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Encyclopedia > British Isles

Coordinates: 54° N 4° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

British Isles
The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe
The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe
Geography
Location Western Europe
Total islands 6,000+
Major islands Great Britain and Ireland
Area 315,134 km²

121,673 sq mi Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...

Highest point Ben Nevis
1,344 m (4,409 ft)
Administration
Flag of Guernsey Guernsey
Largest city St. Peter Port
Flag of the Isle of Man Isle of Man
Largest city Douglas
Flag of Ireland Ireland
Largest city Dublin
Flag of Jersey Jersey
Largest city St. Helier
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Largest city London
Demographics
Population ~65 million
Indigenous people Britons, English, Irish, Scottish, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish[1], Channel Islanders, Manx

The British Isles (Irish: variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór;[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh; Scottish Gaelic: Eileanan Breatannach; Welsh: Ynysoedd Prydain) are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe which comprise Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands.[3] Although still in use, the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, where many people may find the term offensive or objectionable;[4] the Irish government also discourages its usage.[5] Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guernsey. ... This is a map of Guernsey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... Location within the British Isles Douglas (Doolish in Manx) is the capital of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin) and its largest town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jersey. ... Saint Helier is one of the twelve parishes and the largest town on Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... A small island in the Adriatic sea An island is any piece of land smaller than a continent and larger than a rock, that is completely surrounded by water. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ...


There are two sovereign states located on the islands: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Ireland.[6] The group also includes the Crown dependencies of the Isle of Man and, by tradition, the Channel Islands, although the latter are not physically a part of the archipelago.[7] There are other common uncertainties surrounding the extent, names and geographical elements of the islands. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... This article is about the British dependencies. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... . For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ...

Contents

Alternative names and descriptions

Several different names are currently used to describe the islands. . For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ...


Dictionaries, encyclopaedias and atlases that use the term British Isles define it[8] as Great Britain, Ireland and adjacent islands, typically including the Isle of Man, the Hebrides, Shetland, Orkney. Some definitions include the Channel Islands.[9]


Many major road and rail maps and atlases use the term "Great Britain and Ireland" to describe the islands, although this may be ambiguous regarding the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.[10] Another alternative name is "British-Irish Isles".[11]


In addition, the term "British Isles" is itself used in widely varying ways, including as an effective synonym for the UK or for Great Britain and its islands, but excluding Ireland.[12] Media organisations like the The Times and the BBC have style-guide entries to try to maintain consistent usage,[13][14] but these are not always successful. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Encyclopædia Britannica, the Oxford University Press - publishers of the Oxford English Dictionary - and the UK Hydrographic Office (publisher of Admiralty charts) have all occasionally used the term "British Isles and Ireland" (with Britannica and Oxford contradicting their own definitions of the "British Isles"),[15][16][17] and some specialist encyclopedias also use that term.[18] The BBC style guide's entry on the subject of the British Isles remarks, "Confused already? Keep going." The Economic History Society style guide suggests that the term should be avoided.[19]


Other descriptions for the islands are also used in everyday language, examples are: "Great Britain and Ireland", "UK and Ireland", and "the British Isles and Ireland". Some of these are used by corporate entities and can be seen on the internet, such as in the naming of Yahoo UK & Ireland,[20] or such as in the 2001 renaming of the British Isles Rugby Union Team to the current name of the "British and Irish Lions". First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the...


As mentioned above, the term "British Isles" is controversial in relation to Ireland. One map publisher recently decided to abandon using the term in Ireland while continuing to use it in Britain.[21][22] The Irish government is opposed to the term "British Isles" and says that it "would discourage its usage".[23]


Geography

Also, see the section on the geography of the Channel Islands.
Satellite Image of the British Isles (excluding Orkney and Shetland); close to the coast of France
Satellite Image of the British Isles (excluding Orkney and Shetland); close to the coast of France

There are more than 6,000 islands in the group, the largest two being Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ... Ireland is sometimes known as the Emerald Isle because of its green scenery. ... Map of the Isle of Man The Isle of Man is an island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland in Western Europe, with a population of over 75 000. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... This page is a list of the larger British Isles by area. ...


Great Britain is to the east and covers 216,777 km² (83,698 square miles), over half of the total landmass of the group.


Ireland is to the west and covers 84,406 km² (32,589 square miles).


The largest of the other islands are to be found in the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland to the north, Anglesey and the Isle of Man between Great Britain and Ireland, and the Channel Islands near the coast of France. This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...

Main article: List of islands in the British Isles

See also:

The islands are at relatively low altitudes, with central Ireland and southern Great Britain particularly low lying: the lowest point in the islands is the Fens at −4 m (−13 ft). The Scottish Highlands in the northern part of Great Britain are mountainous, with Ben Nevis being the highest point in the British Isles at 1,344 m (4,409 ft). Other mountainous areas include Wales and parts of the island of Ireland, but only seven peaks in these areas reach above 1,000 m (3,281 ft). Lakes on the islands are generally not large, although Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland is an exception, covering 381 km² (147 square miles); the largest freshwater body in Great Britain is Loch Lomond at 71.1 km² (27.5 square miles). Neither are rivers particularly long, the rivers Severn at 354 km (219 miles) and Shannon at 386 km (240 miles) being the longest. The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... This is a list of the islands of England, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest English islands by area. ... This is a list of the principal islands of Ireland. ... This is a list of islands of the Isle of Man: Isle of Man (Population - c. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... This is a list of the islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area. ... The Fens may also refer to the Back Bay Fens, a park in Boston, Massachusetts. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Ben Nevis (Gaelic: Beinn Nibheis) is the highest mountain in Great Britain. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Loch Lomond (disambiguation). ... Severn redirects here. ... Carrick-on-Shannon-Bridge Leitrim Shannon-Bridge Offaly The River Shannon (Irish: altenatively Sionna), Irelands longest river, divides the West of Ireland (mostly the province of Connacht) from the east and south (Leinster and most of Munster). ...


The British Isles have a temperate marine climate, the North Atlantic Drift ("Gulf Stream") which flows from the Gulf of Mexico brings with it significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C (20 °F) above the global average for the islands' latitudes.[24] Winters are thus warm and wet, with summers mild and also wet. Most Atlantic depressions pass to the north of the islands, combined with the general westerly circulation and interactions with the landmass, this imposes an east-west variation in climate.[25] In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... It has been suggested that The Cool Western Temperate Maritime Climate be merged into this article or section. ... The North Atlantic drift is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... The Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, blowing from the high pressure area in the horse latitudes towards the poles. ...


Transport

Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport of Europe in terms of passenger traffic and the Dublin-London route is the busiest air route of Europe,[26] and the second-busiest in the world. Europe's two largest low-cost airlines, Ryanair and easyJet, operate from Ireland and Britain respectively. London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... A Ryanair Boeing 737-800 A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as a no-frills or discount carrier / airline) is an airline that offers generally low fares in exchange for eliminating many traditional passenger services. ... For the unrelated U.S. carrier, see Ryan International Airlines. ... EasyJet (LSE: EZJ), styled as easyJet, is a low cost airline officially known as easyJet Airline Company Limited, based at London Luton Airport. ...


The English Channel and the southern North Sea are the busiest seaways in the world[citation needed]. The car ferry, M/F Ulysses, traveling the Irish Sea is the largest in the world. The Channel Tunnel, opened 1994, links Great Britain to France and is the second-longest rail tunnel in the world. The idea of building a tunnel under the Irish Sea has been raised since 1895,[27] when it was first investigated, but is not considered to be economically viable[citation needed]. Several potential Irish Sea tunnel projects have been proposed, most recently the Tusker Tunnel between the ports of Rosslare and Fishguard proposed by The Institute of Engineers of Ireland in 2004.[28][29] A different proposed route is between Dublin and Holyhead, proposed in 1997 by a leading British engineering firm, Symonds, for a rail tunnel from Dublin to Holyhead. Either tunnel, at 80 km, would be by far the longest in the world, and would cost an estimated €20 billion. A proposal in 2007,[30] estimated the cost of building a bridge from County Antrim in Northern Ireland to Galloway in Scotland at £3.5bn (€5bn). However, none of these is thought to be economically viable at this time. For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The Channel Tunnel (French: ), also known as Chunnel or Eurotunnel, is a 50. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... The name Rosslare may mean: the village of Rosslare Strand in County Wexford, Ireland the village of Rosslare Harbour in County Wexford, Ireland the Rosslare Europort at Rosslare Harbour This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lower Fishguard Fishguard (Welsh: = Mouth of the River Gwaun) is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, Wales, with a population of 3,300 (est. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Antrim Area: 2,844 km² Population (est. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ...


Geology

A data-generated image showing the British Isles sitting on the north-west of the European continental shelf.
A data-generated image showing the British Isles sitting on the north-west of the European continental shelf.

The British Isles lie at the juncture of several regions with past episodes of tectonic mountain building. These orogenic belts form a complex geology which records a huge and varied span of earth history.[31] Of particular note was the Caledonian Orogeny during the Ordovician Period, ca. 488–444 Ma and early Silurian period, when the craton Baltica collided with the terrane Avalonia to form the mountains and hills in northern Britain and Ireland. Baltica formed roughly the north western half of Ireland and Scotland. Further collisions caused the Variscan orogeny in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, forming the hills of Munster, south-west England, and south Wales. Over the last 500 million years the land which forms the islands has drifted northwest from around 30°S, crossing the equator around 370 million years ago to reach its present northern latitude.[32] Ireland is sometimes known as the Emerald Isle because of its green scenery. ... Geological map of Great Britain, showing the differing geology of England, Scotland and Wales. ... Scotland has an incomparable variety of geology for an area of its size. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixel Image in higher resolution (1044 × 612 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 469 pixel Image in higher resolution (1044 × 612 pixel, file size: 1. ... Europe is traditionally reckoned as one of seven continents. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... World geologic provinces. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... A terrane in paleogeography is an accretion that has collided with a continental nucleus, or craton but can be recognized by the foreign origin of its rock strata. ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


The islands have been shaped by numerous glaciations during the Quaternary Period, the most recent being the Devensian. As this ended, the central Irish Sea was de-glaciated (whether or not there was a land bridge between Great Britain and Ireland at this time is somewhat disputed, though there was certainly a single ice sheet covering the entire sea) and the English Channel flooded, with sea levels rising to current levels some 4,000 to 5,000 years ago, leaving the British Isles in their current form. This article is about the geologic period. ... The Devensian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 120,000 and 10,000 years ago. ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


The islands' geology is highly complex, though there are large amounts of limestone and chalk rocks which formed in the Permian and Triassic periods. The west coasts of Ireland and northern Great Britain that directly face the Atlantic Ocean are generally characterized by long peninsulas, and headlands and bays; the internal and eastern coasts are "smoother". For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... A peninsula is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body that is surrounded by water on three sides. ...


Demographics

Population density per km2 of the British Isles. Dublin and London, with respective population densities of 1,288 and 4,761 are shaded blue.
Population density per km2 of the British Isles. Dublin and London, with respective population densities of 1,288 and 4,761 are shaded blue.

The demographics of the British Isles show dense population in England, which accounts for almost 80% of the total population of the region. In Ireland, Northern Ireland. Scotland, Wales dense populations are limited to areas around, or close to, their respective capitals. Major populations centres (greater than one million people) exist in the following areas: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 372 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 1069 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 372 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 1069 pixel, file size: 182 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

The population of England has risen steadily throughout its history, while the populations of Scotland and Wales have shown little increase during the twentieth century - the population of Scotland remaining unchanged since 1951. Ireland, which for most of its history comprised a population proportionate to its land area, one third of the total population, has since the Great Famine fallen to less than one tenth of the population of the British Isles. The famine, which caused a century-long population decline, drastically reduced the Irish population and permanently altered the demographic make-up of the British Isles. On a global scale this disaster led to the creation of an Irish diaspora that number fifteen times the current population of the island The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation or continuous urban area based around London, in south east England with an estimated population of 8,505,000,[1] The urban area measured 1,623. ... Commuters from East Anglia arrive at Liverpool Street Station The London Commuter Belt or London Metropolitan Area is the name given to the built-up area surrounding and running into Greater London but not administered as part of it. ... The West Midlands conurbation is the name given to the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton, in the English West Midlands. ... A NASA satellite image of Greater Manchester. ... The West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based mainly on Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield, but excluding Halifax which though part of the county of West Yorkshire is considered independently. ... Greater Dublin Area (GDA) is a loosely defined term which is used to describe the city of Dublin and the counties of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, Kildare, Meath, South Dublin and Wicklow of the Republic of Ireland. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand...

Population of Ireland since the Great Famine v Total for British Isles
Ireland British Isles  % of total Graph
1841 8.2 26.7 30.7%
1851 6.9 27.7 24.8%
1891 4.7 37.8 12.4%
1951 4.1 53.2 7.7%
1991 5.5 62.9 8.7%
2006 6.0 64.3 9.3%

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixelsFull resolution (1301 × 895 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) Population of Ireland since 1500. ...

Political co-operation within the islands

Between 1801 and 1922, Great Britain and Ireland together formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[33] In 1922, twenty-six counties of Ireland left the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom following the Irish War of Independence and the Anglo-Irish Treaty; the remaining six counties, mainly in the northeast of the island, became known as Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920. Both states, but not the Isle of Man or the Channel Islands, are members of the European Union. This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ...


However, despite independence of most of Ireland, political cooperation exists across the islands on some levels:

  • Travel. Since Irish partition an informal free-travel area has continued to exist across the entire region; in 1997 it was formally recognised by the European Union, in the Amsterdam Treaty, as the Common Travel Area. There have recently been reports[34] that the UK Government is planning to end this arrangement, although the details are not yet clear.
  • Voting rights. No part of the British Isles considers a citizen of any other part as an 'alien'[citation needed] This pre-dates and goes much further than that required by European Union law, and gives common voting rights to all citizens of the jurisdictions within the archipelago. Exceptions to this are presidential elections and referendums in the Republic of Ireland, for which there is no comparable franchise in the other states. Other EU nationals may only vote in local and European Parliament elections while resident in either the UK or Ireland. A 2008 UK Ministry of Justice report proposed to end this arrangement arguing that, "the right to vote is one of the hallmarks of the political status of citizens; it is not a means of expressing closeness between countries."[35]
  • Diplomatic. Bilateral agreements allow UK embassies to act as an Irish consulate when Ireland is not represented in a particular country.
  • Northern Ireland. Citizens of Northern Ireland are entitled to the choice of Irish or British citizenship or both.
  • The British-Irish Council was set up in 1999 following the 1998 Belfast Agreement. This body is made up of all political entities across the islands, both the sovereign governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom, the devolved governments of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and the dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. It has no executive authority but meets biannually to discuss issues of mutual importance, currently restricted to the misuse of drugs, the environment, the knowledge economy, social inclusion, tele-medicine, tourism, transport and national languages of the participants. During the February 2008 meeting of the Council, it was agreed to set-up a standing secretariat that would serve as a permanent 'civil service' for the Council.[36]
  • The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (Irish: Comhlact Idir-Pharlaiminteach Na Bretaine agus Na hÉireann) was established in 1990. Originally it comprised 25 members of the Oireachtas, the Irish parliament, and 25 members of the parliament of the United Kingdom, with the purpose of building mutual understanding between members of both legislature. Since then the role and scope of the body has been expanded with the addition of five representatives from the Scottish Parliament, five from the National Assembly for Wales and five from the Northern Ireland Assembly. One member is also taken from the States of Jersey, one from the States of Guernsey and one from the High Court of Tynwald (Isle of Man). With no executive powers, it may investigate and collect witness evidence from the public on matters of mutual concern to its members, these have in the past ranged from issues such as the delivery of health services to rural populations, to the Sellafield nuclear facility, to the mutual recognition of penalty points against drivers across the British Isles. Reports on its findings are presented to the governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Leading on from developments in the British-Irish Council, the chair of the Body, Niall Blaney, has suggested a name-change and that the body should shadow the British-Irish Council's work.[37]

Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... The Belfast Agreement (Irish: ), although more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement (Irish: ), and occasionally as the Stormont Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process. ... The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (BIIPB) was established in 1990 to bring together 25 members of the United Kingdom Parliament and 25 members of the Oireachtas (the Irish parliament) to develop understanding between elected representatives of the UK and Ireland . ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Established 1999 by the Government of Wales Act 1998 Presiding Officer Lord Elis-Thomas AM (Plaid) Since May 12, 1999 Deputy Presiding Officer Rosemary Butler AM (Lab) Leader of the House Carwyn Jones AM (Lab) Chief Executive and Clerk to the Assembly Claire Clancy Political parties 6 Welsh Labour (26... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The States of Jersey (French: États de Jersey) is the parliament of Jersey. ... The States of Guernsey (French: États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. ... Tynwald (Tinvaal in Manx) is the bicameral legislature of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin). ... Neil (Niall) Blaney (born January 29, 1974) is an Irish Independent Fianna Fáil politician. ...

History

History of the British Isles
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Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to Norman conquest of England, a moment that defined much of the history of the British Isles since. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 590 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stonehenge ...

By chronology

  • Modern:
    • History of the United Kingdom
    • Ireland
      • History of Ireland
      • History of Northern Ireland
      • History of Ireland (1801–1922)
      • Irish Free State
    • History of Wales

By nation Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... Extent of the Beaker culture In Great Britain, the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2700 to 700 BC. Periodization late neolithic: Meldon Bridge Period EBA (2700-1500) 2700 BC - 2000 BC: Mount Pleasant Phase, Early Beaker culture: Ireland: copper+arsenic, flat axes, halberds; Britain... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 AD when the Roman army began a military campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Up to and during the Roman occupation of Britain, Wales was not a separate country; all the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages (a sub-family of the Celtic languages) and were regarded as Britons (or Brythons). ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known human settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... The Early Medieval era in Ireland, from 800 to 1166 is characterised by Viking raids, then settlement, in what had become a stable and wealthy country. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The history of Scotland in the Late Middle Ages might be said to be dominated by the twin themes of crisis and transition. ... The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman invasion of England. ... Wales in the Late Middle Ages covers the period from the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in late 1282 to the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. ... Arms of the Kings of Ireland1 Capital Hill of Tara (ceremonial) Language(s) Irish Government Monarchy High King  - 1002-1014 Brian Boru  - 1151-1154 Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair History  - Established prehistory  - Norman invasion 1 May 1169  - Flight of the Earls September, 1607 1 The Wijnbergen Roll dating from c. ... A tower house near Quin. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known human settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Caerphilly Castle. ...

By topic The history of England is similar to the history of Britain before the arrival of the Saxons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... For the garment with this name, see guernsey. ... // Before the Norse Evidence of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Orkney Islands still exists in numerous weems or underground houses, chambered mounds, barrows or burial mounds, Brochs or round towers, and stone circles and standing stones. ...

Main articles: History of the British Isles, History of Ireland, History of the United Kingdom, History of England, History of Wales, History of Scotland, History of the Isle of Man, and Channel_Islands#History

The British Isles have a long and complex shared history. While this tends to be presented in terms of national narratives, many events transcended modern political boundaries. In particular these borders have little relevance to early times and in that context can be misleading, though useful as an indication of location to the modern reader. Also, cultural shifts which historians have previously interpreted as evidence of invaders eliminating or displacing the previous populations are now, in the light of genetic evidence, perceived by a number of archaeologists and historians as being to a considerable extent changes in the culture of the existing population brought by groups of immigrants or invaders who at times became a new ruling élite. Research into the prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland is controversial, with differences of opinion from many academic disciplines. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Caesar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages, the... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to Norman conquest of England, a moment that defined much of the history of the British Isles since. ... The History of Ireland began with the first known human settlement in Ireland around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from Great Britain and continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The history of England is similar to the history of Britain before the arrival of the Saxons. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... The history of the Isle of Man falls naturally into four periods. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


Prehistory

At a time when the islands were still joined to continental Europe, Homo erectus brought Palaeolithic tool use to the south east of the modern British Isles some 750,000 years ago followed (about 500,000 years ago) by the more advanced tool use of Homo heidelbergensis found at Boxgrove. It appears that the glaciation of ice ages successively cleared all human life from the area, though human occupation occurred during warmer interglacial periods. Modern humans appear with the Aurignacian culture about 30,000 years ago, famously with the "Red Lady of Paviland" in modern Wales. The last ice age ended around 10,000 years ago, and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers spread to all parts of the islands by around 8,000 years ago, at a time when rising sea levels now cut off the islands from the continent. The immigrants came principally from the ice age refuge in what is now the Basque Country, with a smaller immigration from refuges in the modern Ukraine and Moldavia. Three quarters of the ancestors of people of the British Isles may have arrived in this wave of immigration.[38] Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Binomial name †Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe. ... Boxgrove is the name of a Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site discovered in a gravel quarry to the east of Chichester in the English county of West Sussex. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... The Red Lady of Paviland was a fairly complete human skeleton dyed in red ochre that was discovered in 1826 by Rev. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque County domain. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


Around 6,500 years ago farming practices spread to the area with the Neolithic Revolution and the western seaways quickly brought megalithic culture throughout the islands. The earliest stone house still standing in northern Europe is at Knap of Howar, in Orkney which also features such monuments as Maes Howe ranking alongside the Callanish stone circle on the Isle of Lewis, Newgrange in Ireland, and Stonehenge in southern England along with thousands of lesser monuments across the isles, often showing affinities with megalithic monuments in France and Spain.[39] Further cultural shifts in the Bronze Age were followed with the building of numerous hill forts in the Iron Age, and increased trade with continental Europe. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany A megalith is a large stone which has been used to construct a structure or monument either alone or with other stones. ... At Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray a Neolithic farmstead has been wonderfully well preserved, and is claimed to be the oldest stone house in northern Europe, with radiocarbon dating showing that it was occupied from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, earlier than the very similar... Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney (off northern Scotland). ... The stone circle at the centre of the Standing Stones of Callanish (Callanish I) A distant view of the circle, stone rows and part of the northern avenue The Callanish stone circle (or Callanish I),Clachan Chalanais in Gaelic, is situated near the village of Callanish (Gaelic: Calanais) on the... Newgrange, which is located at , is one of the passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, and the most famous of all Irish prehistoric sites. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


Celts, Romans and Anglo-Saxons

Early historical records of the islands, notably descriptions from Pytheas and Ptolemy, portray numerous named tribes while using Priteni or Pretani as an overall collective term, Hiberni for the inhabitants of Ireland and Albiones for those of Great Britain, though it is questionable if these people identified themselves with any grouping larger than the tribe.[40] Later scholars associated these tribal societies with the Celts the Ancient Greeks reported in what is now south-West Germany, and sub-grouped their Celtic languages in the British Isles into the Brythonic languages spoken in most of Great Britain, and Goidelic in Ireland. They perceived these languages as arriving in a series of invasions, but modern evidence suggests that these peoples may have migrated from Anatolia around 7000 BC through southern and then Western Europe.[41] Genetic evidence indicates that there was not a later large-scale replacement of these early inhabitants[42] and that the Celtic influence was largely cultural. In the Scottish highlands northwards the people the Romans called Caledonians or Picts spoke a language which is now unknown and extinct. It is also possible that southern England was settled by Belgic tribes.[41] Pytheas (Πυθέας), ca. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For the asteroid sometimes (incorrectly) identified as Earths second moon, see 3753 Cruithne. ... This article is about the European people. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


During the first century the Roman conquest of Britain established Roman Britain which became a province of the Roman Empire named Britannia. It included most of the island of Great Britain but never consolidating control over the highlands of Caledonia, and around 180 drew back to Hadrian's Wall with tribes forming friendly buffer states further north to around the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth. The interaction of the Romans with Ireland appears to have been limited to some trade. From the 4th century raids on Roman Britain increased and language links have led to speculation that many Britons migrated across the English Channel at this time to found Brittany, but it has been contended that Armorica was already Brythonic speaking due to trade and religious links, and the Romans subsequently called it Brittania.[43] Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Seamill beach looks south down the outer firth towards southern Arran and Ailsa Craig. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ...


The end of Roman rule around 410 was followed by the formation of numerous kingdoms across most of Britain. Subsequent settlement in Sub-Roman Britain by peoples traditionally called the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes created Anglo-Saxon kingdoms ("the Heptarchy") over much of what is now Eastern England and south-east Scotland. Between the 5th and 10th centuries England was divided into areas of British and Anglo-Saxon control, with the latter gradually expanding westward. The Irish raiders known as Scoti attacked many areas of Britain, and that name was also used for Gaels from Dál Riata in north eastern Ireland and later to settlers from Ireland in western Scotland. Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ...


National formation

The Vikings arrived in the British Isles in the 790's with raids on Lindisfarne, Iona, and the west of Ireland. They provided another wave of immigration, settling in Orkney and Shetland and then Western Isles, Caithness, Sutherland, Isle of Man, Galloway, Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia and founding the cities of Limerick, Waterford, Wexford, Cork, Arklow, and Dublin in Ireland. Wessex prevented the further expansion of the Vikings in England, and achieved a united Kingdom of England in 927, which was then ruled by both English and Viking kings until 1066. In 900 A.D. Donald II was the first king of Alba rather than king of the Picts. His successors amalgamated all the kingdoms north of the English border into the Kingdom of Alba, later known as the Kingdom of Scotland, and fixed its southern border on the Tweed in 1018 , approximating the current England-Scotland border. Wales, still divided following the Roman withdrawal, was divided into a number of Brythonic kingdoms, with the exception from one short period of unification, and also suffered from Viking raids in the tenth century. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Highland Council, Scotland, a registration county, and a lieutenancy area. ... Galloway (Scottish Gaelic, Gall-Ghàidhealaibh or Gallobha, Lowland Scots Gallowa) is an area in southwestern Scotland. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... This article is about the city. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish grid reference T240735 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: Sea level Population (2006)  - Town:  - Environs:   11,712  47 Website: www. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England, the Þingalið Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de(Harald Hadrada)† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Around 7,500 Around 7,000 Casualties Unknown, around 7,000 Unknown, around 2,000 The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England took place on September 25, 1066, shortly... Domnall mac Causantín (anglicised Donald II) was King of the Picts or King of Scots in the late 9th century. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Ireland, having like England and Scotland been divided among around eighty to a hundred petty kingdoms, began to slowly amalgamate into eight to ten provincial kingdoms by the tenth century. Nominally these were governed by a single High King, with the title floating between an ever fewer number of noble dynasties with increasing national authority. Viking influence in Irish affairs was crushed in the 980 Battle of Tara. Following the 1014 Battle of Clontarf, they turned their attention to Scotland and especially England, conquered by the Viking Canute the Great the following year. The same battle, however, resulted in the death Brian Boru, who had effectively united Ireland, causing a power vacuum and a series of bloody factional wars. When under Gaelic rule, Ireland was divided into provinces to replace the earlier system of the túatha. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Battle of Tara took place in 980. ... Combatants Irish of Munster Irish of Leinster and Dublin Vikings Commanders Brian Boru† Máelmorda mac Murchada, Sigtrygg Strength ca. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941[1]–23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. ...


Norman immigration

The Norman Conquest of 1066 first brought England under Norman rule. The Normans would later extend their influence, in different ways, into Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. The Normans were centralisers and expansionists. Their lands within the British Isles were part of extensive holdings across north-Western Europe held within a feudal framework. Wales was brought under their control by the end of the 11th century, but not successfully held until 1283. In 1072 the Normans forced the Scottish king to submit to their feudal overlordship, something they would regularly assert during the mediaeval period. The Normans did not supplant the Scottish political structure, but had great influence over it, eventually supplying the kings of the Scots from 1150 and then asserting independence of the Scottish Crown from that of England. The Scottish Crown gradually gained control of Norse areas, annexing the Kingdom of Mann and the Isles in 1266, and Orkney and Shetland from Norway in 1472. In 1169, the Normans were invited to Ireland to aid a provincial king whose lands had been confiscated by the High King. Papal permission was granted, by the only English head of the Catholic Church to sit in Rome, Pope Adrian IV, for the annexation of the country, to be a feudal possession of the English crown, as the Lordship of Ireland. Although immediately transferred to the king's second son, this reverted to the English crown with John's unexpected accession to the throne of his father. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was a Norse kingdom that existed in the British Isles from 1079 till 1266. ... Combatants Normans: Leinster,  England,  Fleming,  Welsh, Irish Kingdoms: Ulster, Munster Connaught  Norsemen Commanders Dermot MacMurrough, King Henry II, Strongbow, Raymond Carew, Richard Fitz Godbert Rhys ap Gruffydd, Maurice Fitz Gerald, Robert Fitz Stephen, Rory OConnor Askuluv Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... John (French: Jean) (December 24, c. ...


During the Middle Ages, the Normans slowly intermarried with the previous populations and adopted their language and customs. In England, the Anglicisation of the Norman elite was driven by the slow erosion of their lands elsewhere, but it was 1362 before Anglo-Norman gave way to Middle English to become the language of the law courts. In Ireland, a Gaelic resurgence at the close of the 13th century led the Norman to famously become "more Irish than the Irish themselves", adopting Gaelic customs, laws and language, intermarrying with the native nobility and rebelling against the English crown. The 1360 Statutes of Kilkenny were intended to stem this tide by legislating the death penalty for any Englishman (as the Normans were then known) who consorted with the Irish in this way. However, little could be done, save an expensive re-conquest, to bring Ireland back under English law and by the 15th century only a fortified twenty-mile (32 km) radius around Dublin, known as the Pale, was loyal to the English crown. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... More Irish than the Irish themselves was a phrase used in the Middle Ages to describe the phenomenon whereby foreigners who came to Ireland attached to invasion forces tended to be subsumed into Irish social and cultural society, adopted the Irish language, Irish culture, style of dress and a wholesale... The Statutes of Kilkenny were a notorious series of thirty-five acts passed at Kilkenny in 1367, aimed at curbing the alarming decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of twenty miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ...


Protestant reformation and civil wars

The feudal system decayed and by the end of the sixteenth century was replaced by a system of centralised states. The English throne had come under the Welsh Tudors, who centralised government in England, Ireland, and Wales. In 1603 James VI of Scotland brought England and Scotland into personal union and promoted the existence of a modern British identity. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ...


These changes happened at the same time as the Protestant reformation where the Roman Catholic church had been replaced by national churches to which all people were expected to adhere to. Failure to do so resulted in prosecution for recusancy and heavy fines, and recusants laid themselves open to accusations of treason and loss of land. By 1600 there was a wide range of religious belief within the islands from Presbyterian Calvinists (who were the majority in much of Scotland) and Independents to episcopal Calvinists (in the Church of Ireland and parts of Scotland) to Protestant Episcopalians that retained formal liturgy (especially the Church of England) to Roman Catholicism (which retained a large majority in Ireland). Reformation redirects here. ... In the history of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with the established Church of England. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ...


James, and his son, Charles I, favoured political and religious centralisation and uniformity throughout the British Isles. They favoured episcopal, Armininian churches with a formal liturgy, which antagonised many Protestants. In addition, James, although he followed a policy of relative religious toleration, worsened the position of Irish Catholics by expanding the policy of plantation in Ireland, most notably in the Plantation of Ulster where forfeited lands from Catholics were settled by Scottish and English Protestants and by barring Catholics from serving in public office. Charles tried to force central, personal government. He attempted to bypass institutions he could not control and impose a uniform non-Calvinistic settlement throughout the islands. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ...


The result was the First Bishops War in Scotland in 1639, when the Scottish Presbyterians rebelled against Charles' religious policies. The crisis rapidly spread to Ireland, in the form of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and then to England, where Parliament refused to raise an army for Charles to fight in Scotland or Ireland, fearing that it would next be used against them. The English Civil War broke out in 1642. Collectively, these conflicts are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a shifting series of conflicts and alliances within Britain and Ireland. The King's supporters were known as the Royalists and had forces in England, Scotland (mostly episcopalian and Catholic highlanders), and Ireland. The English Parliamentary forces (mostly presbyterian and independents) fought against them, but were defeated in England by 1645. The Scottish presbyterians (the Covenanters) were allied to the English Parliament, while the Irish Catholic Confederates were loosely allied with the Royalists. The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... Motto Pro Deo, Rege et Patria, Hibernia Unanimis(Latin) For God, King and Country, Ireland is United Capital Kilkenny Language(s) English, Latin, Irish Religion Government Monarchy King  - 1642–49 Charles I  - 1649–53 Charles II1 Historical era Wars of the Three Kingdoms  - Rebellion October 1641  - Established Summer 1642  - Cessation...


By 1649 Parliamentary forces ruled England and executed Charles and the Covenanters had secured Scotland. An alliance between the Catholic Confederates and the Royalists in Ireland resulted in the parliamentary conquest of Ireland, followed by a brutal guerrilla campaign which officially ended in 1653. Charles II repudiated the Irish alliance in 1650 in order to enter one with the Covenanters instead and invaded England. He was defeated in 1651 and the result was that the entire British Isles were brought under the English parliamentary army. There was religious toleration of Protestant denominations (though no episcopalian church), but Catholics were strongly repressed. In Ireland they were disenfranchised and dispossessed with Catholic land ownership dropping from 60% to 8% and their land was confiscated to pay off the Parliament's debts. Some of the land was given to another wave of Protestant immigrants, especially former soldiers, but these were not sufficient to replace the existing Irish, so Ireland became a land largely owned by Protestant landlords with Catholic tenants. Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The return of the Stuarts

The restoration of Charles II in 1660 reversed many of the Commonwealth measures: the three kingdoms were separated again, the episcopalian Churches of England and Ireland re-established, a Presbyterian Church of Scotland established, and Protestant nonconformism repressed. A small proportion of the confiscated lands in Ireland were restored, bringing Catholic ownership up to 20%. 1685 brought Charles' brother, James II, a Catholic, to the thrones. James suspended the laws discriminating against those not adhering to the national churches; but he attempted personal rule with a large standing army and heavy-handedly attempted to replace Anglicans with Catholics. This alienated the English establishment who invited the Dutch William, Prince of Orange to depose James in favour of his daughter, Mary. On William's landing, James fled first to France and then to Ireland where the government remained loyal to him. Here he was defeated, and the position of the Protestant Ascendancy cemented with the imposition of Penal Laws there that effectively denied nearly all Catholics (75% of the population) any sort of power or substantial property. The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the... Non conformism is the term of KKK ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual...


James and his descendants attempted to recover the throne several times over the next sixty years, but failed to gain sufficient active support and were consistently defeated. Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones usurped by his...


Kingdom of Great Britain and social revolutions

The 1707 Act of Union united England and Scotland in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The next century saw the start of great social changes. Enclosure had been taking place over a long period in England, but the British Agricultural Revolution accelerated the process by which land was privatised, commercialised, and intensively exploited, and caused it to spread throughout the British Isles. This resulted in the displacement of large numbers of people from the land and widespread hardship, including the Highland Clearances in which many of the residents of the Scottish highlands were systematically removed to make the land available for sheep farming.[44] In addition, the industrial revolution saw the displacement of cottage industries by large-scale factories and the rapid growth of industrial towns and cities. The British Empire grew substantially, stoking the growth in industrial production, bringing in wealth, giving rise to large-scale emigration, and making London the largest city in Europe. The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... For other uses, see Enclosure (disambiguation). ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Social unrest and repressive government accompanied these upheavals. The ideals of the French Revolution were widely supported and led to a full-scale rebellion in Ireland. A result of the rebellion was the start of the end of Ascendancy hegemony in Ireland and its political unification with Great Britain in 1801. Unrest throughout the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland continued well into the 19th century, but was increasingly legitimised and able to find an outlet in Parliament from the Great Reform Act of 1832 onwards. The role of religion in determining political markedly decreased from the Catholic Relief Act in 1829 onwards. The social upheavals continued with widespread migration from the countryside to towns and cities and abroad. Ireland suffered a famine from 1845 until 1849 which resulted in its population dropping by a third through death and migration. This included large-scale movements to Great Britain, especially to the north west of England and western Scotland. Emigration from the whole of the British Isles overseas continued, especially to the English-speaking parts of the British Empire, the United States, and other countries such as Argentina. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants United Irishmen French First Republic Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders Local leaders, General Humbert Cornwallis Lake Strength  ? Various, at peak mid-June c. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The phrase Act of Union 1800 (or sometimes Act of Union 1801) (Irish: Acht an Aontais 1800) is used to describe two complementary Acts[1] whose official United Kingdom titles are the Union with Ireland Act 1800 (1800 c. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... The British Reform Act of 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... The Catholic Relief Act 1829 (10 Geo IV c. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ...


The twentieth century

Prosperity increased in England through the nineteenth and into the twentieth century and politics became increasingly popular and democratic. The suspension of the Home Rule Act 1914, the subsequent Easter Rising, and the Anglo-Irish War led to the formation of the Irish Free State in 1922, which subsequently survived the Irish Civil War. The Irish Free State existed until a new constitution in 1937. The Irish state held dominion status until 1949, when it became a republic. During World War II, the Irish Free State stayed officially neutral under a state of emergency. The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... This article is about the prior state. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Anthem:  The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Six counties in the north-east were politically separated from the rest of Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act, 1920, forming Northern Ireland. They remained part of the United Kingdom with a devolved government until 1972 [11], when direct rule was imposed from London following the failure of a power-sharing assembly. There have been extensive periods of unrest in Northern Ireland which has seen several periods of direct rule in the subsequent decades as the parties within Northern Ireland failed to reach practical agreement on power sharing. An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ...


Within the United Kingdom there are devolved governments in Wales and Scotland, and in Northern Ireland although each has different powers. Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ...


Attempts at long-needed economic reforms by the UK government in the wake of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849) resulted in mass migration from Ireland to Great Britain. Despite attempts by the Irish governments, north and south, to stem the tide, the pattern continued following independence, with notable post-independence spikes in the 1950s and 1980s. Since the mid-1990s Ireland has grown more prosperous and the Irish Gross Domestic Product per capita now exceeds that of the United Kingdom. Both the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community (now the European Union) in 1973. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... GDP redirects here. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The end of the British Empire in the latter half of the twentieth century saw the end of large-scale emigration from Great Britain; instead, there was new non-Irish imigration to Great Britain, especially from the West Indies and the Indian sub-continent. Recently, with the accession of Poland and other former communist states to the European Union, there has been significant migration to both Britain and Ireland from eastern Europe. For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Names of the islands through the ages

Main article: Terminology of the British Isles
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of Ptolemy's Geography based on surviving latitude and longitude descriptions, showing Ibernia Britannica Insula ("Hibernia, Island of Britannia", Ireland), Albion Insula Britannica ("Albion, Island of Britannia", Great Britain) and Mona Insula (Isle of Man) separated from the European mainland by Oceanus Germanicus ("Germanic Ocean", North Sea) to the east and Oceanus Britannicus ("Britannic Ocean", English Channel) to the south.
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of Ptolemy's Geography based on surviving latitude and longitude descriptions, showing Ibernia Britannica Insula ("Hibernia, Island of Britannia", Ireland), Albion Insula Britannica ("Albion, Island of Britannia", Great Britain) and Mona Insula (Isle of Man) separated from the European mainland by Oceanus Germanicus ("Germanic Ocean", North Sea) to the east and Oceanus Britannicus ("Britannic Ocean", English Channel) to the south.

In classical times, several Greek and Roman Geographers used derivatives of the Celtic Languages term "Pretani", like "Brit-" or "Prit-" with various endings to describe the islands to the north west of the European mainland, although several included islands not currently viewed as part of the "British Isles", e.g. Thule. Later in the Roman era the term Britannia came to mean more specifically the Roman province of Britain. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2283x1650, 1881 KB) Map of the British Isles, from the Geography of Ptolemy, 1490. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2283x1650, 1881 KB) Map of the British Isles, from the Geography of Ptolemy, 1490. ...


Other early classical geographers and also later native sources in the post-Roman period used the general term "oceani insulae", simply meaning "islands of the ocean". Great Britain was called "Britannia" and Ireland was called "Hibernia" and also, between about the fifth and eleventh centuries, "Scotia". The Orkneys ("Orcades") and Isle of Man were typically also mentioned in descriptions of the islands. No specific collective term for the islands was used other than "islands of the ocean".


The term "British Isles" entered the English language in the seventeenth century as the description of Great Britain, Ireland and the surrounding islands, but was not in common use until at least the second half of the seventeenth century[45] and, in general, the modern notion of "Britishness" only started to become common after the 1707 Act of Union.[46] While it is probably the most common term used to describe the islands, use of this term is is not universally accepted and is sometimes rejected in Ireland.[47]


Other descriptions are also used, including "Great Britain and Ireland", "The British Isles and Ireland", "Britain and Ireland", and the deliberately vague "these isles", as well as other less common designations like "IONA" (Islands of the North Atlantic), "The Anglo-Celtic Isles", etc.


Pretanic Islands and Britanniae

The earliest known names for the islands come from copies of ancient Greek writings. These include the Massaliote Periplus, a merchants' handbook from around 500 BC that describes searoutes,[48][49] and the travel writings of the Greek Pytheas from around 320 BC. Although the earliest texts have been lost, excerpts were quoted or paraphrased by later authors. The main islands were called Ierne, equating to the term Ériu for Ireland,[50] and Albion for modern-day Great Britain. These early writers referred to the inhabitants as the Ρρεττανοι, Priteni or Pretani, probably from a Celtic languages term meaning "people of the forms".[51] , and Pretannia as a place-name was Diodorus's rendering in Greek of this self-description. It is often taken as a reference to the practice by the inhabitants of painting or tattooing their skin, though as it is unusual for an ethnonym or self-description to describe appearance, this name may have been used by Armoricans.[52] There is considerable confusion about early use of these terms and the extent to which similar terms were used as self-description by the inhabitants.[53] From this name a collective term for the islands was used, appearing as αι Πρετανικαι νησοι (Pretanic Islands)[54] and αι Βρεττανιαι (Brittanic Isles).[55] Cognates of all these terms are still used.[56] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Massaliote Periplus or Massaliot Periplus is the name of a now-lost merchants handbook possibly dating to as early as the sixth century BC describing the searoutes used by traders from Phoenecia and Tartessus in their journeys around Iron Age Europe. ... Pytheas (Πυθέας), ca. ... In Irish mythology, Ériu (), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous patron goddess of Ireland. ... This article is about the archaic name for Great Britain. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ... An ethnonym (Gk. ...


In 55 and 54 BC Caesar's invasions of Britain brought first hand knowledge, and in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico he introduced the term Britannia.[57] Combatants Roman Republic and Trinovantes Britons Commanders Julius Caesar, Commius, Trebonius, Mandubracius Cassivellaunus, Cingetorix, Segovax, Carvilius, Taximagulus Strength 56 - Around 10,000 legionary troops (Legio VII, Legio X), unknown numbers of cavalry forces and transports. ... Commentarii de Bello Gallico (literally Commentaries on the Gallic War in Latin) is an account written by Julius Caesar (in the third person) about his nine years of war in Gaul. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ...


Around AD 70 Pliny the Elder in Book 4 of his Naturalis Historia describes the islands he considers to be Britanniae as including Great Britain, Ireland, The Orkneys, smaller islands such as the Hebrides, Isle of Man, Anglesey, possibly one of the Friesan Islands, and islands that have been identified as Ushant and Sian. He refers to Great Britain as the island called Britannia, while noting that its former name was Albion. The list also includes the island of Thule, most often identified as Iceland, although some express the view that it may have been the Faroe Islands, the coast of Norway or Denmark or possibly Shetland.[58] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ...


Ptolemy included essentially the same main islands in the Britannias. He was writing around AD 150, though he used the now lost work of Marinus of Tyre from around fifty years earlier.[59] His first description is of Ireland, which he called Hibernia. Second was the island of Great Britain, which he called Albion. Book II, Chapters 1 and 2 of his Geography are respectively titled as Hibernia, Island of Britannia and Albion, Island of Britannia.[60] Ptolemy included Thule in the chapter on Albion, although the coordinates he gives have been mapped to the area around modern Kristiansund in western Norway.[61] This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... (ca. ...


Following the conquest of AD 43 the Roman province of Britannia was established,[62] and Roman Britain expanded to cover much of the island of Great Britain. An invasion of Ireland was considered, but this was taken no further and Ireland remained outside the Roman Empire.[63] The Romans failed to consolidate their hold on the Scottish Highlands, and the northern extent of the area under their control, which at times was defined by the Antonine Wall across central Scotland, stabilised at Hadrian's Wall across the north of England by about AD 210.[64] Inhabitants of the province continued to describe themselves as Brittannus or Britto, and gave their patria (homeland) as Britannia or as their tribe.[65] The vernacular term Priteni came to be used for the barbarians north of the Antonine Wall, with the Romans using the tribal name Caledonii more generally for these peoples who after AD 300 they called Picts.[66] Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


The post-Roman era saw Brythonic kingdoms established in all areas of Britain except the Scottish Highlands, but coming under increasing attacks from Picts, Scotti and Anglo Saxons. At this time Ireland was dominated by the Gaels or Scotti, who subsequently gave their name to Ireland and then to Scotland, where it still applies. Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is of the Gaelic (Goidelic) family, a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ...


Oceani insulae

In classical geography. the world of the Mediterranean was thought to be surrounded by a fast flowing river, personified as the Titan Oceanus. As a result, islands off the north and west shores of continental Europe were termed (in Latin) the Oceani Insulae or Islands of the Ocean. For example, in AD 43 various islands, including Britain, Ireland and Thule, were described as "Septemtrionalis Oceani Insulae", meaning Islands of the Northern Ocean, by Pomponius Mela, one of the earliest Roman geographers.[67] This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. ...


This description was also used in indigenous sources of the post-Roman period, which also used the term "Oceani Insulae" or "Islands of the Ocean" as a term for the islands in the Atlantic and elsewhere. One such example is the Life of Saint Columba, a hagiography recording the missionary activities of the sixth century Irish monk Saint Columba among the peoples of modern-day Scotland. It was written in the late seventh century by Adomnán of Iona, an Irish monk living on the Inner Hebridean island.[68] No Priteni-derived collective reference is made. Jordanes writing in Getica (AD 551) also describes the various islands, particularly in the western Ocean as "islands of the ocean", naming various islands in the North Atlantic, and believing Scandinavia to be one of them.[69] Jordanes subsequently gives a description of Britain, but does not mention Ireland. Hagiography is the study of saints. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ... Iona Abbey Saint Adomnán of Iona (627/8-704) was abbot of Iona (679-704), hagiographer, statesman and clerical lawyer; he was the author of the most important Vita of Saint Columba and promulgator of the Law of Innocents. A popular anglicised form of his name is Saint Eunan... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... The Inner Hebrides are a group of islands off the west coast of Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides. ... Modern Istanbul, site of ancient Constantinople, capital of the eastern Roman Empire, where Jordanes was being detained when he wrote Getica. ...


Another native source to use the term is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede written in the early eighth century. Bede's work does not give a collective term for the archipelago, referring to Brittania solely as the island "formerly called Albion" and treating Ireland separately. As with Jordanes and Columba, he refers to Britain as being Oceani insula or "island of the ocean".[70] Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ...


Isidore of Seville's Etymology, written in the early seventh century and one of the most used textbooks in Europe throughout the Middle Ages,[71] similarly lists Britain (Britannia), Ireland (called Scotia or Hibernia), Thule, and many other islands simply as "islands" or "islands of the Ocean" and uses no collective term. Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or , Latin: ) (c. ...


In the seventeenth century, Peter Heylyn in Microcosmus described the Classical conception of the Ocean and so included in the Iles of the Ocean consisted of all the classically known offshore islands, that is Zeeland, Denmark, the British Isles, and those in the Northerne Sea.[72] Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ...


British Isles

The term British Isles came into use in English at the same time as the term British Empire. This map shows the British Isles (red) at the centre of the empire (pink) at its height in 1897 where England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales are referred to as the Home Nations.
The term British Isles came into use in English at the same time as the term British Empire. This map shows the British Isles (red) at the centre of the empire (pink) at its height in 1897 where England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales are referred to as the Home Nations.

In his Historia Regum Britanniae of around 1136, Geoffrey of Monmouth responded to the slights of English historians with a theme of the sovereignty of Britain which exalted Welsh national history, portraying a once unified Britannia, founded by Brutus of Troy, defended against Anglo-Saxon invasion by King Arthur of the Britons who was now sleeping, one day to return to the rescue. By the end of the century, this adaptation of myths common to Wales, Cornwall and Brittany had been adopted in the service of England, with Henry II of England enthusiastically taking up Arthurian legend, and Edward I of England putting on pageantry to show the Welsh that he was Arthur's heir. The Welsh and the Scots Edward Bruce used the legends to find common cause as one "kin and nation" in driving the English out of Britain.[73] Both Welsh rebels and English monarchs continued such claims, particularly Henry Tudor who had Welsh ancestry and claims of descent from Arthur. His son Henry VIII incorporated Wales into England, but also laid claim to be an heir of Arthur as did his successor Elizabeth I of England.[74] Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... // Edward Bruce (Edubard a Briuis as he was known in medieval Gaelic), (c. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ...


The rediscovery of Ptolemy's Geographia by Maximus Planudes in 1300 brought new insight, and circulation of copies widened when it was translated into Latin in 1409.[75][76] This spread Ptolemy's naming of Hibernia and Albion as Island[s] of Britannia.[77] The Latin equivalents of terms equating to "British Isles" started to be used by mapmakers from the mid sixteenth century onwards, for example Sebastian Münster in Geographia Universalis, a 1550 re-issue of Ptolemy's Geography, uses the heading De insulis Britannicis, Albione, quæ est Anglia, & Hibernia, & de cuiutatibus carum in genere.[78] Gerardus Mercator produced much more accurate maps, including the British Isles in 1564.[78][79] Ortelius, in his atlas of 1570, uses the title "Angliae, Scotiae et Hiberniae, sive Britannicar. insularum descriptio". This translates as "A Representation of England, Scotland and Ireland, or Britannica's islands".[80] The Geographia is Ptolemys main work besides the Almagest. ... Maximus Planudes (c. ... Portrait of Sebastian Münster by Christoph Amberger, c. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... Abraham Ortelius. ...


The geographer and occultist John Dee, of Welsh family background,[81] was an adviser to Queen Elizabeth I of England, and also prepared maps for several explorers. He helped to develop legal justifications for colonisation by Protestant England, breaking the duopoly the Pope had granted to the Spanish and Portuguese Empires. Dee coined the term British Empire and built his case in part on the claim of a British Ocean including Britain and Ireland as well as Iceland, Greenland and possibly extending to North America, using alleged Saxon precedent to claim territorial and trading rights.[82] Current scholarly opinion is generally that "his imperial vision was simply propaganda and antiquarianism, without much practical value and of limited interest to the English crown and state."[82] The Lordship of Ireland had come under tighter English control as the Kingdom of Ireland, and diplomatic efforts interspersed with warfare tried to also bring Scotland under the English monarch. Apparently Dee used the term Brytish Iles in his writings of 1577 which developed his arguments claiming these territories.[83] This appears to be the first use of a recognisable version of the modern term. For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... A true duopoly is a specific type of oligopoly where only two producers exist in one market. ... Inter caetera (Among other [works]) was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the west and south of a pole-of-pole line 100 leagues (418 km) west and south of any... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English Government Monarchy Lord of Ireland  - 1171-1189 Henry II  - 1509-1541 Henry VIII Lord Lieutenant  - 1528-1529 Piers Butler  - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... The Anglo-Scottish Wars were a series of wars fought between England and Scotland during the sixteenth century. ...


Elizabeth was succeeded by her cousin king James VI of Scotland, who brought the English throne under his personal rule as king James I of England, and proclaimed himself as 'King of Great Brittaine, France and Ireland'.[84] However, the states remained separate until the monarchy was overthrown in the civil wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Commonwealth of England briefly ruled all before the restoration of the monarchy restored separate states. James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, also misleadingly called the British Civil Wars (since the kingdoms were not a single political entity until the Act of Union 1800), are a series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 which included the Bishops Wars... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


The Oxford English Dictionary states that the first published use in English of "British Isles" was in 1621 (before the civil wars) by Peter Heylin (or Heylyn) in his Microcosmus: a little description of the great world,[85] a collection of his lectures on historical geography. Writing from his English political perspective, he grouped Ireland with Great Britain and the minor islands by three asserting points:[86] The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Peter Heylin or Heylyn (1600–1662) was an English ecclesiastical writer. ...

  • The inhabitants of Ireland must have come from Britain as it was the nearest land.
  • He notes that ancient writers, such as Ptolemy, called Ireland a "Brttiʃh Iland".
  • He cites the observation of the first century Roman writer Tacitus that the habits and disposition of the people in Ireland were not much unlike the "Brittaines",[87]

Modern scholarly opinion[88][89] is that Heylyn "politicized his geographical books Microcosmus ... and, still more, Cosmographie" in the context of what geography meant at that time. Rather, Heylyn's geographical work must be seen as political expressions concerned with proving or disproving constitutional matters and "demonstrated their authors' specific political identities by the languages and arguments they deployed." In an era when "politics referred to discussions of dynastic legitimacy, of representation, and of the Constitution ... [Heylyn's] geography was not to be conceived separately from politics." For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Following the Acts of Union of 1707 the Kingdom of Great Britain and conflict with France brought a new popular enthusiasm for Britishness, mostly in Britain itself,[90] and the term British Isles came into common use despite the persistent stirrings of Irish nationalism. A desire for some form of Irish independence had been active throughout the centuries, with Poyning's Law a common focus of resentment. After the hugely turbulent sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a sort of nationalism surfaced among the Irish Protestant population and eventually lead to the legislative independence of the Irish Parliament under Grattan's Parliament - followed after the Act of Union in 1800 by renewed assertiveness of the Irish Catholics, who first agitated for Catholic Emancipation and later for Repeal of the Union under Daniel O'Connell. Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Irish nationalism refers to political movements that desire greater autonomy or the independence of Ireland from Great Britain. ... Poynings Law refers to Sir Edward Poynings declaration to the Irish Parliament at Drogheda in 1494. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... For other persons named Daniel OConnell, see Daniel OConnell (disambiguation). ...


Subsequently the Great Irish Famine, the Land War, the failure of William Gladstone and Charles Stuart Parnell to get partial independence or a Bill for Home Rule through the Westminster Parliament lead to the events of and the eventual total secession/independence of most of Ireland from the United Kingdom and the end of British rule in most of Ireland. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... The Land War in Irish History was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s. ... Gladstone redirects here. ... Charles Stewart Parnell (June 27, 1846 – October 6, 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone thought him the most remarkable person he had ever met. ... There were four Irish Home Rule Bills in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to reverse parts of the 1801 Act of Union. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Languages

     Language branches     Modern languages     Typical spoken locationsA combined Venn diagram showing language branches, major languages and typically where they are spoken for modern languages in the British Isles.
     Language branches     Modern languages     Typical spoken locations
A combined Venn diagram showing language branches, major languages and typically where they are spoken for modern languages in the British Isles.

The ethno-linguistic heritage of the British Isles is very rich in comparison to other areas of similar size, with twelve languages from six groups across four branches of the Indo-European family. The Insular Celtic languages of the Goidelic sub-group (Irish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic) and the Brythonic sub-group (Cornish, Welsh and Breton, spoken in north-western France) are the only remaining Celtic languages - their continental relations becoming extinct during the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries. The Norman languages of Guernésiais, Jèrriais and Sarkese are spoken in the Channel Islands, as is French. A cant, called Shelta, is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, often as a means to conceal meaning from those outside the group. However, English, sometimes in the form of Scots, is the dominant language, with few monoglots remaining in the other languages of the region. The Norn language appears to have become extinct in the 18th/19th century. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A Venn diagram of sets A, B, and C Venn diagrams (or set diagrams) are illustrations used in the branch of mathematics known as set theory. ... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Cant is an example of a cryptolect, a characteristic or secret language used only by members of a group, often used to conceal the meaning from those outside the group. ... Shelta is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ...


Until perhaps 1950 the use of languages other than English roughly coincided with the major ethno-cultural regions in the British Isles. As such, many of them, especially the Celtic languages, became intertwined with national movements in these areas, seeking either greater independence from the parliament of the United Kingdom, seated in England, or complete secession. The common history of these languages was one of sharp decline in the mid-19th century, prompted by centuries of economic deprivation and official policy to discourage their use in favour of English. However, since the mid-twentieth century there has been somewhat of a revival of interest in maintaining and using them. Celtic-language medium schools are available throughout Ireland, Scotland and Wales to such an extent that it is now possible to receive all formal education, up to and including third-level education, through a Celtic language. Instruction in Irish and Welsh is compulsory in all schools in the Republic of Ireland and Wales respectively. In the Isle of Man, Manx in taught in all schools, although it is not compulsory, and there is one Manx-medium school. The respective languages are official languages of state in Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland and Wales, with equal status with respect to English. In the Channel Islands French is a legislative and administrative language (see Jersey Legal French). Since 2007, Irish is a working language of the European Union. // Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ... Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching. ... This official stone which marks the inauguration of a municipal office in 1999 bears the names of the Connétable and the Procureurs du Bien Public of Saint Helier. ...

Number able to speak indigenous languages as a percentage of appropriate population area in the British Isles. Note: Figure for English is for whole of the British Isles and includes native speakers only.
Number able to speak indigenous languages as a percentage of appropriate population area in the British Isles. Note: Figure for English is for whole of the British Isles and includes native speakers only.

During the last 60 years there has been a great deal of immigration into Great Britain (less into Ireland). As a result a number of languages not formerly found in the British Isles are in regular use. Polish, Punjabi, and Hindustani (inc Urdu & Hindi), are each probably the first language of over 1 million residents, and a number of other languages are regularly spoken by substantial numbers of persons. Even in provincial areas it has become common for local government to publish information to residents in ten or so languages,[91] and in the largest city, London, the first language of about 20% of the population is neither English nor an indigenous Celtic language.[92] Cornish and the Norman languages of Guernésiais, Jèrriais and Sarkese are far less supported. In Jersey, a language office (L'Office du Jèrriais) is funded to provide education services for Jèrriais in schools and other language services, while Guernésiais is taught in some schools on a volunteer basis. Of the four, only Cornish is recognised officially under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, and it is taught in some schools as an optional modern language. Guernésiais and Jèrriais are recognised as regional languages by the British and Irish governments within the framework of the British-Irish Council. Scots, as either a dialect of or a closely related language to English, is similarly recognised by the European Charter, the British-Irish Council, and as "part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland" under the Good Friday Agreement. However, it is without official status as a language of state in Scotland, where English is used in its place. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... // The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ...


Shelta, spoken by the ethnic minority Irish Travellers, is thought to be spoken by 6,000–25,000 people, according to varying sources. Although evidence suggests that it existed as far back as the 13th century, as a secret language, it was only discovered at the end of the 19th century. It is without any official status, despite being thought to have 86,000 speakers worldwide, mostly in the USA. Shelta is a language spoken by parts of the Irish Traveller people. ... A language game (also called secret language or ludling) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. ...


Sport and culture

See Sport in Ireland, Sport in the United Kingdom, Culture of Ireland and Culture of the United Kingdom. Sport on the island of Ireland is popular and widespread. ... // Sport plays a prominent role in British life and many Britons make a great emotional investment in their favourite spectator sports. ... A page from the Book of Kells. ... Union Flag The culture of the United Kingdom is rich and varied, and has been influential on culture on a worldwide scale. ...


A number of sports are popular throughout the British Isles, the most prominent of which is association football. While this is organised separately in different national associations, leagues and national teams, even within the UK, it is a common passion in all parts of the islands. “Soccer” redirects here. ...


There are several sports popular in Ireland but not in Great Britain, and vice versa. Cricket, hurling and Gaelic football are probably the best examples of this. Cricket, while being very popular in England and Wales, is rare in Scotland and Ireland. Similarly, hurling and Gaelic football, although hugely popular across the island of Ireland and capable of regularly filling the 82,500-capacity Croke Park, the 4th largest stadium in Europe, are almost unknown in Great Britain. This article is about the sport. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Gaelic Football (Irish: Peil, Peil Gaelach or Caid ), commonly referred to as football, or Gaelic , is a form of football played mainly in Ireland. ... Croke Park (Irish: Páirc an Chrócaigh) in Dublin, Ireland is the largest sports stadium in Ireland and the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), Irelands biggest sporting organisation. ...


Some sporting events do operate across Great Britain and Ireland as a whole.


The British and Irish Lions is a rugby union team made up of players from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales that undertakes tours of the southern hemisphere rugby playing nations every few years. This team was formerly known as The British Isles or colloquially as "The British Lions", but was renamed as "The British and Irish Lions" in 2001. In rugby one united team represents both Northern Ireland and the Republic. The four national rugby teams from Great Britain and Ireland play each other each year for the Triple Crown. First match Otago 3 - 8 Great Britain (28 April 1888) Largest win Manawatu 6 - 109 British & Irish Lions (28 June 2005) Worst defeat New Zealand 38 - 6 Lions (16 July 1983) The British and Irish Lions (until 2001 known as the British Isles Rugby Union Team or more colloquially the... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... First international (also the worlds first) Scotland 4–1 England (27 March 1871) Largest win England 134–0 Romania (17 November 2001) Worst defeat Australia 76–0 England (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Semi-finals, 1991 The Scotland national rugby union... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team represent Wales in international... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... First international  England 7 - 0 Ireland  (15 February 1875) Largest win  United States 3 - 83 Ireland  (10 June , 2000) Worst defeat  New Zealand 59 - 6 Ireland  (6 June 1992) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Quarter Finals, 1987, 1991, 1995, 2003, The Ireland rugby union team, represents... In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the national teams of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales as part of the Six Nations Championship. ...


Since 2001 the professional club teams of Ireland, Scotland and Wales compete together in the Celtic League. Clubs in the English Guinness Premiership do not participate in the Celtic League. The Celtic League, currently known as the Magners League for sponsorship reasons, is an annual rugby union competition involving regional sides from Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... The Guinness Premiership is a professional league competition for rugby union clubs in the top division of the English rugby system. ...


Between 1927 and 1971 the Ryder Cup in golf was played between a United States team and a Great Britain team, although, in practice, a team representing Great Britain and Ireland. In 1973, the team was renamed so that United States faced an official Great Britain and Ireland team. From 1979 onwards this was expanded to include the whole of Europe. Bowls is also an example of a sport that continues to have a British Isles championship. The Ryder Cup is a golf trophy contested biennially in an event called the Ryder Cup Matches by teams from Europe and the United States. ... This article is about the game. ... For other uses, see Bowl (disambiguation). ...


The United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland have separate television and radio networks, although UK television is widely available and watched in Ireland,[93] giving people in Ireland a high level of familiarity with cultural matters in Great Britain. People in Ireland also can vote on many British shows such as X-Factor, telephone numbers for the Rep. of Ireland are also available to enter competitions and contribute to comment lines. Irish television is not widely watched in Great Britain[citation needed]. British newspapers and magazines are widely available in Ireland and in recent decades have started to produce specific Ireland-orientated editorial copy. Again, as with television, the reverse is not true and Irish newspapers are not widely available in Great Britain.[citation needed]


Pubs and beer are an important part of social life in all parts of the British Isles. Pub redirects here. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


A few cultural events are organised for the island group as a whole. For example, the Costa Book Awards are awarded to authors resident in the UK or Ireland. The Man Booker Prize is awarded to authors from the Commonwealth of Nations or the Republic of Ireland. The Mercury Music Prize is handed out every year to the best album from a British or Irish musician or group, though other musical awards are considered on a national basis. It is not unusual for British organisations to include Irish people in lists of "Great Britons" or to include Irish authors in collections of "British" literature. Seamus Heaney made an objection to his inclusion in a 1982 anthology of British poetry by remarking: 'Don’t be surprised If I demur, for, be advised My passport’s green. No glass of ours was ever raised To toast the Queen. (Open Letter, Field day Pamphlet no.2 1983)". The Costa Book Awards are among the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary awards. ... The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known in short as the Booker Prize, is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel, written in the English language, by a citizen of either the Commonwealth of Nations or the Republic of Ireland. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Mercury Music Prize, now officially known as the Nationwide Mercury Prize, is a music award given annually for the best British or Irish album of the previous 12 months. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: ) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1995. ...


Many other bodies are organised throughout the islands as a whole; for example the Samaritans which is deliberately organised without regard to national boundaries on the basis that a service which is not political or religious should not recognise sectarian or political divisions.[94] The RNLI is also organised throughout the islands as a whole, and describes itself as covering the UK and Republic of Ireland.[95] The Samaritans redirects here. ... RNLI Lifeboat at Calshot Spit The Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) is a charity dedicated to saving lives at sea around the coasts of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ National Statistics Office (2003). Ethnic group statistics A guide for the collection and classification of ethnicity data. HMSO.
  2. ^ Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha from CollinsHapper Pocket Irish Dictionary (ISBN 0-00-470765-6). Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa meaning Islands of Western Europe from Patrick S. Dineen, Foclóir Gaeilge Béarla, Irish-English Dictionary, Dublin, 1927. Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór, meaning Ireland and Great Britain (from focail.ie, "The British Isles", Foras na Gaeilge, 2006)
  3. ^ "British Isles," Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ An Irishman's Diary Myers, Kevin; The Irish Times (subscription needed) 09/03/2000, Accessed July 2006 'millions of people from these islands — 'oh how angry we get when people call them the British Isles'
    Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490-1700. (London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2003): “the collection of islands which embraces England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales has commonly been known as the British Isles. This title no longer pleases all the inhabitants of the islands, and a more neutral description is ‘the Atlantic Isles’” (p. xxvi)
    On 18 July 2004 The Sunday Business Post questioned the use of British Isles as a purely geographic expression, noting:

    [The] "Last Post has redoubled its efforts to re-educate those labouring under the misconception that Ireland is really just British. When British Retail Week magazine last week reported that a retailer was to make its British Isles debut in Dublin, we were puzzled. Is not Dublin the capital of the Republic of Ireland?. When Last Post suggested the magazine might see its way clear to correcting the error, an educative e-mail to the publication...: Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

    Retrieved 17 July 2006

    "...I have called the Atlantic archipelago – since the term ‘British Isles’ is one which Irishmen reject and Englishmen decline to take quite seriously." Pocock, J.G.A. [1974] (2005). "British History: A plea for a new subject". The Discovery of Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 29. OCLC 60611042.
    "...what used to be called the "British Isles," although that is now a politically incorrect term." Finnegan, Richard B.; Edward T. McCarron (2000). Ireland: Historical Echoes, Contemporary Politics. Boulder: Westview Press, p. 358.
    is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Politically Incorrect was a late-night, half-hour political talk show hosted by Bill Maher that ran from 1993 to 2002. ...


    "In an attempt to coin a term that avoided the 'British Isles' - a term often offensive to Irish sensibilities - Pocock suggested a neutral geographical term for the collection of islands located off the northwest coast of continental Europe which included Britain and Ireland: the Atlantic archipelago..." Lambert, Peter; Phillipp Schofield (2004). Making History: An Introduction to the History and Practices of a Discipline. New York: Routledge, p. 217.


    "..the term is increasingly unacceptable to Irish historians in particular, for whom the Irish sea is or ought to be a separating rather than a linking element. Sensitive to such susceptibilities, proponents of the idea of a genuine British history, a theme which has come to the fore during the last couple of decades, are plumping for a more neutral term to label the scattered islands peripheral to the two major ones of Great Britain and Ireland." Roots, Ivan (1997). "Union or Devolution in Cromwell's Britain". History Review.


    The British Isles, A History of Four Nations, Second edition, Cambridge University Press, July 2006, Preface, Hugh Kearney. "The title of this book is ‘The British Isles’, not ‘Britain’, in order to emphasise the multi-ethnic character of our intertwined histories. Almost inevitably many within the Irish Republic find it objectionable, much as Basques or Catalans resent the use of the term ‘Spain’. As Seamus Heaney put it when he objected to being included in an anthology of British Poetry: 'Don’t be surprised If I demur, for, be advised My passport’s green. No glass of ours was ever raised To toast the Queen. (Open Letter, Field day Pamphlet no.2 1983)"
    (Note: sections bolded for emphasis do not appear bold in original publications) Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... Catalan can refer to: Catalan people Catalan language An inhabitant of Catalonia A Catalan speaker, whether or not from Catalonia proper (see Catalan Countries). ...

  5. ^ The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: “A Country by Any Other Name”?, Mary E. Daly, Journal of British Studies 46 (January 2007): p 72–90

    In 1947 Ireland’s Department of External Affairs drafted a letter to the heads of all government departments...... The expression “British Isles” was “a complete misnomer and its use should be thoroughly discouraged”; it should be replaced “where necessary by Ireland and Great Britain.”


    Written Answers - Official Terms", Dáil Éireann - Volume 606 - 28 September 2005. In his response, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs stated "The British Isles is not an officially recognised term in any legal or inter-governmental sense. It is without any official status. The Government, including the Department of Foreign Affairs, does not use this term. Our officials in the Embassy of Ireland, London, continue to monitor the media in Britain for any abuse of the official terms as set out in the Constitution of Ireland and in legislation. These include the name of the State, the President, Taoiseach and others."
    "New atlas lets Ireland slip shackles of Britain". The Times, London, October 3, 2006. A spokesman for the Irish Embassy in London said: “The British Isles has a dated ring to it, as if we are still part of the Empire. We are independent, we are not part of Britain, not even in geographical terms. We would discourage its usage.” This article is about the current Irish body. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ...


    (Note: Sections bolded for emphasis do not appear in bold in the original publications)
  6. ^ The diplomatic and constitutional name of the Irish state is simply Ireland. For disambiguation purposes "Republic of Ireland" is often used though technically that is not the name of the state but, according to the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, its "description". Article 4, Bunreacht na hÉireann. Section 2, Republic of Ireland Act, 1948.
  7. ^ [1]
    Collier's Encyclopedia, 1997 Edition
    Don Aitken, "What is the UK? Is it the same as Britain, Great Britain or England?", February 2002

    Usage is not consistent as to whether the Channel Islands are included [in the British Isles] - geographically they should not be, politically they should. The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ...

  8. ^ Longman Modern English Dictionary - "a group of islands off N.W. Europe comprising Great Britain Ireland, the Hebrides, Orkney the Shetland Is and adjacent islands"
    Merriam Webster - "Function: geographical name, island group W Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland, & adjacent islands"
    dictionary.com - includes for example the American Heritage Dictionary - "British Isles, A group of islands off the northwest coast of Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland, and adjacent smaller islands"
    Encarta - "British Isles, group of islands in the northeastern Atlantic, separated from mainland Europe by the North Sea and the English Channel. It consists of the large islands of Great Britain and Ireland and almost 5,000 surrounding smaller islands and islets"
    Philip's World Atlas
    Times Atlas of the World
    Insight Family World Atlas
  9. ^ OED Online: "a geographical term for the islands comprising Great Britain and Ireland with all their offshore islands including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands"
    GENUKI: Crown Dependencies
    The British Isles and all that
    Philips University Atlas
  10. ^ Amazon.com: Michelin Great Britain Ireland (Michelin Maps): Books: Michelin Travel Publications
    Amazon.co.uk: Rail Atlas Great Britain and Ireland: Books: S.K. Baker
    Complete Driver's Atlas of Great Britain & Ireland | |Readers Digest UK
    Hammond International Great Britain, Ireland
  11. ^ John Oakland, 2003, British Civilization: A Student's Dictionary, Routledge: London

    British-Irish Isles, the (geography) see BRITISH ISLES

    British Isles, the (geography) A geographical (not political or CONSTITUTIONAL) term for ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, WALES, and IRELAND (including the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND), together with all offshore islands. A more accurate (and politically acceptable) term today is the British-Irish Isles.

  12. ^ British Weather (Part One) This BBC article referred to 'a small country such as the British Isles' between at least April 2004 and January 2007 (checked using the Wayback Machine at http://web.archive.org. Last accessed and checked 01/01/07. It was changed in February 2007 and now reads 'a small area such as the British Isles'
    "[2] Website on Megalithic Monuments in the British Isles and Ireland. Ireland in this site includes Fermanagh, which is politically in Northern Ireland."
    "[3] The website uses the term "British Isles" in various ways, including ways that use Ireland as all of Ireland, while simultaneously using the term "The British Isles and Ireland", e.g. 'Anyone using GENUKI should remember that its name is somewhat misleading -- the website actually covers the British Isles and Ireland, rather than just the United Kingdom, and therefore includes information about the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, as well as England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.'"
    "Annual Guide to Narrow Gauge and Miniature Railways in the British Isles and Ireland: 2003PDF (575 KiB) which includes Belfast lines under the section on Ireland."
    For example, see Google searches of the BBC website.
  13. ^ BBC's style guide BBC:PDF (275 KiB) "The British Isles is not a political entity. It is a geographical unit, the archipelago off the west coast of continental Europe covering Scotland, Wales, England, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands."
  14. ^ The Times: "Britain or Great Britain = England, Wales, Scotland and islands governed from the mainland (i.e. not Isle of Man or Channel Islands). United Kingdom = Great Britain and Northern Ireland. British Isles = United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. Do not confuse these entities."
  15. ^ [4]PDF (1.00 MiB) Notice to Mariners of 2005 referring to a new edition of a nautical chart of the Western Approaches. Chart 2723 INT1605 International Chart Series, British Isles & Ireland, Western Approaches to the North Channel.
  16. ^ "[5] Thus, the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic–Norway Current brings warm tropical waters northward, warming the climates of eastern North America, the British Isles and Ireland, and the Atlantic coast of Norway in winter, and the Kuroshio–North Pacific Current does the same for Japan and western North America, where warmer winter climates also occur. Page retrieved Feb eighteenth 2007.
  17. ^ "[6] The description of the OUP textbook "The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries" in the series on the history of the British Isles carries the description that it 'Offers an integrated geographical coverage of the whole of the British Isles and Ireland - rather than purely English history'" The same blurb goes on to say that the "book encompasses the histories of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, and also considers the relationships between the different parts of the British Isles". Page retrieved Feb eighteenth 2007.
  18. ^ "[7] Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees by David More and John White, Timber Press, Inc., 2002, "This book began and for many years quietly proceeded as DM's (David Martin's) personal project to record in detail as many tree species, varieties and cultivars as he could find in the British Isles and Ireland."
  19. ^ Economic History Society Style Guide
  20. ^ Yahoo UK and Ireland
  21. ^ The Irish Times, "Folens to wipe 'British Isles' off the map in new atlas", October 2, 2006
  22. ^ British Isles is removed from school atlases
  23. ^ The Times, "New atlas lets Ireland slip the shackles of Britain", October 3, 2006
  24. ^ Mayes, Julian; Dennis Wheeler (1997). Regional Climates of the British Isles. London: Routledge, p. 13. 
  25. ^ Ibid., pp. 13–14.
  26. ^ Seán McCárthaigh, Dublin–London busiest air traffic route within EU, Irish Examiner, March 31, 2003
  27. ^ "TUNNEL UNDER THE SEA", The Washington Post, May 2, 1897 (Archive link)
  28. ^ A Vision of Transport in Ireland in 2050, IEI report (pdf), The Irish Academy of Engineers, 21/12/2004
  29. ^ Tunnel 'vision' under Irish Sea, (link), BBC news, Thursday, 23 December, 2004
  30. ^ BBC News, From Twinbrook to the Trevi Fountain, 21 August 2007
  31. ^ Goudie, Andrew S.; D. Brunsden (1994). The Environment of the British Isles, an Atlas. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 2. 
  32. ^ Ibid., p. 5.
  33. ^ Though the Irish Free State left the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922 the name of the United Kingdom was not changed to reflect that until April 1927, when Northern Ireland was substituted for Ireland in its name.
  34. ^ Irish will need passports to visit Britain from 2009 Irish Times, Oct 24th 2007
  35. ^ Goldsmith, 2008, Citizenship: Our Common Bond, Ministry of Justice: London
  36. ^ [ Communiqué of the British-Irish Council], February 2008
  37. ^ Martina Purdy, 28 February 2008 2008, Unionists urged to drop boycott, BBC: London
  38. ^ Stephen Oppenheimer, Myths of British Ancestry, Prospect, Issue 127, p.50 (Oct. 2006)
  39. ^ British Archaeology Magazine - People of the Sea article by Barry Cunliffe
  40. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 2–5
  41. ^ a b Oppenheimer, ibid.
  42. ^ B.McEvoy, M.Richards, P.Forster, and D.G. Bradley, The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe, Am J Hum Genet. October 2004; 75(4): 693–702. [8]
  43. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 149
  44. ^ Prebble, John. (1969). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140028379
  45. ^ "When I refer to the composite Monarchy ruled over by James VI and I and by King Charles I, it is always described as Britain and Ireland, and I deliberately avoid the politically loaded phrase 'the British Isles' not least because this was not a normal usage in the political discourse of the time". Canny, Nicholas (2001). Making Ireland British:. New York: Oxford University Press, p. viii. ISBN-13:.
  46. ^ Snyder "The Britons", P281, quoting Linda Colley.
  47. ^ "...I have called the Atlantic archipelago – since the term ‘British Isles’ is one which Irishmen reject and Englishmen decline to take quite seriously." Pocock, J.G.A. (2006). The Discovery of Islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 29. ISBN-13:978-0521850957.
  48. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 12, Ó Corráin 1989, p. 1
  49. ^ Cunliffe 2002, pp. 38-45, 94 The Massaliote Periplus describes a sea route south round the west coast of Spain from the promontory of Oestriminis (Cape Finisterre) back to the Mediterranean. The poem by Avienus makes used of it in describing the voyage of Himilco the Navigator, also incorporating fragments from 11 ancient writers including Pytheas. When Avienus says it's two days sailing from Oestriminis to the Holy Isle, inhabited by the Hierni, near Albion, this differs from the sailing directions of the Periplus and implies that Oestriminis is Brittany, a conflict explained if it had been taken by Avienus from one of his other sources.
  50. ^ Ó Corráin 1989, p. 1
  51. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 12, 68
  52. ^ Cunliffe 2002, p. 95,Encyclopedia of the Celts: Pretani
  53. ^ Cunliffe 2002, p. 94
  54. ^ O'Rahilly 1946
  55. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 12
  56. ^ Cognates of Albion (normally referring only to Scotland) - English: Albion (archaic); Cornish: Alban; Irish: Alba; Manx: Albey; Scots: Albiane; Scottish Gaelic: Alba; Welsh: Yr Alban. Cognates of Ierne: English: Ireland; Cornish: Iwerdhon; Irish: Éire; Manx: Nerin; Scots: Irland; Scottish Gaelic: Éirinn; Welsh: Iwerddon though in English Albion is deliberately archaic, or poetical. Cognates of Priteni – Welsh: Prydain; English: Briton and British.
  57. ^ 4.20 provides a translation describing Caeser's first invasion, using terms which from IV.XX appear in Latin as arriving "tamen in Britanniam", the inhabitants being "Britannos", and on p30 "principes Britanniae" is translated as "chiefs of Britain".
  58. ^ "The opinions as to the identity of ancient Thule have been numerous in the extreme. We may here mention six: ― 1. The common, and apparently the best founded opinion, that Thule is the island of Iceland. 2. That it is either the Ferroe group, or one of those islands. 3. The notion of Ortelius, Farnaby, and Schœnning, that it is identical with Thylemark in Norway. 4. The opinion of Malte Brun, that the continental portion of Denmark is meant thereby, a part of which is to the present day called Thy or Thyland. 5. The opinion of Rudbeck and of Calstron, borrowed originally from Procopius, that this is a general name for the whole of Scandinavia. 6. That of Gosselin, who thinks that under this name Mainland, the principal of the Shetland Islands, is meant. It is by no means impossible that under the name of Thule two or more of these localities may have been meant, by different authors writing at distant periods and under different states of geographical knowledge. It is also pretty generally acknowledged, as Parisot remarks, that the Thule mentioned by Ptolemy is identical with Thylemark in Norway." (1855) "Britannia", in Bostock, John and H.T. Riley: The Natural History of Pliny, footnote #16. OCLC 615995. 
  59. ^ Ó Corráin 1989
  60. ^ Ptolemy's Geography.
  61. ^ Since meridian 30° P corresponds to our meridian 8°24’E, Thule must be identified with the maze of islands and fjords around the three main islands that form the city of Kristiansund[9].
  62. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 34
  63. ^ Ó Corráin 1989, p. 3
  64. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 46
  65. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 54 refers to epigraphic evidence from those Britons at home and abroad who left Latin inscriptions.
  66. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 68, Cunliffe 2002, p. 95
  67. ^ POMPONII MELAE DE SITU ORBIS
  68. ^ Book 2, 46 in the Sharpe edition = Book 2, 47 in Reeves edition.
  69. ^ Jordanes, Getica - De Origine Actibusque Gothorum, Chapter 1, section 7-9
  70. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book I - In Latin and English
  71. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia article on Isidore
  72. ^ Peter Heylyn, Microcosmus, p.p.453--454(1621)
  73. ^ Snyder 2003, pp. 231-236, 243-246
  74. ^ Snyder 2003, pp. 274-276
  75. ^ Jeppe Strandsbjerg, 2006, The Cartographic Production of Territory: mapping and Danish state formationPDF (1.39 MiB), BISA Conference, University College Cork writes: "The translation of Ptolemy’s Geography into Latin in 1409 is frequently named as the symbolic beginning of this process because it (re-)introduced the principles that inform scientific cartography to Western Europe."
  76. ^ Utpal Mukhopadhyay, Mercator and his MapPDF (945 KiB), Renonance, March, 2005 ("The Geographia of Ptolemy contained a world map and twenty six other maps. However, the book soon disappeared into oblivion, resulting in a deterioration in the art of mapmaking. With its rediscovery in the fifteenth century, and the subsequent discovery of printing and engraving techniques, there was a revival in the art of mapmaking. In the sixteenth century, publication of maps became a lucrative business. However, as regards distortion in shape and distance, these maps were of the same standard as that of Ptolemy's map. The person who liberated mapmaking from the influence of Ptolemy was Gerhard Mercator.")
  77. ^ Maps of the Holy Land in Special CollectionsPDF (344 KiB), The George Washington University ("With the expansion of Western power came Europe’s rediscovery of Claudius Ptolemy’s Geographia (150 AD), the earliest known atlas of the world. Reprinted in 1477 it contained instructions on how to accurately illustrate the shape of the earth on a flat surface by using a curved grid of longitude and latitude. However, many later cartographers simply copied Ptolomy’s work without copying his methods")
  78. ^ a b British Isles Old Maps. Accessed 2007-03-12
  79. ^ Showcases :: Mercator Atlas of Europe
  80. ^ Anglia and Scotia, 1570, by Ortelius.
  81. ^ Chapter 1 Page 3 from Fell Smith, Charlotte (1909). John Dee: 1527 - 1608. London: Constable and Company. 
  82. ^ a b Ken MacMillan, 2001, "Discourse on history, geography, and law: John Dee and the limits of the British empire," in the Canadian Journal of History, April 2001
  83. ^ John Dee, General and rare memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, London (1577), p.63; seeQueen Elizabeth as Astraea, Frances A. Yates (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 10, (1947), p.47
  84. ^ Proclamation styling James I King of Great Britain on October 20, 1604
  85. ^ Peter Heylyn, Oxford English Dictionary, second ed. Online Version (2000)
  86. ^ Peter Heylyn, Microcosmus, p.502 (1621).
  87. ^ Tacitus himself had treated Ireland and Britain separately and had also seen similarities between the Britons and the Gauls of the continent. Tacitus: Germania and Agricola; Chpt 10.
  88. ^ R.J. Mayhew, 2000, "Geography is Twinned with Divinity: The Laudian Geography of Peter Heylyn" in Geographical Review, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 18-34 "In the period between 1600 and 1800, politics meant what we might now term 'high politics', excluding the cultural and social elements that modern analyses of ideology seek to uncover. Politics referred to discussions of dynastic legitimacy, of representation, and of the Constitution. ... "Geography books spanning the period from the Reformation to the Reform Act ... demonstrated their authors' specific political identities by the languages and arguments they deployed. This cannot be seen as any deviation from the classical geographical tradition, or as a tainting of geography by politics, because geography was not to be conceived separately from politics."
  89. ^ Robert Mayhew, 2005, "Mapping science's imagined community: geography as a Republic of Letters,PDF" in the British Journal of the History of Science, 38(1): 73-92, March 2005
  90. ^ Snyder 2003, p. 281
  91. ^ Bristol City Council: Translating and interpreting services: Translations / Community language documents
  92. ^ ‘A Profile of Londoners by Language’: Greater London Authority: Data Management and Analysis Group http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/publications/factsandfigures/dmag-briefing-2006-26.pdf
  93. ^ Ireland
  94. ^ Samaritans - Would you like to know more? > History > National growth
  95. ^ [10] The RNLI is a charity that provides a 24-hour lifesaving service around the UK and Republic of Ireland. As a charity, the RNLI relies on your support to carry on saving lives at sea.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the prior state. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... The Massaliote Periplus or Massaliot Periplus is the name of a now-lost merchants handbook possibly dating to as early as the sixth century BC describing the searoutes used by traders from Phoenecia and Tartessus in their journeys around Iron Age Europe. ... Oestreminis are deemed to be the first native people of Portugal. ... Position of Cape Finisterre on the Iberian Peninsula Cape Finisterre, in Spanish Cabo Finisterre, literally Cape Lands End, is a rock-bound peninsula in the north-west of Spain. ... Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century. ... Himilco (Phoenician Chimilkât), Carthaginian navigator and explorer lived in 6th century BC. Himilco is the first known sailor from the Mediterranean Sea to reach the northwestern shores of Europe. ... Pytheas (Πυθέας), ca. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ...

References

  • Cunliffe, Barry (2002), The extraordinary voyage of Pytheas the Greek (revised ed.), New York: Walker & Co, ISBN also in Penguin ISBN 
  • Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1989), “Chapter 1: Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland”, in Foster, R. F., The Oxford History of Ireland (reissue ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1 November 2001, ISBN-X .
  • O'Rahilly, T. F. (1946), Early Irish History and Mythology (reprinted 1964, 1971, 1984 ed.), Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-29-4 
  • Snyder, Christopher A. (2003), [www.blackwellpublishing.com The Britons], Blackwell Publishing, ISBN -X, <www.blackwellpublishing.com> 

Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Thomas Francis ORahilly, also Tomás Ó Rahille, born 1883 in Listowel, County Kerry, Ireland; died 1953 in Dublin, was an influential scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly in the fields of Historical linguistics and Irish dialects. ...

Further reading

There have been many books called A History of Britain. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... George Macaulay Trevelyan (February 16, 1876 – 1962) was an English historian, son of Sir George Otto Trevelyan and great-nephew of Thomas Macaulay. ...

See also

The Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI) is for people interested in the flora of Britain and Ireland. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... This page is a list of the larger British Isles by area. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
British Isles
  • An interactive geological map of the British Isles.
  • Geograph British Isles — Creative Commons-licensed, geo-located photographs of the British Isles.
  • Britannicarum Insularum Typus, Ortelius 1624
. For the disagreement and different views on using the term British Isles, particularly in relation to Ireland, see British Isles naming dispute. ... It has been suggested that British Isles#Names of the islands through the ages be merged into this article or section. ... Islands of the North Atlantic (IONA) was suggested by Sir John Biggs-Davison as a less contentious alternative to the term British Isles to refer to Britain and Ireland and the smaller associated islands. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... “UK” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The Isle of Man is situated in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland, and the bailiwicks of Jersey and Guersey are situated in the English Channel to the west of the Cotentin Crown dependencies are possessions of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom, as opposed to... The British–Irish Council (sometimes known as the Council of the Isles) is a body created by the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... The British-Irish Inter-Parliamentary Body (BIIPB) was established in 1990 to bring together 25 members of the United Kingdom Parliament and 25 members of the Oireachtas (the Irish parliament) to develop understanding between elected representatives of the UK and Ireland . ... The Common Travel Area includes the UK, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, and the Republic of Ireland The Common Travel Area (or, informally, the passport free zone) refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man... The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC, Irish: An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh/Theas, Ulster-Scots: The Noarth-Sooth Cooncil o Männystèrs) is a body established under the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain limited governmental powers across the whole... This article is about the British dependencies. ... Map showing location of the islands The Islands of the lower Firth of Clyde is the smallest of the three major Scottish island groups after the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Scilly redirects here. ... The Northern Isles are a chain of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2006) 19,800  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... This is a list of islands of the Isle of Man: Isle of Man (Population - c. ... This is a list of the islands of England, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest English islands by area. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... This is a list of the islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to Norman conquest of England, a moment that defined much of the history of the British Isles since. ... The history of England is similar to the history of Britain before the arrival of the Saxons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the historical state known as the Principality of Wales (1267-1542). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... This article is about the prior state. ... Auregnais or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Alderney (French:Aurigny, Auregnais:Aoeurgny/Auregny). ... British Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of an unknown number of Deaf people in the UK (published estimates range from 30,000 to 250,000 but it is likely that the lower figures are more... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Guernésiais, also known as Dgèrnésiais, Guernsey French, Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of Norman language spoken in Guernsey. ... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... Northern Ireland Sign Language (NISL) is a sign language used in Northern Ireland, mainly Belfast. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Sercquiais also known as Sarkese or Sark-French is the Norman dialect of the Channel Island of Sark. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Irish Travellers (sometimes known as Tinkers) are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ...

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British Isles cruises - Cruise Tour Planners - British Isles Discount Cruise (971 words)
British Isles and Western Europe Cruises British Isles Discount Cruises Our programs give you the freedom to explore history-steeped market towns, idyllic villages and the glorious gardens of England, Scotland and Wales, where they are famous for their friendliness and their natural desire to welcome visitors to their countries.
British Isles, Northern and Western Europe: On these cruises you'll sail to places like Belgium (Brugge/Brussels), Amsterdam, Dublin, Edinburgh, Paris/Normandy and Hamburg.
Farewell to the British Isles QE2's Farewell to the British Isles voyage will depart Southampton on September 30, 2008 and replaces the previously announced Canary Islands Splendour voyage.
British Isles Cruises, British Virgin Islands Cruises and Luxury Travel Packages (603 words)
British Isles cruise operate from May until August.
You may call our British Isles Cruise Travel Specialists, but first...we'd really appreciate it if you complete our British Isles Cruise planners so we have all your requirements beforehand and are prepared to present you with the latest options and up-to-the-minute specials.
Disclaimer: We've worked hard to make all the British Isles Cruise vacations, cruise and travel packages information on this web site as accurate as possible, but it is provided 'as is' and we accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by anyone resulting from this information.
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