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Encyclopedia > British India
British Raj
British India
British colony




1858 – 1947

Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
God Save The Queen/King
British India, circa 1860
Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947)
Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others
Government Monarchy
Emperor of India
 - 1877-1901 Victoria
 - 1901-1910 Edward VII
 - 1910-1936 George V
 - January-December 1936 Edward VIII
 - 1936-1947 George VI
Historical era Imperialism
 - Established 1858
 - Disestablished 1947
Currency British Indian rupee

British India or British Raj (rāj in Hindi meaning "rule"; from Sanskrit rājya) is the term used to refer to the period of direct British rule of the Indian Subcontinent (which included the present-day India, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan) from 1858 to 1947. An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized political Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_British_East_India_Company_(1801). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... National motto: Ä«mān, ittihād, nazm (Urdu: Faith, unity, discipline) Official languages Urdu, English Capital Islamabad Largest city Karachi President General Pervez Musharraf Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 803,940 km² 3. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Indian National Flag Flag ratio: 2:3 The National Flag of India was adopted in its present form during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on the 22 July 1947, a few days before Indias independence from the British on the 15 August, 1947. ... The Star of India may refer to one of the followings: Star of India (gem): the largest star sapphire in the world. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1235, 131 KB) This map of British India was made by me. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... New Crowns for Old depicts Disraeli as Abanazer from the pantomime version of Aladdin offering Victoria an Imperial crown in exchange for a Royal one. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rupee. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Since the independence of these countries, their pre-independence existence has been loosely referred to as British India, although prior to independence that term referred only to those portions of the subcontinent under direct rule by the British administration in Delhi and previously Calcutta. , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Much of the territory under British sway during this time was not directly ruled by the British, but were nominally independent Princely States which were directly under the rule of the Maharajas, Rajas, Thakurs and Nawabs who entered into treaties as sovereigns with the British monarch as their feudal superior. This system was known as Subsidiary Alliance. Aden was part of "British India" from 1839, as was Burma from 1886; both became separate Crown Colonies of the British Empire in 1937. British Somaliland was governed as a part of India from 1884-1898, as was Singapore from 1819-1867. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... It has been suggested that Maharaj be merged into this article or section. ... A Raja (Sanskrit ) is a king, or princely ruler from the Kshatriya / Rajput lineages. ... ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... This article is about the former British Colony of Aden, a former territory in what is now Yemen. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The British Somaliland was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, and later part of Somalia and presently the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ...


The system lasted from 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown, and Queen Victoria upon whom the British Parliament conferred the graciously accepted title "Empress of India" in 1877, and in 1947, when pre-independence India was partitioned into two sovereign states, India and Pakistan partly to appease the political ambitions of politicians, but also because it was evident that the Muslim minority wanted a state of their own. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... This article is under construction. ...


Although Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) is peripheral to the Indian subcontinent, it is not counted part of the Raj, as it was ruled as a Crown Colony directly from London, rather than by the Viceroy of India as a part of the Indian Empire. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ...


The Indian Empire came to an end in August, 1947 after the Partition of India resulting in the formation of two independent nations: the Dominion of India (later Republic of India) and Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... This article is under construction. ... The Dominion of India was a political entity that existed between August 15, 1947 and January 26, 1950. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ...

Contents

History

On 31 December 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a royal charter to the British East India Company to carry out trade with the East. Ships first arrived in India in 1608, docking at Surat in modern-day Gujarat. Four years later, British traders defeated the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally, gaining the favour of the Mughal emperor Jahangir in the process. In 1615, King James I sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador to Jahangir's court, and a commercial treaty was concluded in which the Mughals allowed the Company to build trading posts in India in return for goods from Europe. The Company traded in such commodities as cotton, silk, saltpetre, indigo, and tea. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen (King) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... , For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... The naval Battle of Swally took place on 29-30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali (anglicised to Swally), a village near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India, and was a victory for four British East India Company ships over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks (rowing vessels with... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... n ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Sir Thomas Roe (or Row) (c. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Indigo (or spectral indigo) is the color on the spectrum between 440 and 420 nanometres in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ...


By the mid-1600s, the Company had established trading posts or "factories" in major Indian cities, such as Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras in addition to their first factory at Surat (built in 1612). In 1670 King Charles II granted the company the right to acquire territory, raise an army, mint its own money, and exercise legal jurisdiction in areas under its control. November 5, 1605 â€” The Gunpowder Plot to blow up the British Parliament. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


By the last decade of the 17th century, the Company was arguably its own "nation" on the Indian subcontinent, possessing considerable military might and ruling three presidencies. British India (The Raj) had three presidencies: Bengal Presidency (Presidency of Fort William) Bombay Presidency Madras Presidency Presidency City Categories: | ...


The British first established a territorial foothold in the Indian subcontinent when Company-funded soldiers commanded by Robert Clive defeated the Bengali Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Bengal became a British protectorate directly under the rule of the East India Company. Bengal's wealth then flowed to the Company, which attempted to enforce a monopoly on Bengali trade (though smuggling was rife). Bengali farmers and craftsmen were obliged to render their labour for minimal remuneration while their collective tax burden increased greatly[citation needed]. Some believe that as a consequence, the famine of 1769 to 1773 cost the lives of 10 million Bengalis.[citation needed] A similar catastrophe occurred almost a century later, after Britain had extended its rule across the Indian subcontinent, when 40 million Indians perished from famine. The Company, despite the increase in trade and the revenues coming in from other sources, found itself burdened with massive military expenditures, and its destruction seemed imminent. Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Mîrzâ Mah. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European soldiers... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... There were 14 famines in India between 11th and 17th century (Bhatia, 1985). ...


Building the Raj: British expansion across India

Map of British India, 1855

Lord North's India Bill, The Regulating Act of 1773, by the British Parliament granted Whitehall, the British government administration, supervisory (regulatory) control over the work of the East India Company but did not take power for itself. This was the first step along the road to government control of India. It also established the post of Governor-General of India, the first occupant of which was Warren Hastings. Further acts, such as the Charter Act of 1813 and the Charter Act of 1833, further defined the relationship of the Company and the British government. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (504x614, 153 KB) Map of British India, 1855. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (504x614, 153 KB) Map of British India, 1855. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


Hastings remained in India until 1784 and was succeeded by Cornwallis, who initiated the Permanent Settlement, whereby an agreement in perpetuity was reached with zamindars or landlords for the collection of revenue. For the next fifty years, the British were engaged in attempts to eliminate Indian rivals. Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738-October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ... For other uses, see Zamindar (disambiguation). ...


At the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Lord Wellesley (brother of the Duke of Wellington) began expanding the Company's domain on a large scale, defeating Tippoo Sultan (also spelled Tipu Sultan), annexing Mysore in southern India, and removing all French influence from the subcontinent. In the mid-19th century, Governor-General Lord Dalhousie launched perhaps the Company's most ambitious expansion, defeating the Sikhs in the Anglo-Sikh Wars (and annexing the Punjab with the exception of the Phulkian States) and subduing Burma in the Second Burmese War. He also justified the takeover of small princely states such as Satara, Sambalpur, Jhansi, and Nagpur by way of the doctrine of lapse, which permitted the Company to annex any princely state whose ruler had died without a male heir. The annexation of Oudh in 1856 proved to be the Company's final territorial acquisition, as the following year saw the boiling over of Indian grievances toward the so-called "Company Raj". Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Tipu sultans summer palace Tipu Sultan, also known as Tipu Sahib (1753 - May 4, 1799) was ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1782, and one of the primary native sources of resistance to the establishment of British rule in India. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, KT, PC (April 22, 1812 – December 19, 1860) was a British statesman, and a colonial administrator in India. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi and Hindi A Sikh( or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852. ... Satara   (Marathi:सातारा) is a town located in the Satara District of Maharashtra state of India. ... Sambalpur is a city in the western portion of Indias Orissa state. ... Jhansi   झांसी is a city of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi:नागपूर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Sepoy Rebellion

On 10 May 1857 soldiers of the British Indian Army (known as "sepoys," from Urdu/Persian sipaahi or sepaahi = "soldier"), drawn from the native Hindu and Muslim population, revolted in Meerut, a cantonment sixty five kilometres northeast of Delhi. The rebels marched to Delhi to offer their services to the Mughal emperor, and soon much of north and central India was plunged into a year-long insurrection against the British East India Company. Many native regiments and Indian kingdoms joined the revolt, while other Indian units and Indian kingdoms backed the British commanders and the HEIC. Combatants Freedom Fighters, 7 Indian princely states, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, Rebellious civilians in some areas. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military quarters, typically in South India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ...


Causes of the rebellion

The uprising, which seriously threatened British rule in India, was undoubtedly the culmination of mounting Indian resentment toward British social and political policies over many decades. Until the rebellion, the British had succeeded in suppressing numerous riots and "tribal" wars or in accommodating them through concessions, but two factors — one a trend and the other a single event — triggered the violent explosion of wrath in 1857.


The trend was the policy of annexation pursued by Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, based mainly on his "Doctrine of Lapse", which held that princely states would be merged into company-ruled territory in case a ruler died without direct heir. This denied the native rulers the right to adopt an heir in such an event; adoption had been pervasive practice in the Hindu states hitherto, sanctioned both by religion and by secular tradition. The states annexed under this doctrine included such major kingdoms as Satara, Thanjavur, Sambhal, Jhansi, Jetpur, Udaipur, and Baghat. Additionally, the company had annexed, without pretext, the rich kingdoms of Sind in 1843 and Oudh in 1856, the latter a wealthy princely state that generated huge revenue and represented a vestige of Mughal authority. This greed for land, especially in a group of small-town and middle-class British merchants, whose parvenu background was increasingly evident and galling to Indians of rank, had alienated a large section of the landed and ruling aristocracy, who were quick to take up the cause of evicting the merchants once the revolt was kindled. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Satara   (Marathi:सातारा) is a town located in the Satara District of Maharashtra state of India. ... “Tanjore” redirects here. ... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ...


The spark that lit the fire was the result of a very convincing, though untrue, rumour about a British blunder in using new cartridges for the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle that were greased with animal fat, rumoured to now be a combination of pig-fat and cow-fat. This was offensive to the religious beliefs of both Muslim and Hindu sepoys, who refused to use the cartridges and, under provocation, finally mutinied against their British officers. The Enfield 1853 Rifled Musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield Rifled Musket) was a . ...


Course of the rebellion

The rebellion soon engulfed much of North India, including Oudh and various areas that had lately passed from the control of Maratha princes to the company. The unprepared British were terrified, without replacements for the casualties. The rebellion inflicted havoc on Indians and the community suffered humiliation and triumph in battle as well, although the final outcome was victory for the British. Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


Defence of British bases such as the Siege of Lucknow and the retaking of rebel held cities as in the Siege of Delhi passed into history. Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders Sir Henry Lawrence Henry Havelock Sir James Outram Sir Colin Campbell Strength rising to approx. ... Combatants Great Britain Indian rebels Commanders General Archdale Wilson Brigadier John Nicholson Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Strength max. ...


Isolated mutinies also occurred at military posts in the centre of the subcontinent. The last major sepoy rebels surrendered on June 21, 1858, at Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), one of the principal centres of the revolt. A final battle was fought at Sirwa Pass on May 21, 1859, and the defeated rebels fled into Nepal. June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Madhya PradeÅ›   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Aftermath of the 1857 Rebellion and the formal initiation of the Raj

The rebellion was a major turning point in the history of modern India. In May 1858, the British exiled Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II (r. 1837–57) to Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Myanmar), after executing most of his family, thus formally liquidating the Mughal Empire. Bahadur Shah Zafar, known as the Poet King, contributed some of Urdu's most beautiful poetry[citation needed], with the underlying theme of the freedom struggle[citation needed]. The Emperor was not allowed to return and died in solitary confinement in 1862. The Emperor's three sons, also involved in the War of Independence, were arrested and shot in Delhi by Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson of the British Indian Army. 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) aka Bahadur Shah Zafar (Zafar was his nom de plume, or takhallus, as an Urdu poet) was the last of the Mughal emperors in India. ... Yangôn, formerly Rangoon, population 4,504,000 (2001), is the capital of Myanmar. ... Yangon (Burmese: , population 5,000,000(nearly) (2007 census), formerly Rangoon, is the largest city and former capital of Myanmar (previously known as Burma). ... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... (, historically spelled Ordu), is an Middle Eastern-Aryan language. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... William Stephen Raikes Hodson (March 10, 1821 - March 11, 1858), known as Hodson of Hodsons Horse, British leader of irregular light cavalry during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, third son of the Rev. ...


Cultural and religious centres were closed down, properties and estates of those participating in the uprising were confiscated. At the same time, the British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India", Queen Victoria (upon whom the British Parliament conferred the graciously accepted title "Empress of India" in 1877) promised equal treatment under British law, but Indian mistrust of British rule had become a legacy of the 1857 rebellion. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Many existing economic and revenue policies remained virtually unchanged in the post-1857 period, but several administrative modifications were introduced, beginning with the creation in London of a cabinet post, the Secretary of State for India. The governor-general (called viceroy when acting as representative to the nominally sovereign "princely states" or "native states"), headquartered in Calcutta, ran the administration in India, assisted by executive and legislative councils. Beneath the governor-general were the governors of Provinces of India, who held power over the division and district officials, who formed the lower rungs of the Indian Civil Service. For decades the Indian Civil Service was the exclusive preserve of the British-born, as were the superior ranks in such other professions as law and medicine. This continued until the 1880s when a small but steadily growing number of native-born Indians, educated in British schools on the Subcontinent or in Britain, were able to assume such positions. However, a proposal by Viceroy Ripon and Courtenay Ilbert in 1883 that Indian members of the Civil Service have full rights to preside over trials involving white defendants in criminal cases sparked an ugly racist backlash (see below re "White Mutiny"). Thus an attempt to further include Indians in the system and give them a greater stake in the Raj, ironically, instead exposed the racial gap that already existed, sparking even greater Indian nationalism and reaction against British rule. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen by the Prime Minister. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince, both terms being taken in the broad sense. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Provinces of India or more correctly, the Provinces of British India were formed in 1858 when the British Crown took direct control of India. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...

Map of the Madras Presidency, 1909

The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honour former treaties with princely states and renounced the "Doctrine of Lapse", whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs. About 40 percent of Indian territory and 20–25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes notable for their religious (Islamic, Hindu, Sikh and other) and ethnic diversity. Their propensity for pomp and ceremony became proverbial, while their domains, varying in size and wealth, lagged behind socio-political transformations that took place elsewhere in British-controlled India. A more thorough re-organisation was effected in the constitution of army and government finances. Shocked by the extent of solidarity among Indian soldiers during the rebellion, the government separated the army into the three presidencies. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 restored legislative powers to the Presidencies (elite provinces), which had been given exclusively to the governor-general by the Charter Act of 1833. Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of India between 1848 and 1856. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi and Hindi A Sikh( or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ...


British attitudes toward Indians shifted from relative openness to insularity and xenophobia, even against those with comparable background and achievement as well as loyalty. British families and their servants lived in cantonments at a distance from Indian settlements. Private clubs where the British gathered for social interaction became symbols of exclusivity and snobbery that refused to disappear decades after the British had left India. In 1883 the government of India attempted to remove race barriers in criminal jurisdictions by introducing a bill empowering Indian judges to adjudicate offences committed by Europeans. Public protests and editorials in the British press, however, forced the viceroy George Robinson, First Marquess of Ripon, (who served from 1880 to 1884), to capitulate and modify the bill drastically. The Bengali "Hindu intelligentsia" learned a valuable political lesson from this "white mutiny": the effectiveness of well-orchestrated agitation through demonstrations in the streets and publicity in the media when seeking redress for real and imagined grievances. Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (24 October 1827 - 9 July 1909) was a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until his death forty-eight years later. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Post-1857 India also experienced a period of unprecedented calamity when the region was swept by a series of frequent and devastating famines, among the most catastrophic on record. Approximately 25 major famines spread through states such as Tamil Nadu in South India, Bihar in the north, and Bengal in the east in the latter half of the 19th century, killing 30–40 million Indians. Contemporary observers of the famines such as Romesh Dutt as well as present-day scholars such as Amartya Sen attributed the famines both to uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies, which since 1857 had led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, inflationary measures that increased the price of food, and substantial exports of staple crops from India to the United Kingdom (Dutt, 1900 and 1902; Srivastava, 1968; Sen, 1982; Bhatia, 1985). On the other hand some other scholars have agrgued that, whilst the famines may have been exacerbated by British policy, they were primarily caused by drought and ecological factors.[1][2][3] Some British citizens such as William Digby agitated for policy reforms and better famine relief, but Lord Lytton, son of the poet Edward Bulwer-Lytton and the governing British viceroy in India, opposed such changes in the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers. The famines continued until independence in 1947, with the Bengal Famine of 1943–44 — among the most devastating — killing 3–4 million Indians during World War II. Famine relief methods were inefficient as they often involved making undernourished people do heavy labor on public works. However, there were some famines (ex. 1874 and 1907) in which English officials acted effectively. During the famine of 1897-1902 the Curzon administration spent £10,000,000 (money of the day) and at its peak 4,500,000 people were on famine relief. From the 1880s onwards British administrators built a series of irrigation canals in India, much of it for the purpose of famine prevention.[4] After 1902 there was not a single famine in India until 1943 in Bengal. 'What the British added was above all the power of a unified an authoritarian state, which acted because it saw the danger of drought and famine to its rule'.[5]. After the major famines the British government conducted "serious investigations" (PJ Marshall, Cambridge History of the British Empire) into the famine. Lord Lytton's administration was particularly negligent when it came to famine relief, with disastrous results. As a result of the calamity of 1877 Lord Lytton lost his job but not before he established the Famine Insurance Grant. The results of this was that the British prematurely assued that the problem of famine had been solved forever ("The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj" by David Gilmour page 116). This, sadly, proved not to be the case and the complacency that resulted from it contributed to the lack of action by the Elgin ("The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj" by David Gilmour page 116). Curzon abhored the seeming indifference many Britons at home had towards famine in India ("Curzon: Imperial Statesman" by David Gilmour page 261). 'It was the tradegy of 1876-1878 that led to the establishment of a general famine commission under Richard Strachey and the consequent adoption of a famine code' (Dilmour, "Curzon", page 115). A famine code was not adopted in Bengal however, which contributed to the disaster in 1943. A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848-1909) Romesh Chunder Dutt, CIE (Calcutta August 13, 1848 — Baroda November 30, 1909), or R. C. Dutt, was a Bengali writer, civil servant, economic historian, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata. ... Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, India), is an Indian philosopher, economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare... British author and humanitarian. ... Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (May 25, 1803 - January 18, 1873) was an English novelist, playwright, and politician. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Bengal famine of 1943 occurred in undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...



Native industries in India were also decimated in the aftermath of the 1857 rebellion, particularly during the three decades from 1870 to 1900 (with the notable exception of the jute industry, which benefited from the global industrial revolution), as the mercantilist policies of the Raj flooded India with imports while minimising native production and exports. Economic historians estimate that India commanded roughly 25% of world GDP by 1800, but perhaps a tenth of that by the 20th century, due in large part to the severe and rapid decline in the Subcontinent's native industries (Maddison, Bairoch, Frank). On the other hand though Tirthankar Roy writes in his book Economic History of India that:


The Railways, the ports, major irrigation, the telegraph, sanitation and medical care, the universities, the postal system, the courts of law, were assets India could not believably have acquired in such an extent and quality had it not developed close political links with Britain...British rule seems to have done far more than what its predecessors regimes and contemporary regimes were able to do(p. 257)


Roy gives some other figures which indicate that India experienced some (admitedly limitted) growth under British rule.


Percentage Increase in Selected Indian Economic Indicators, 1891-1938


Real Value of Exports---26


Real National Income Per Capita---29


Real Value of Imports---32


Population---36


Real National Income---80


Area of Cultivate Land---84


Railway Mileage Per Capita---116


Acreage Irrigated---137


Factory Employment---448


Real Value of Bank Deposits---531


Coal Production---1,318


Source: Roy, Economic History, pp.218f.


The development of modern Industry in India under the British rule has been described as being "patchy" (PJ Marshall (ed),"The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire", page 70).


The British did also brought in many sanitation an medical reforms, much of it fashioned in response to the needs of Indian locals (David Arnold, 1993)


Beginnings of self-government

The first steps were taken toward self-government in British India in the late 19th century with the appointment of Indian counsellors to advise the British viceroy and the establishment of provincial councils with Indian members; the British subsequently widened participation in legislative councils with the Indian Councils Act of 1892. Municipal Corporations and District Boards were created for local administration; they included elected Indian members. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...

Map of the Northern Bombay Presidency, 1909

The Government of India Act of 1909 — also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms (John Morley was the secretary of state for India, and Gilbert Elliot, fourth earl of Minto, was viceroy) — gave Indians limited roles in the central and provincial legislatures, known as legislative councils. Indians had previously been appointed to legislative councils, but after the reforms some were elected to them. At the centre, the majority of council members continued to be government-appointed officials, and the viceroy was in no way responsible to the legislature. At the provincial level, the elected members, together with unofficial appointees, outnumbered the appointed officials, but responsibility of the governor to the legislature was not contemplated. Morley made it clear in introducing the legislation to the British Parliament that parliamentary self-government was not the goal of the British government. Download high resolution version (1000x819, 249 KB)Bombay Presidency, northern portion, 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x819, 249 KB)Bombay Presidency, northern portion, 1909. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Measures announced in 1909 to increase the participation of Indians in their country’s government. ... John Morley, 1st Viscount Morley of Blackburn (1838 - 1923), known for the first part of his life simply as John Morley, was an English statesman and writer. ... Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmond, 4th Earl of Minto (June 9, 1845 - March 1, 1914) was an English politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of India. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


The Morley-Minto Reforms were a milestone. Step by step, the elective principle was introduced for membership in Indian legislative councils. The "electorate" was limited, however, to a small group of upper-class Indians. These elected members increasingly became an "opposition" to the "official government". Communal electorates were later extended to other communities and made a political factor of the Indian tendency toward group identification through religion.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah

For Muslims it was important both to gain a place in all-India politics and to retain their Muslim identity, objectives that required varying responses according to circumstances, as the example of Muhammed Ali Jinnah illustrates. Jinnah, who was born in 1876, studied law in England and began his career as an enthusiastic liberal in Congress on returning to India. In 1913 he joined the Muslim League, which had been shocked by the 1911 annulment of the partition of Bengal into cooperating with Congress to make demands on the British. Jinnah continued his membership in Congress until 1919. During this dual membership period, he was described by a leading Congress spokesperson, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, as the "ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity". File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949) was known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India) and was a child prodigy, freedom fighter and poet. ...


After World War I

India's important contributions to the efforts of the British Empire in World War I stimulated further demands by Indians and further response from the British. The Congress Party and the Muslim League met in joint session in December 1916. Under the leadership of Jinnah and Pandit Motilal Nehru (father of Jawaharlal Nehru), unity was preached and a proposal for constitutional reform was made that included the concept of separate electorates. The resulting (see[1]) Congress-Muslim League Pact (often referred to as the Lucknow Pact) was a sincere effort to compromise. Congress accepted the separate electorates demanded by the Muslim League, and the Muslim League joined with Congress in demanding self-government. The pact was expected to lead to permanent and constitutional united action. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party) is the largest subscription-based organisation in the world. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The family of Motilal Nehru, who is seated in the centre. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ...

Map of the Southern Bombay Presidency, 1909

In August 1917 the British government formally announced a policy of "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire." Constitutional reforms were embodied in the Government of India Act 1919, also known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (Edwin Samuel Montagu was the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for India; the Viscount Chelmsford was viceroy). These reforms represented the maximum concessions the British were prepared to make at that time. The franchise was extended, and increased authority was given to central and provincial legislative councils, but the viceroy remained responsible only to London. Download high resolution version (1000x1208, 369 KB)Bombay Presidency, southern portion, 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1208, 369 KB)Bombay Presidency, southern portion, 1909. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... In order to hasten the participation of the natives of India in the government of India, the British passed the Government of India Act of 1919. ... The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. ... Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford (12 August 1868 - 1 April 1933) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1916 to 1921. ...


The changes at the provincial level were significant, as the provincial legislative councils contained a considerable majority of elected members. In a system called "dyarchy", based on an approach developed by Lionel Curtis, the nation-building departments of government — agriculture, education, public works, and the like — were placed under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up the "steel frame" of British rule — finance, revenue, and home affairs — were retained by executive councillors who were often (but not always) British, and who were responsible to the governor. The act indirectly increased the number of elected Indian members in district boards and municipal corporations, since the authority to regulate local government bodies was placed in the hands of the popularly elected ministers, whose constituients naturally wanted more democracy. Later, tariff protection was finally given to Indian industry. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lionel Curtis (1872–1955) British official and author who advocated British Empire Federalism and, late in life, a world state. ... A Municipal corporation is a legal definition for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, villages, and boroughs. ...

Mahatama Gandhi is largely credited for uniting Indians to fight for independence from British rule.

The 1919 reforms did not satisfy political demands in India. The British repressed opposition and re-enacted restrictions on the press and on movement. An apparently unwitting example of violation of rules against the gathering of people led to the massacre at Jalianwala Bagh in Amritsar in April 1919. This tragedy galvanized such political leaders as Jawaharlal Nehru (18891964) and Mohandas Karamchand "Mahatma" Gandhi (18691948) and the masses who followed them to press for further action. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x710, 53 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x710, 53 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Amritsar massacre The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. ... , Amritsar (Punjabi: , Hindi: ), meaning Pool of the Nectar of Immortality, is the administrative headquarter of the Amritsar District in Punjab, India. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


The Allies' post-World War I peace settlement with Turkey provided an additional stimulus to the grievances of the Muslims, who feared that one goal of the Allies was to end the caliphate of the Ottoman sultan. After the end of the Mughal Empire, the Ottoman caliph had become the symbol of Islamic authority and unity to Indian Sunni Muslims. A pan-Islamic movement, known as the Khilafat Movement, spread in India. It was a mass repudiation of Muslim loyalty to British rule and thus legitimated Muslim participation in the Indian nationalist movement. The leaders of the Khilafat Movement used Islamic symbols to unite the diverse but assertive Muslim community on an all-India basis and bargain with both Congress leaders and the British for recognition of minority rights and political concessions. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilaafah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ...


Muslim leaders from the Deoband and Aligarh movements joined Gandhi in mobilising the masses for the 1920 and 1921 demonstrations of civil disobedience and non-cooperation in response to the massacre at Amritsar. At the same time, Gandhi endorsed the Khilafat Movement, thereby placing many Hindus behind what had been solely a Muslim demand. The Darul Uloom, (dārul ulūm devband in Hindi and Urdu) is an Islamic madrassa (seminary) famous for being the inception place of the Deobandi Islamic movement. ... Victoria gate, a prominent building at the university Aligarh Muslim University is located in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, Northern India. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Despite impressive achievements, however, the Khilafat Movement failed. Turkey rejected the caliphate and became a secular state. Furthermore, the religious, mass-based aspects of the movement alienated such Western-oriented constitutional politicians as Jinnah, who resigned from Congress. Other Muslims also were uncomfortable with Gandhi's leadership. The British historian Sir Percival Spear wrote that "a mass appeal in his Gandhi's hands could not be other than a Hindu one. He could transcend caste but not community. The Hindu devices he used went sour in the mouths of Muslims". In the final analysis, the movement failed to lay a lasting foundation of Indian unity and served only to aggravate Hindu-Muslim differences among masses that were being politicised. Indeed, as India moved closer to the self-government implied in the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, rivalry over what might be called the spoils of independence sharpened the differences between the communities. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


World War II and the end of the Raj

Map of the Hyderabad State, 1909
Map of the Hyderabad State, 1909

By 1942, Indians were divided over World War II, as the British had unilaterally and without consultation entered India into the war. Some wanted to support the British during the Battle of Britain, hoping for eventual independence through this support. Others were enraged by the British disregard for Indian intelligence and civil rights, and were unsympathetic to the travails of the British people, which they saw as rightful revenge for the enslavement of Indians. The British Indian army, with a strength of 2,250,000 by the end of the war, came to be the largest all-volunteer army in the history of the world [6]. However, even during the war, in July 1942, the Indian National Congress had passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain. The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched. In August 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC) marking the start of what was the Quit India Movement. The movement was to see massive, and initially peaceful demonstrations and denial of authority, undermining the British War effort. Large-scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. The movement also saw widespread acts of sabotage, Indian under-ground organization carried out bomb attacks on allied supply convoys, government buildings were set on fire, electricity lines were disconnected and transport and communication lines were severed. Download high resolution version (1000x790, 274 KB)Hyderabad state in 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x790, 274 KB)Hyderabad state in 1909. ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Kingdom Including combatants from:[1] Poland New Zealand Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Australia South Africa France Ireland United States Jamaica Palestine Rhodesia Germany Including combatants from Italy Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength 754 single-seat fighters 149 two-seat fighters 560 bombers 500 coastal 1,963 total... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... German supply train blown up by the Armia Krajowa during World War II Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy, oppressor or employer through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ...


The movement soon became a leaderless act of defiance, with a number of acts that deviated from Gandhi's principle of non-violence. In large parts of the country, the local underground organizations took over the movement. However, by 1943, Quit India had petered out.


However, at the time the war was at its bloodiest in Europe and Asia, the Indian revolutionary Subhash Chandra Bose had escaped from house arrest in Calcutta and ultimately made his way to Germany, and then to Japanese south Asia, to seek Axis help to raise an army to fight against the British control over India. Bose formed what came to be known as the Azad Hind Government as the Provisional Free Indian Government in exile, and organized the Indian National Army with Indian POWs and Indian expatriates in Southeast Asia with the help of the Japanese. Its aim was to reach India as a fighting force that would inspire public resentment and revolts within the Indian soldiers to defeat the Raj. The INA fought hard in the forests of Assam, Bengal and Burma, laying siege to Imphal and Kohima with the Japanese 15th Army. It would ultimately fail, owing to disrupted logistics, poor arms and supplies from the Japanese, and lack of support and training. However, Bose's audacious actions and radical initiative energized a new generation of Indians. Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...

Map of the Baroda State, 1909
Map of the Baroda State, 1909

Many historians have argued that it was the INA and the mutinies it inspired among the British Indian Armed forces that was the true driving force for India's independence [7][8] [9]. The stories of the Azad Hind movement and its army that came to public attention during the trials of soldiers of the INA in 1945, were seen as so inflammatory that, fearing mass revolts and uprisings — not just in India, but across its empire — the British Government forbade the BBC to broadcast their story[10]. Newspapers reported at the time a summary execution of INA soldiers held at Red Fort[11]. During and after the trial, mutinies broke out in the British Indian Army, most notably in the Royal Indian Navy; these found public support throughout India, from Karachi to Bombay and from Vizag to Calcutta. Download high resolution version (1000x901, 265 KB)Baroda state in 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x901, 265 KB)Baroda state in 1909. ... “Baroda” redirects here. ... Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (born 18 March 1914 died 06 February 2006), popularly known as Col. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The Bombay Mutiny was the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 21 February 1946. ... A group of native Indian muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... Bharatiya Nau Sena:-The Indian Navy is one of the worlds largest navies. ... Karachi (Urdu: كراچى, Sindhi: ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city in Pakistan. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Visakhapatnam (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag) is a large city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


These revolts, faced by the weakened post-war Raj, coupled with the fact that the faith in the British Indian Armed forces had been lost, ultimately shaped the decision to end the Raj.[12] By early 1946, all political prisoners had been released. British openly adopted a political dialogue with the Indian National Congress for the eventual independence of India. On 15 August 1947 the transfer of Power took place. At midnight on 14 August 1947 Pakistan (including modern Bangladesh) was granted independence. India was granted independence the following day. In many Indian languages, Raj literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire and as such is often used in reference to the Mughal Raj and the British Raj: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Most people would give these dates as the end of the British Raj. However, some people argue that it continued until 1950 in India when it adopted a republican constitution. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule by the people, and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...


Provinces

At the time of independence, British India consisted of the following provinces: The Provinces of India were those portions of India ruled directly by officials of the British East India Company and, from 1858 to Indian Independence in 1947, by the British Crown. ...

Eleven provinces (Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Bombay, Central Provinces, Madras, North-West Frontier, Orissa, Punjab, and Sindh) were headed by a governor. The remaining six (Ajmer Merwara, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Baluchistan, Coorg, Delhi, and Panth-Piploda) were governed by a chief commissioner. Ajmer-Merwara (also Ajmere-Merwara) is a former province of British India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... Panth-Piploda was a province of British India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ... United Provinces, 1903 A province of the British Raj, which corresponds to modern Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... , Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


There were also several hundred Princely States, under British protection but ruled by native rulers. Among the most notable of these were Jaipur,Gwalior, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Jammu and Kashmir. Hundreds of Princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Urdu: جے پور), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... , Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmiri: جۄم تٕہ کٔشِیر, ज्वम त॒ कॅशीर, Urdu: جموں Ùˆ کشمیر) (often abbreviated as Kashmir), is the northern most state in India and lies mostly in the Himalayan mountains. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: The Rise and Fall of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2. 
  2. ^ Roy, Tirthankar (2000). The Economic History of India 1857-1947. Delhi: Oxford University Press, xiv + 318pp. ISBN 0-19-565154-5. 
  3. ^ MacAlpin, Michelle Burge (1983). Subject to Famine: Food Crises and Economic Change in Western India, 1860-1920. Princeton University Press, 304pp. ISBN 0691053855. 
  4. ^ Tomlinson, B.R. (1993). The Economic History of Modern India 1860-1970. Cambridge University Press, p. 86. ISBN 0-521-58939-8. 
  5. ^ Marshall, PJ (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. 
  6. ^ Compton McKenzie (1951). Eastern Epic. London: Chatto & Windus, p.1. 
  7. ^ "RIN mutiny gave a jolt to the British" by Dhanjaya Bhat, The Tribune, February 12, 2006, retrieved July 17, 2006
  8. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (1967). Three Phases of India's Struggle for Freedom. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 58-59.. 
  9. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (1997). History of the Freedom Movement in India, Vol. III. Reprint, Calcutta: Firma KLM. ISBN 0-8364-2376-3. 
  10. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3684288.stm, last section: "Mutinies"
  11. ^ "Many I.N.A. men already executed, Lucknow". The Hindustan Times, November 2, 1945. http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/specials/Netaji/images/nov_2_45.gif URL Accessed 11-Aug-06.
  12. ^ ibid.

Niall Ferguson Niall Ferguson (b. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

References and further reading

  • Bairoch, Paul, Economics and World History, University of Chicago Press, 1995
  • Bhatia, B. M., Famines in India: A study in Some Aspects of the Economic History of India with Special Reference to Food Problem, Delhi: Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 1985
  • Bowle, John, The Imperial Achievement, Secker & Warburg, London, 1974, ISBN-13: 978-0316104098
  • Coates, Tim, (series editor), The Amritsar Massacre 1919 - General Dyer in the Punjab (Official Reports, including Dyer's Testimonies), Her Majesty's Stationary Office (HMSO) 1925, abridged edition, 2000, ISBN 0-11-702412-0
  • Davis, Mike, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World 2001, ISBN 1-85984-739-0
  • Dutt, Romesh C. Open Letters to Lord Curzon on Famines and Land Assessments in India, first published 1900, 2005 edition by Adamant Media Corporation, Elibron Classics Series, ISBN 1-4021-5115-2
  • Dutt, Romesh C. The Economic History of India under early British Rule, first published 1902, 2001 edition by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24493-5
  • Forbes, Rosita, India of the Princes', London, 1939
  • Forrest, G. W., CIE, (editor), Selections from The State Papers of the Governors-General of India - Warren Hastings (2 vols), Blackwell's, Oxford, 1910
  • Frank, Andre Gunder, ReORIENT: Global Economy in the Asian Age, University of California Press, 1998
  • Grant, James, History of India, Cassell, London, n/d but c1870. Several volumes
  • James, Lawrence, Raj - The Making and Unmaking of British India, London, 1997, ISBN 0-316-64072-7
  • Keay, John, The Honourable Company - A History of the English East India Company, HarperCollins, London, 1991, ISBN 0-00-217515-0
  • Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, University of British Columbia Press, 2005
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey, India Britannica, Book Club Associates, UK, 1983
  • Morris, Jan, with Simon Winchester, Stones of Empire - The Buildings of the Raj, Oxford University Press, 1st edition 1983 (paperback edition 1986, ISBN 0-19-282036-2
  • Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1982
  • Srivastava, H.C., The History of Indian Famines from 1858-1918, Sri Ram Mehra and Co., Agra, 1968
  • Voelcker, John Augustus, Report on the Improvement of Indian Agriculture, Indian Government publication, Calcutta, 2nd edition, 1897.
  • Woodroffe, Sir John, Is India Civilized - Essays on Indian Culture, Madras, 1919.
  • Bibliography
  • India,PakistanThis article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain.

The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Late Victorian Holocausts - El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World is a book by Mike Davis concerning the connection between a set of large famines in the late 1870s and again in the late 1890s and a meteorological phenomenon called ENSO, the El Ni... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... CIE is an acronym which can stand for Córas Iompair Éireann, Irish transport company; the International Commission on Illumination; the postnominal of a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire; Cambridge International Examinations, an international examination board. ... Front of the original Blackwells bookshop. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, India), is an Indian philosopher, economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... The India Office was the British government department responsible for the government of British India. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
British India - Indian History (1444 words)
This mutiny was harshly crushed by the British.
The British victories were accompanied by widespread recrimination, and in many cases, unarmed sepoys were bayonetted, sown up in the carcasses of pigs or cows, or fired from cannons.
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The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
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