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Encyclopedia > British Indian Army
A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ~1895.

The British Indian Army, officially called simply the Indian Army (IA), was the army in British India at the time of the British Raj (1858–1947).[1][2][3] The Indian Army served both as a security force in India itself and, particularly during the World wars, in other theatres. Image File history File links BritishIndianArmy. ... Image File history File links BritishIndianArmy. ... Arguably the best volleyer in the game now, Tim Henman is well-known around the tennis community for his exellent touch. A volley in tennis is a shot that is hit before the ball bounces on the ground. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Between 1903 and 1947 the Army of India consisted of two separate entities: the Indian Army and the British Army in India. The former consisted of Indian Army regiments originating in India, while the latter were British Army regiments originating in the United Kingdom which were sent to India on a tour of duty. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

Contents

Organization

A painting showing a Sowar (Sepoy), 6th Madras Light Cavalry. Circa 1845.

The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as First War of Indian Independence or Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the British when the crown took over direct rule from the British East India Company. Prior to that the Company had their own army units, paid for by their profits and these operated alongside British Army units. Image File history File links Indian_Army_Madras. ... Image File history File links Indian_Army_Madras. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Combatants Indian Patriots, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


The army of the British East India Company recruited primarily from high-caste Hindus in the Bengal Presidency, which consisted of Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. These troops had been predominant in the Indian Mutiny allegedly due to crass and insensitive treatment by British officers.[citation needed] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Post-Mutiny recruitment switched to what the British called the "martial races," particularly Rajputs, Sikhs, Gurkhas, Pashtuns, Garhwalis, Bengali Muslims, Mohyals, Punjabi Muslims and Dogras. Jats and Balochis also provided many soldiers. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Wives and children of Gurkha Soldiers (1896) Gurkha (or Gorkha) are a people from Nepal who take their name from the former city-state of Gorkha, which went on to found the Kingdom of Nepal later on. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... People belonging to the hilly Garhwal subdivision of Uttaranchal. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Mohyal (Punjabi-Shahmukhi: ﻝﺎﻴﮨﻮﻣ , Punjabi-Gurmukhi: ਮੋਹ੍ਯਾਲ, Hindi: मोहयाल) (alternate spellings include Muhiyal, Muhial, Mhial, Mohiyal or Mahjal) is the name of an endogamous group of seven lineages arising from the Gandhara region. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ...


The "Indian Army" is the name for the Indian Armed forces of India, and the meaning has changed over time:

1858–1894 The Indian Army was a collective term for the armies of the three presidencies; the Bengal Army, Madras Army and Bombay Army.
1895–1902 The Indian Army meant the "army of the government of India" and included British and Indian (sepoy) units.
1903–1947 Lord Kitchener was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India between 1902 and 1909. He instituted large-scale reforms, including merging the three armies of the Presidencies into a unified force and forming higher level formations, eight army divisions, and brigading Indian and British units. Following Kitchener's reforms:
  • The Indian Army was "the force recruited locally and permanently based in India, together with its expatriate British officers."[4]
  • The British Army in India consisted of British Army units posted to India for a tour of duty, and which would then be posted to other parts of the Empire or back to the UK.
  • The Army of India consisted of both the Indian Army and the British Army in India.

Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum (June 24, 1850 - June 5, 1916) was a British Field Marshal and statesman. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Army of India consisted of both the Indian Army and the British Army in India between 1903 and 1947. ...

Command

The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief in India who reported to the civilian Governor-General of India. His command was known as India Command and his staff were based at GHQ India. This article is in need of attention. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The British India Command the name given to the general staff of the India. ... The British India Command the name given to the general staff of the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C), India. ...


Indian Army postings were less prestigious than British Army positions, but the pay was significantly greater so that officers could live on their pay instead of having to have a private income. British officers in the Indian Army were expected to learn to speak the Indian languages of their men, who tended to be recruited from primarily Hindi speaking areas. Prominent British Indian army officers included: Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ...

Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... Field Marshal William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood GCB GCSI GCMG GCVO GBE CIE DSO (13 September 1865 – 17 May 1951) was a First World War general who is best known as the commander of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) during the Battle of Gallipoli in 1915. ... Lord Roberts of Kabul and Kandahar on his Celebrated Charger (Harpers Magazine, European Edition, December 1897, p27) Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC (30 September 1832 – 14 November 1914) was a distinguished British soldier and one of the most... Field Marshal Sir William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, DSO, MC (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970) was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia. ...

Rank system

The rank system for the Indian army, with analogous modern-day British ranks. No equivalent to the Junior Commissioned Officer exists in the modern-day Brigade of Gurkhas; a Queen's Gurkha Officer is of the same status as other commissioned officers in the British Army. Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ...

A photograph, circa 1895 showing a Mountain Battery (Hazara) listing the crew's ranks in the caption.

Image File history File links Hazarabattery. ... Image File history File links Hazarabattery. ... The Hazara region is located in NWFP, Pakistan. ... A Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO) was a senior Indian member of the British Indian Army. ... Subedar-Major is the senior rank of Junior Commissioned Officer in the Indian and Pakistani Armies, and formerly Viceroys Commissioned Officer in the British Indian Army. ... Risaldar-Major is the senior Junior Commissioned Officer in the Indian Army armoured corps, and Viceroys Commissioned Officer in the cavalry of the Old Indian Army. ... Subedar is a mid-level rank in the Indian Army. ... Risaldar (often called Ressaidar in the British Indian Army), meaning in Persian commander of a risala (mounted troop) is a mid-level rank in cavalry and armoured units of the Indian Army. ... Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ... Havildar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the British Indian Army, next above Naik, and is still used in the modern Indian Army and Pakistan Army. ... Two Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers, Second Class. ... Company Quartermaster Sergeant is a military rank or appointment. ... Havildar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the British Indian Army, next above Naik, and is still used in the modern Indian Army and Pakistan Armys. ... Daffadar was the equivalent rank to Sergeant in the cavalry of the British Indian Army, the next rank up from Lance Daffadar. ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... Naik (or Nayak) (Nk) was the equivalent rank to Corporal in the British Indian Army, ranking between Lance Naik and Havildar. ... Lance Daffadar has no equivalent rank. ... This article is about the military rank. ... Lance Naik (L/Nk) was the equivalent rank to Lance Corporal in the British Indian Army, ranking below Naik. ... Lance Corporal (LCpl or L/Cpl) is a military rank used by some elements of the British, Commonwealth, and U.S. armed forces. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... We dont have an article called Sowar Start this article Search for Sowar in. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ...

Function

The main role of the Indian Army was seen as being defence of the North-West Frontier Province against Russian invasion via Afghanistan, internal security, and expeditionary warfare in the Indian Ocean area. The British Indian Army had a strength of about 150,000 men on the eve of World War I in 1914. For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest of the four main provinces of Pakistan. ...


During the days of British rule, the Indian Army proved a very useful adjunct to British forces not only in India but also in other places, particularly during the First and Second World Wars. Recruitment was entirely voluntary; about 1.3 million men served in the First World War, many on the Western Front and 2.5 million in the Second. Initially the soldiers and NCO's were Indian, with British officers but later Indian officers were promoted as part of Indianisation (see King's Commissioned Indian Officer). Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... NCO may mean: a numerically-controlled oscillator in electronics a non-commissioned officer in the military   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Indianisation was a process introduced in India under the later years of the British Raj whereby Indian officers were promoted to more senior positions in government services, formerly reserved for Europeans. ... A Kings Commissioned Indian Officer (KCIO) was an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who held a full Kings Commission, as opposed to the Viceroys Commissioned Officers (VCOs), who held positions analogous to British Army Warrant Officers. ...


The Indian Army established the Command and Staff College in 1907 at Quetta, in modern-day Pakistan to provide the army with staff officers who had knowledge of local Indian conditions. The college still continues to train Pakistani Army officers. While young British Indian Army officers were usually trained at Sandhurst, the Indian Military College at Dehradun was opened in 1932 to train Indian officers. The Command and Staff College was established in 1974 at Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: کوئٹہ) also spelled Kwatah city is a variation of kwatkot, a Pashto word meaning “fort,”. It is the largest city and provincial capital and district of Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. ... New College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst New Colours are presented to RMAS, June 2005. ... , Dehradun (Hindi: देहरादून)  , also sometimes spelled Dehra Doon, is the capital city of the Uttarakhand state (earlier called Uttaranchal) in India, and the headquarters of Dehradun District. ...


Operational history

Sikh Wars

  • First Anglo-Sikh War - 1845 to 1846
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War - 1848 to 1849

The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849), resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh kingdom and absorption of the Punjab into lands controlled by the British East India Company. ...

Afghan Wars

The British Indian army took part in three Anglo-Afghan wars with the help of the Sikhs of Punjab. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ...

  • First Anglo-Afghan War - 1839 to 1842
  • Second Anglo-Afghan War -1878 to 1881
  • Third Anglo-Afghan War - 1919

See also: The Great Game and European influence in Afghanistan for a more detailed description. The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ...


Opium Wars

Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British...

Internal Security

The British Indian Army provided armed support to the civil authorities, both for combating banditry and in case of riots and rebellion (the latter was a controversial measure not popular with officers).


North West Frontier

The main "conventional" warfare task of the Indian army was to prevent an invasion of India via Afghanistan. There was also a need to pacify warlike local people and prevent banditry. This involved numerous small scale actions. See North-West Frontier (military history) for more details. The North-West Frontier of British India was fought over almost continuously from the British annexation of the Punjab, until the British left India in 1947. ...


World War I

A Benet-Mercier machine gun section of 2nd Rajput Light Infantry in action in Flanders, during the winter of 1914-15.
This photograph shows an emaciated Indian army soldier who survived the siege of Kut following his release from Turkish captivity.

Prior to the outbreak of the Great War, the strength of the British Indian Army was at 155,000. By November 1918, the Indian Army rose in size to 573,000 men.[1] In World War I the Indian Army saw extensive service including: Image File history File links Indian_Army_WW.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Indian_Army_WW.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Soldiers with a M1909 The Benet-Mercie Machine Rifle, Caliber . ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste which decendend from India . ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

About 43,000 Indian soldiers were killed and 65,000 wounded during World War I. For most of World War I, Allied Forces, predominantly those of France and the United Kingdom, were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Combatants German Empire British Empire Commanders Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Arthur Aitken Strength about 1100 Askari 8000 Indian reservists Casualties 81 wounded, 61 killed 487 wounded, 360 killed The Battle of Tanga (sometimes nicknamed the Battle of the Bees) was the blundered attempt by the British Indian Army to capture...


Also serving in World War I were so-called "Imperial Service troops," provided by the semi-autonomous Princely States. About 21,000 were raised in World War I, mainly consisting of Sikhs of Punjab and Rajputs from Rajputana (such as the Bikaner Camel Corps and Jodhpur Lances). These forces played a prominent role in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... The Bikaner Camel Cops was a military unit from India that fought for the allies in World War I and World War II. The Corps was founded (and reportedly led) by Maharaja Ganga Singh as the Ganga Risala in the Indian state of Bikaner, which had had a camel regiment... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of...


World War II

Main article: India in World War II
A group of Sikh Indian soldiers storm a German position, circa 1945.
November 9, 1945. Jemadar (junior commissioned officer) Chint Singh of the Indian Army at an identification parade in New Guinea, indicating a Japanese soldier whom Singh claimed had mistreated him, while he was a prisoner of war.

At the outbreak of World War II, the Indian army numbered 205,000 men. Later on during World War II the Indian Army would become the largest all-volunteer force in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in size. These forces included tank, artillery and airborne forces. On October 18, 1941 the 151st Parachute Battalion was formed from soldiers serving in the Indian Army. Later this unit was joined by the 152nd (Indian) and 153rd (Gurkha) Parachute Battalion. During the World War II, the Provinces of India (Present day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), being imperial colonies of Great Britain, were by default a part of the Allies of World War II. Several Indian princely states, within the British Raj, provided large donations to the Allies to combat the... Image File history File links Indian_Army_WWII.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Indian_Army_WWII.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Particularly notable contributions of the Indian Army during that conflict were the:

About 87,000 Indian soldiers lost their lives during this conflict. Indian soldiers won 30 Victoria Crosses during the Second World War. (See: Indian Victoria Cross recipients.) The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa Eritrea Ethiopia Italian Somaliland German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ... Combatants Allies (mostly British Empire forces) Axis Commanders Claude Auchinleck Erwin Rommel Strength 150,000 troops in 3 army corps, 7 infantry and 3 armoured divisions 1,114 tanks, over 1,000 artillery and over 1,500 planes 96,000 troops (including 56,000 Italians) 8 infantry and 4 armoured... For the Battle of Alam Halfa, which is also often termed the Second Battle of El Alamein, see Battle of Alam Halfa Combatants British Eighth Army: United Kingdom Australia New Zealand South Africa India Panzer Army Africa: Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 220,000 men... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants United Kingdom British India Republic of China United States Empire of Japan Indian National Army Burma National Army Thailand Commanders Louis Mountbatten William Slim Chiang Kai-Shek Joseph Stilwell Aung San(From 1944) Masakazu Kawabe Hyotaro Kimura Renya Mutaguchi Subhash Chandra Bose Aung San(until 1944) Strength Unknown Unknown... The Battle of Kohima was a battle of the Burma Campaign in World War II, fought around the town of Kohima in northeast India from April 4 to June 22, 1944. ... Combatants British Fourteenth Army Indian IV Corps Japanese 15th Division Japanese 33rd Division Japanese 31st Division Commanders Louis Mountbatten Geoffrey Scoones Renya Mutaguchi Masakasu Kawabe Strength 4 Infantry Divisions 1 Armoured Brigade 1 Parachute Brigade 3 Infamtry about 100,000 Japanese Army Casualties 17,500 53,879 The Battle of... The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Poland New Zealand Canada Free France India and others Germany Commanders Harold Alexander Mark Clark Oliver Leese Albert Kesselring Heinrich von Vietinghoff Frido von Senger Strength 105,000 80,000 Casualties 54,000 20,000 The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... The following people are Indian recipients of the Victoria Cross. ...


The Germans and Japanese were relatively successful in recruiting combat forces from Indian prisoners of war. These forces were known as the Tiger Legion and the Indian National Army (INA). Indian nationalist leader Subhash Chandra Bose led the 40,000-strong INA. From a total of about 40,000 Indians taken prisoner in Malaya and Singapore in February 1942, about 30,000 joined the INA,[5] which fought Allied forces in the Burma Campaign. Others became guards at Japanese POW camps. The recruitment was the brainchild of Major Fujiwara Iwaichi who mentions in his memoirs that Captain Mohan Singh Deb, who surrendered after the fall of Jitra became the founder of the INA. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... During World War II, the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Major Fujiwara Iwaichi was an officer in the Imperial Japanese Army who, during the Second World War, headed the intelligence unit of the Japanese Army. ... General Mohan Singh Deb (1909-1989), famous for his part in the Indian National Army for the liberation of India from British rule, in which he held the rank of a general, was born the only son of Tara Singh and Hukam Kaur, a peasant couple of Ugoke village, near... Jitra is an area of Malaya in north Kedah. ...


However, most Indian Army personnel resisted recruitment and remained POWs. An unknown number captured in Malaya and Singapore were taken to Japanese-occupied areas of New Guinea as forced labour. Many of these men suffered severe hardships and brutality, similar to that experienced by other prisoners of Japan during World War II. About 6,000 of them survived until they were liberated by Australian or U.S. forces, in 1943-45.[5]


Post World War II

Following the war, the British formations that had been part of the Army of India were withdrawn. Upon independence the British Indian Army was split: most units went to the Indian Army, four Gurkha regiments were transferred to the British Army (they formed the Brigade of Gurkhas and were stationed in Malaya) and the remainder of the army went to the Pakistan Army. Soon after the Partition of India, both the newly formed armies fought each other in the First Kashmir War from 1947 - '48 and would the start of a bitter rivalry that lasts to this day. This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... This article is under construction. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. ...


See also

This is a list of regiments of the British Indian Army after the Kitchener Reforms -- after the Commander-in-Chief Indian Forces, Lord Kitchener -- of 1903. ... This is a list of regiments of the British Indian Army after the reorganisation of the Indian armed forces in 1922. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ...

External links

This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ...

Further reading

  • Mason, Philip, A Matter of Honour: An Account of the Indian Army, its Officers and Men, Macmillan 1974
  • A bibliography
  • Alan J. Guy & Peter B. Boyden, Soldiers of the Raj, The Indian Army 1600-1947, 1997, National Army Museum Chelsea
  • Richard Holmes, Sahib the British Soldier in India, 1750-1914
  • Jon Latimer, Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, 2004.
  • John Masters, Bugles and a Tiger: Viking, 1956 (autobiographical account of his service as a junior British officer in a Gurkha regiment in the years leading up to WW II)

Jon Latimer is a historian and writer based in Wales. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Peter Duckers The British Indian Army 1860-1914 Pub: Shire Books, ISBN 978-0-7478-0550-2
  2. ^ Indian Army: History "the total strength of the British-Indian Army was 90,000"
  3. ^ Brig (Retd) Noor A Husain The Role of Muslims Martial Races of Today's Pakistan in British-Indian Army in World War-II
  4. ^ Oxford History of the British Army
  5. ^ a b Peter Stanley "Great in adversity": Indian prisoners of war in New Guinea website of the Australian War Memorial

  Results from FactBites:
 
British Fourteenth Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (996 words)
It was often referred to as the "Forgotten Army" because its operations in the Burma Campaign were overlooked by the contemporary press, and remained more obscure than those of the corresponding formations in Europe for long after the war.
After initial Allied setbacks, in which an Indian divisional HQ was overrun, the surrounded units defeated the Japanese at the Battle of the Admin Box.
It was vital to capture Rangoon, the capital and principal port of Burma, to allow the Army to be supplied during the monsoon.
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