up 83% of the island, and twenty-six of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland. Northern Ireland takes up the remaining area and six of the traditional nine counties of Ulster, although these counties no longer exist as official administrative units. During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ...


On the island of Ireland, as everywhere, the naming of places often raises political issues. The usage of "Ireland" as the official name of the state in the constitution of the Republic of Ireland causes offence to some Unionists in Northern Ireland, as it implies that the Republic of Ireland still has a territorial claim to the whole island - the terminology of "Republic of Ireland" or "Éire" is much preferred by Northern Irish unionists when referring to that political state. Similarly, some Nationalists in Northern Ireland also prefer to reserve to usage of "Ireland" to refer to the whole island. In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


In Northern Ireland, Irishness is a highly contested identity, with fundamentally different perceptions between unionists who perceive themselves as being both British and Irish, and nationalists who consider both communities to be part of the Irish nation.[9]


The Republic of Ireland is often referred to by Irish republicans by the term "the Twenty-six Counties", with the connotation that the state constituted as such forms only a portion of the ideal political unit, which would consist of all of the thirty-two counties into which the island is divided. From 1922 to 1937, the state comprising those twenty-six counties was officially known by the term "The Irish Free State". Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... For much of its history, the island of Ireland was divided into 32 counties (Irish language contae or condae, pronounced IPA: ). Two historical counties, County Desmond and County Coleraine, no longer exist. ... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann...


Many people object to these latter two terms, as they are seen to imply that the Republic of Ireland is not a fully independent country. Conversely, some republicans and others refer to Northern Ireland as "the Six Counties" (in reference to Northern Ireland's six counties), a name that purposely ignores the link with Great Britain. Some call it "the occupied six counties". Some nationalists use the terms, "the North of Ireland" and, "the North", instead of Northern Ireland; these are terms also used by the Irish national broadcaster RTÉ.[citation needed] Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; Irish for Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of Ireland. ...


Many people, especially some unionists, sometimes refer to Northern Ireland as Ulster – although the Irish province of Ulster traditionally includes an additional three counties, which are now in the Republic of Ireland. The term Ulster (and "the Province") are sometimes preferred by Unionists, sometimes because it can suggest an origin of the polity of Northern Ireland that pre-dates 1922, referring back to the Act of Union 1800, the Glorious Revolution of 1689, the Plantation of Ulster in 1610, the ancient migrations between Ulster and Scotland, and even to biblical tradition. So, it is understandable that certain local place names should still be in dispute: see Derry/Londonderry name dispute. Ironically, the province borders were settled by a British monarch. In the Irish context, Unionists form a group of largely (though not exclusively) Protestant people in Ireland, of all social classes, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which the Northern Ireland provincial state created in... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... During late Gaelic and early historic times Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the tuatha. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The name of the city and county of Derry or Londonderry in Northern Ireland is a subject of naming dispute between nationalists (mostly Catholic) and unionists (most of whom are Protestant), with nationalists calling it Derry, and unionists, Londonderry. ...


British Islands

Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the legal term British Islands (as opposed to the geographical term British Isles) refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the Channel Islands; and the Isle of Man. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... Capital St Anne Status Part of Guernsey, Crown dependency of the UK Official language(s) English Head of Government Sir Norman Browse Population 2,400 Currency Pound sterling (GBP). ... This article is about the island. ... Flag of Sark The location of the Channel Islands in Europe An aerial view of Sark Sark (French: Sercq; Sercquiais: Sèr) is a small island in the English Channel. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


Historical aspects

Origins of terms

The earliest known names for the islands come from ancient Greek writings. Though the original texts have been lost, excerpts were quoted or paraphrased by later authors. Parts of the Massaliote Periplus, a merchants' handbook describing searoutes of the 6th century BC, were used in translation in the writings of Avienus around AD 400. Ireland was referred to as Ierne (Insula sacra, the sacred island, as the Greeks interpreted it) "inhabited by the race of Hiberni" (gens hiernorum), and Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions".[10] Several sources from around 150 BC to AD 70 include fragments of the travel writings of the ancient Greek Pytheas around 320 BC, which also used the terms "Albion and 'Ierne."[11] and have been described as referring to the British Isles, including Ireland, as the Pretanic Islands.[12] Greek writers used the term αι Βρεττανιαι, which has been translated as the Brittanic Isles, and the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Ρρεττανοι, Priteni or Pretani.[10] These names derived from a "Celtic language" term which is likely to have reached Pytheas from the Gauls[12] who may have used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.[13] The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... The Massaliote Periplus or Massaliot Periplus is the name of a now-lost merchants handbook possibly dating to as early as the sixth century BC describing the searoutes used by traders from Phoenecia and Tartessus in their journeys around Iron Age Europe. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Alexander Balas becomes ruler of the Seleucid Empire. ... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Pytheas (Πυθέας(Pitheas), ca. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC 321 BC - 320 BC - 319 BC 318 BC 317... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


The Romans called the inhabitants of Gaul (modern France) Galli or Celtae. The latter term came from the Greek name Κελτοι for a central European people, and 17th century antiquarians who found language connections developed the idea of a race of Celts inhabiting the area, but this term was not used by the Greeks or Romans for the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland,[14] nor is there any record of the inhabitants of the British Isles referring to themselves as such. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, Britain,[12] and has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne. The latter referred to the early Brythonic speaking inhabitants of Ireland,[citation needed] the Scottish highlands and the north of Scotland,[12] who are known as the Cruithne in Scottish Gaelic, and who the Romans called Picts or Caledonians. Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Prydain is the Welsh name of the island of Britain. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... The Cruithne or Cruthin were a historical people known to have lived in the British Isles during the Iron Age. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ...


Romans

Caesar's invasions of Britain brought descriptions of the peoples of what he called Britannia pars interior, "inland Britain", in 55 BC. Throughout Book 4 of his Geography, Strabo is consistent in spelling the island Britain (transliterated) as Prettanikee; he uses the terms Prettans or Brettans loosely to refer to the islands as a group - a common generalisation used by classical geographers. For example, in Geography 2.1.18, …οι νοτιωτατοι των Βρηττανων βορηιοτηροι τουτον ηισιν ("…the most southern of the Brettans are further north than this").[15] He was writing around AD 10, although the earliest surviving copy of his work dates from the 6th century. Pliny the Elder writing around AD 70 uses a Latin version of the same terminology in section 4.102 of his Naturalis Historia. He writes of Great Britain: Albion ipsi nomen fuit, cum Britanniae vocarentur omnes de quibus mox paulo dicemus. ("Albion was its own name, when all [the islands] were called the Britannias; I will speak of them in a moment"). In the following section, 4.103, Pliny enumerates the islands he considers to make up the Britannias, listing Great Britain, Ireland, and many smaller islands. In his Geography written in the mid 2nd century and probably describing the position around AD 100,[12] Ptolemy includes both Britain and Ireland – he calls it Hibernia – in the island group he calls Britannia. He entitles Book II, Chapter 1 of as Hibernia, Island of Britannia, and Chapter 2 as Albion, Island of Britannia.[16] Combatants Roman Republic and Trinovantes Britons Commanders Julius Caesar, Commius, Trebonius, Mandubracius Cassivellaunus, Cingetorix, Segovax, Carvilius, Taximagulus Strength 56 - Around 10,000 legionary troops (Legio VII, Legio X), unknown numbers of cavalry forces and transports. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... -1... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...


The name Albion for Great Britain fell from favour, and the island was described in Greek as Ρρεττανια or Βρεττανια, in Latin Britannia, an inhabitant as Βρεττανοζ, Britannus, with the adjective Βρεττανικοζ, Britannicus, equating to "British".[10] With the Roman conquest of Britain the name Britannia was used for the province of Roman Britain. The Emperor Claudius was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror, and coins were struck from AD 46 inscribed DE BRITAN, DE BRITANN, DE BRITANNI, or DE BRITANNIS. With the visit of Hadrian in AD 121 coins introduced a female figure with the label BRITANNIA as a personification or goddess of the place. These and later Roman coins introduced the seated figure of Britannia which would be reintroduced in the 17th century.[17] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English was Roman emperor from 117 – 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... 121 is a traditional clan of RA3 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


In the later years of Roman rule Britons who left Latin inscriptions, both at home and elsewhere in the Empire, often described themselves as Brittanus or Britto, and where describing their citizenship gave it as cives of a British tribe or of a patria (homeland) of Britannia, not Roma.[10] From the 4th century, many Britons migrated from Roman Britain across the English Channel and founded Brittany. Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve; Dutch: Het Kanaal) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


Medieval period

While Latin remained the language of learning, from the early medieval period records begin to appear in native languages. The earliest indigenous source to use a collective term for the archipelago is the Life of Saint Columba, a hagiography recording the missionary activities of the sixth century Irish monk Saint Columba among the peoples of modern Scotland. It was written in the late seventh century by Adomnán of Iona, an Irish monk living on the Inner Hebridean island. The collective term for the archipelago used within this work is Oceani Insulae meaning "Islands of the Ocean" (Book 2, 46 in the Sharpe edition = Book 2, 47 in Reeves edition), it is used sparingly and no Priteni-derived collective reference is made. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ... Iona Abbey Saint Adomnán of Iona (627/8-704) was abbot of Iona (679-704), hagiographer, statesman and clerical lawyer; he was the author of the most important Vita of Saint Columba and promulgator of the Law of Innocents. A popular anglicised form of his name is Saint Eunan... Iona village viewed from a short distance offshore. ... The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ...


Another early native source to use a collective term is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede written in the early eighth century. The collective term for the archipelago used within this work is insularum meaning "islands" (Book 1, 8) and it too is used sparingly. He stated that Britain "studies and confesses one and the same knowledge of the highest truth in the tongues of five nations, namely the Angles, the Britons, the Scots, the Picts, and the Latins", distinguishing between the Brythonic languages of the "ancient Britons" or Old Welsh speakers and other language groups.[18] Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language, generally thought to be in the period between the middle of the 6th century and the middle of the 7th century, until the early 12th century when it developed...


Early Celtic, Saxon and Viking kingdoms such as Rheged, Strathclyde and Wessex amalgamated, leading to the formation of Scotland, England and Wales. In Norman Ireland, local lords gained considerable autonomy from the Lordship of Ireland until it became the Kingdom of Ireland under direct English rule. This article is about the European people. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-born warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre Rheged was a Brythonic nation of Sub-Roman Britain, where the natives spoke Cumbric. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Map of the British Isles circa 802 Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the Kingdom of England. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... A tower house near Quin. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541...


Renaissance mapmakers

Abraham Ortelius makes clear his understanding that England, Scotland and Ireland were politically separate in 1570 by the full title of his map: "Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae, sive Britannicar. insularum descriptio" which translates as "A representation of England, Scotland and Ireland, or Britannica's islands." Additionally many maps from this period show Wales and Cornwall as separate nations, most notably those of Mercator. Abraham Ortelius. ...


Evolution of kingdoms and states

A timeline of states in the British Isles. (Formally, Ireland continues to exist, but the term "Republic of Ireland" is more widely used).
A timeline of states in the British Isles. (Formally, Ireland continues to exist, but the term "Republic of Ireland" is more widely used).

The diagram on the right gives an indication of the further evolution of kingdoms and states. In 1603 the Scottish King James VI inherited the English throne as "James I of England". He styled himself as James I of Great Britain, although both states retained their sovereignty and independent parliaments, the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. (The term "Great Britain" itself reportedly dates from as early as 1474, and was in common usage from the mid-16th century onwards.[19]) Image File history File links Nations_of_the_UK.png‎ New PNG version of Image:Nations of the UK.jpg. ... Image File history File links Nations_of_the_UK.png‎ New PNG version of Image:Nations of the UK.jpg. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The list of monarchs of Scotland (Scottish Gælic: Rìghrean agus Bàn-rìghrean na h-Alba) concerns the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba) which was first unified as a state by Kenneth I of Scotland in 843. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... List of monarchs of the Kingdom of England is a list of the monarchs of the Kingdom of England. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... English parliament in front of the king c. ...


The 1707 Act of Union united England and Scotland in the United Kingdom of Great Britain under the Parliament of Great Britain, then in 1800 Ireland was brought under British government control by the Act of Union creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Irish unrest culminated in the Irish War of Independence and the 1922 separation of the Irish Free State which later became the Republic of Ireland. The mostly Protestant northeast continued to be part of what was now the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Union Flag (1606-1800 The united Kingdom of Great Britain, also sometimes known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England under the 1707 Act of Union to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English2 Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Territory of the Irish Free State Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1922–1936 George V  - 1936–1936 George VI President of the Executive Council  - 1922–1932 W.T. Cosgrave  - 1932–1937 Eamon de Valera Legislature Oireachtas  - Upper house Seanad Éireann  - Lower house Dáil Éireann... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Motto  2(French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen 3 United Kingdom() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital London Largest conurbation (population) Greater London Urban Area Official languages English (de facto)4 Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair Formation  -  Acts of...


British overseas territories such as Bermuda, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, the Falkland Islands, and the British Antarctic Territory have (or have had) various relationships with the UK. The Commonwealth of Nations (formerly the British Commonwealth) is a loose confederation of nations roughly corresponding to the former British Empire, mostly for economic co-operation, formalised in 1931. (This has no connection with the Commonwealth of England and The Protectorate which were short-lived republics replacing the previous kingdoms during the Interregnum (1649 - 1660).) Location of the British Overseas Territories A British Overseas Territory is one of fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Motto: Research and Discovery Anthem: God Save the Queen Status British overseas territory Official language(s) - Commissioner Tony Crombie Administrator Michael Richardson Area 1,395,000 km² Population c. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... An interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes of the Roman Catholic Church, emperors of Holy Roman Empire, polish kings (elective monarchy) or between consuls of the Roman Republic. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Adjectives

The adjectives used to describe the contents and attributes of the various constituent parts of the British Isles also cause confusion. An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ...


British is generally used to refer to the United Kingdom. However, in a specifically physical geographical sense, British is used to refer to the island of Great Britain. The cumbersome adjective Great British is very rarely used to refer to Great Britain, other than to contrive a pun on the word great, as in "Great British Food". A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a figure of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words within a phrase or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. ...


Irish, in a political sense, is used to refer to the Republic of Ireland. Northern Ireland, as a constituent part of the United Kingdom, would be included within the umbrella of the political term British, though many unionists in Northern Ireland also consider themselves Irish. In order to be more specific, Northern Irish is therefore in common usage. The term Ulster can also be used as an adjective (e.g. "Royal Ulster Constabulary"), but this is more likely to be used by Unionists and has political connotations in the same fashion as its use as a proper noun (because only six of the traditional nine counties of Ulster, namely Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, are included in Northern Ireland with the remaining three counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan forming part of the Republic).[citation needed] The term Ulsterman (or Ulsterwoman) is common and holds no such political connotation. Likewise, Nationalists might describe, say, a lake in Northern Ireland as Irish. However, some Nationalists might attribute what they see as less attractive aspects of Northern Ireland to Britain or even to England (e.g. "The Northern Ireland squad is an English football team").[citation needed] Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Armagh Area: 1,254 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Derry Area: 2,074 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Cavan Code: CN Area: 1,931 km² Population (2006) 63,961 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Monaghan Code: MN Area: 1,294 km² Population (2006) 55,816 Website: www. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Note that the geographical term Irish Sea thus far appears to have escaped political connotations, even though territorial control of the waters of the Irish Sea is divided between both the Republic of Ireland and the UK, and also includes a British Crown dependency, the Isle of Man — as yet there appears to be no controversy with the term’s usage to mirror that of "British Isles". The North Channel is found off the east coast of Northern Ireland and it stretches the length of roughly two-thirds of Northern Ireland's eastern coastline. Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The North Channel is the stretch of water which separates Ireland from Scotland. ...


The "Northern" in "Northern Ireland" is not completely accurate. A large portion of Northern Ireland lies to the south of County Donegal, which is in the Republic. The northern tip of the island, Malin Head, is on Donegal's Inishowen Peninsula. Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Malin Head (Irish: Cionn Mhálanna) Visitors should not miss Banbas Crown Malin Head. ... Location of Inishowen Inishowen (Irish: Inis Eoghain) is a historical peninsular region in County Donegal, and also the largest peninsula in Ireland. ...


Scottish, English and Welsh are self-explanatory but the term English is sometimes used to mean British as well,[20] although seldom by those aware of the political connotations; many people living in all parts of the UK and Ireland find such use of English insulting.


Problems with use of terms

It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ...

British Isles

The dictionary definition of British Isles is that it is a geographical term that refers to the whole of Ireland and Great Britain as well as the surrounding islands. However, it is sometimes used as if identical to the UK;[citation needed] or to refer to Great Britain and the surrounding islands, excluding the island of Ireland entirely.[21][22][23] The BBC and The Times have style guides that mandate the dictionary definition but occasional misuse can be found on their web sites.[24][25] Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ...


The term British Isles can also be considered irritating or offensive by some on the grounds that the modern association of the term British with the United Kingdom makes its application to Ireland inappropriate. Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ...


The policy of the government of the Republic of Ireland is that no branch of government should use the term,[26] and although it is on occasion used in a geographical sense in Irish parliamentary debates, this is often done in a way that excludes the Republic of Ireland. In October 2006, The Times quoted a spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London as saying that they would discourage its use.[27]


During a stop-over visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1989, the leader of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, indicated that he assumed Ireland's head of state was Queen Elizabeth II, given that she was the British Queen and his officials said that Ireland was a part of the British Isles.[28] Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The...


In Northern Ireland, nationalists reject the term and use these islands or these isles as an alternative.[29] Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ...


There have been several suggestions for replacements for the term British Isles. Although there is no single accepted replacement, the terms Great Britain and Ireland, The British Isles and Ireland and Britain and Ireland are all used.


Ireland

The word Ireland has two meanings.

  1. It is the official name of the state of Ireland, also known by its official description the Republic of Ireland, which occupies most of the island of Ireland
  2. It is a geographical term for the whole island

Further information

Isle of Man and Channel Islands

The Isle of Man and the two bailiwicks of the Channel Islands are Crown Dependencies; that is, non-sovereign nations, self-governing but whose sovereignty is held by the British Crown. They control their own politics, but not their defence. They are not part of the United Kingdom nor part of the European Union. A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ...

Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ...

Celtic names

The Celtic languages in the region — Cornish, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh and Manx— each have names for the various countries and subdivisions of the British Isles. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Some of the above are:

  Cornwall England Ireland Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland Scotland Wales
Cornish Kernow Pow an Sawson Wordhen Wordhen North Republyk Wordhen Alban Kembra
Irish An Chorn Sasana Éire Tuaisceart Éireann Poblacht na hÉireann Albain An Bhreatain Bheag
Manx Yn Chorn Sostyn Nerin Nerin Twoaie Pobblaght Nerin Nalbin An Bhreatain Bheag
Scottish Gaelic A' Chòrn Sasainn Èirinn Èirinn a Tuath Poblachd na h-Èireann Alba A' Chuimrigh
Welsh Cernyw Lloegr Iwerddon Gogledd Iwerddon Gweriniaeth Iwerddon Yr Alban Cymru

Note: In Irish there are actually several terms for Northern Ireland: An Tuaisceart, meaning "the North", is usually used, but a more recent term for official use is Tuaisceart Éireann.


The English word Welsh is from a common Germanic root meaning "foreigner" (cognate with Wallonia and Wallachia, and also cognate with the word used in Mediaeval German to refer to the French and Italians). The English names Albion and Albany are related to Alba and used poetically for either England or Scotland, or the whole island of Great Britain. English Erin is a poetic name for Ireland derived from Éire (or rather, from its dative form Éirinn). This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The white cliffs of Dover. ... Albany is the capital of the state of New York in the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The terms for the British Isles in the Irish language

In Irish, the term Oileáin Bhriotanacha is attested as a version of the English term British Isles.[30] In this sense, Briotanach refers to British people in the sense of the islands belonging to them. Another translation is Oileáin Bhreataineacha, which is used in a 1937 geography book translated into Irish from English.[31] In this instance, Breataineach refers to the people of the island of Great Britain, again in the sense of the islands belonging to them. Neither of these two terms are often used in Irish.[32]


Earlier dictionaries[33] give Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa as the translation, literally meaning West European Isles. Today the most common the term Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór is used, meaning literally as Ireland and Great Britain, as provided by terminological dictionaries.[34]


Slang

Blighty is a slang word for Britain derived from the Hindustani word bilāyatī ("foreign"). Depending on the user, it is meant either affectionately or archly. It was often used by British soldiers abroad in the First World War to refer to home. Dear Old Blighty was a common expression of longing for home in the British Army during World War I. It is a sentimental reference. ... HindustānÄ« (/ /; हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی), also known as HindÄ«-UrdÅ«, is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and the vernacular blend between its two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of HindÄ« and Urd...


Europe

The term "Europe" may be used in one of several different contexts by British and Irish people; either to refer to the whole of the European continent, to refer to only to Mainland Europe, sometimes called "continental Europe" or simply "the Continent" by some people in the archipelago — as in the apocryphal newspaper headlining "Fog shrouds Channel, continent cut off." World map showing the location of Europe. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ...


Europe and the adjective European may also be used in reference to the European Union, particularly in a derogative context such as "The new regulations handed out by Europe".


Notes

  1. ^ "Britain", Oxford English Dictionary: "More fully Great Britain. As a geographical and political term: (the main island and smaller offshore islands making up) England, Scotland, and Wales, sometimes with the Isle of Man"
  2. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary: "Britain: an island that consists of England, Wales, and Scotland. The name is broadly synonymous with Great Britain, but the longer form is more ususal for the political unit."
  3. ^ "Britain", Oxford English Dictionary (Online Edition): "Britain: 1a - The proper name of the whole island containing England, Wales, and Scotland, with their dependencies; more fully called Great Britain; now also used for the British state or empire as a whole."
  4. ^ Guardian Unlimited Style Guide, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2007
  5. ^ Guardian Unlimited Style Guide, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2007
  6. ^ Countries within a country
  7. ^ "Great Britain", New Oxford American Dictionary: "Great Britain: England, Wales, and Scotland considered as a unit. The name is also often used loosely to refer to the United Kingdom."
  8. ^ "the term 'Britain' is used informally to mean the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" — quote from British Government website
  9. ^ CAIN: Democratic Dialogue: With all due respect - pluralism and parity of esteem (Report No. 7) by Tom Hennessey and Robin Wilson, Democratic Dialogue (1997)
  10. ^ a b c d Snyder, Christopher A. (2003). The Britons. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 063122260X. 
  11. ^ Entry for Albion a 1911 Encyclopedia.[1]
  12. ^ a b c d e Foster (editor), R F; Donnchadh O Corrain, Professor of Irish History at University College Cork: (Chapter 1: Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland) (1 November 2001). The Oxford History of Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019280202X. 
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of the Celts: Pretani
  14. ^ The earliest Celts in Europe |WalesPast
  15. ^ Translation by Roseman, op.cit.
  16. ^ Ptolemy's Geography
  17. ^ Britannia on Roman Coins, Roman coins in Britain
  18. ^ General survey of Lothian
  19. ^ Royal Styles and Titles in England and Great Britain, heraldica.org
  20. ^ "The majority of English people still behave as if 'English' and 'British' are synonymous", historian Norman Davies quoted in The English: Europe's lost tribe, BBC News Story, January 14, 1999
  21. ^ "[2] Website on Megalithic Monuments in the British Isles and Ireland. Ireland in this site includes Fermanagh, which is politically in Northern Ireland."
  22. ^ "The website uses the term "British Isles" in various ways, including ways that use Ireland as all of Ireland, while simultaneously using the term "The British Isles and Ireland", e.g. "Anyone using GENUKI should remember that its name is somewhat misleading — the website actually covers the British Isles and Ireland, rather than just the United Kingdom, and therefore includes information about the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, as well as England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland."
  23. ^ "[3] Guide to Narrow Gauge rail in the British Isles and Ireland which includes Belfast lines under the section on Ireland."
  24. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/features/understanding/britain_01.shtml British Weather (Part One)] This BBC article referred to 'a small country such as the British Isles' between at least April 2004 and January 2007 (checked using the Wayback Machine at http://web.archive.org. Last accessed and checked 01/01/07. It was changed in February 2007 and now reads 'a small area such as the British Isles'
  25. ^ For example, see Google searches of the BBC website.
  26. ^ "Written Answers - Official Terms", Dáil Éireann - Volume 606 - 28 September, 2005. In his response, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs added that "Our officials in the Embassy of Ireland, London, continue to monitor the media in Britain for any abuse of the official terms as set out in the Constitution of Ireland and in legislation. These include the name of the State, the President, Taoiseach and others."
  27. ^ "New atlas lets Ireland slip shackles of Britain"A spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London said: “The British Isles has a dated ring to it, as if we are still part of the Empire. We are independent, we are not part of Britain, not even in geographical terms. We would discourage its useage.[sic]”
  28. ^ Eamon Delaney, 2001, An Accidental Diplomat: My Years in the Irish Foreign Service, New Island Books, Dublin, ISBN 1902602390
  29. ^ Guelke, Adrian (2001). "Northern Ireland and Island Status", in John McGarry ed.: Northern Ireland and the Divided World: The Northern Ireland Conflict and the Good Friday Agreement in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 231. 
  30. ^ For example on english-irishdictionary.com.
  31. ^ Tír-Eóluíocht na h-Éireann ('The Geography of Ireland') by T. J. Dunne, translated by Toirdhealbhach Ó Raithbheartaigh, Government Publications Office, Dublin

    Tá Éire ar cheann de na h-oileáin a dtugar na h-Oileáin Bhreataineacha ortha agus atá ar an taobh Thiar-Thuaidh de'n Eóraip. Tá siad tuairim a's ar chúig mhíle oileán ar fad ann. (Oileánradh an t-ainm a bheirtear ar áit ar bith i n-a bhfuil a lán oileán agus iad i n-aice a chéile mar seo.) Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór (Sasain, an Bhreatain Bheag, agus Alba) an dá oileán is mó de na h-Oileáin Bhreataineacha. Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... John McGarry (born 1957) is a political scientist from Belfast, Northern Ireland. ...

    Ireland is one of the islands which are called the British Isles and which are on the North-Western side of Europe. It is thought that there are five thousand islands in total there. (Archipelago is the name which is borne by a place in which there are many islands next to each other like these.) Ireland and Great Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) are the two largest islands of the British Isles.

  32. ^ See for example Google searches for Oileáin Bhriotanacha (less referecnes to the British Virgin Isles) or Oileáin Bhreataineacha, which produces only mirrors of Wikipedia.
  33. ^ Patrick S. Dineen, Foclóir Gaeilge Béarla, Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1927
  34. ^ focail.ie, "The British Isles", Foras na Gaeilge, 2006

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
British Isles (terminology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3735 words)
British Isles (as a geographical term) is the archipelago consisting of the island of Great Britain, the island of Ireland and thousands of smaller surrounding islands.
The Commonwealth of Nations (formerly the British Commonwealth) is a loose confederation of nations roughly corresponding to the former British Empire, mostly for economic co-operation, formalised in 1931.
The Isle of Man and the two bailiwicks of the Channel Islands are Crown Dependencies; that is, non-sovereign nations, self-governing but whose sovereignty is held by the British Crown.
British Isles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3015 words)
The British Isles is a geographical and ecological term for the archipelago of islands off the northwest coast of Europe, including Great Britain, (the largest island in the group), the Isle of Man, Ireland, and several thousand smaller adjacent islands.
The geographical term British Isles is not synonymous with the United Kingdom, since it includes the crown dependencies such as the Isle of Man, and (usually) includes the Republic of Ireland.
In 1140 the Hebridean Islands, the Isle of Man and Antrim came under the Norse-Gael rule of the Lord of the Isles who kept a varying degree of independence until the title was forfeited by the crown in 1493.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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