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Encyclopedia > British House of Commons
The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled
Type Lower House
Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated)
since October 23, 2000
Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour)
since June 28, 2007
Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative)
since May 5, 2005
Members 659
Political groups Labour Party
Conservative Party
Liberal Democrats
Scottish National Party
Plaid Cymru
Democratic Unionist Party
Sinn Féin
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Ulster Unionist Party
Respect – The Unity Coalition
Last elections May 5, 2005
Meeting place House of Commons chamber
Palace of Westminster
Westminster
London
United Kingdom
Web site http://www.parliament.uk/commons/index.cfm
United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
United Kingdom
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Harriet Ruth Harman QC, MP (born July 30, 1950, London) is a British Solicitor and Labour politician. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... Theresa Mary May (born in Eastbourne, Sussex, England, on October 1, 1956 as Theresa Mary Brasier) is a British politician, former chairman of the Conservative Party, and Member of Parliament for Maidenhead. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... Respect – The Unity Coalition is a left wing political party in England and Wales founded on January 25, 2004 in London. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Her_Majesty's_Government_Coat_of_Arms. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Her Majesty's Government
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)

The Crown
The Privy Council
Cabinet
A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Prime Minister (Gordon Brown MP)
Chancellor (Alistair Darling MP)
Foreign Secretary (David Miliband MP)
Home Secretary (Jacqui Smith MP)
Justice Secretary (Jack Straw MP)
Full list of members
Parliament
State Opening of Parliament

House of Lords
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British politician who has been Home Secretary since 28 June 2007 and is the current Member of Parliament for Redditch, since 1997. ... The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...

Lord Speaker (Baroness Hayman)

House of Commons
The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ...

Speaker (Michael Martin MP)
Leader (Harriet Harman MP)
Prime Minister's Questions

Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Harriet Ruth Harman QC, MP (born July 30, 1950, London) is a British Solicitor and Labour politician. ... Prime Ministers Questions (PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada, this convention is known as... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ...

Leader (David Cameron MP)
Shadow Cabinet
Bureaucracy
Government departments

The Civil Service The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... Her Majestys Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. ...

Judiciary
Courts of the United Kingdom
Courts of England and Wales
Courts of Northern Ireland
Courts of Scotland

Constitution
Human rights The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ...

Constituent countries
Politics of Scotland
Scottish Government
Scottish Parliament

Politics of Wales
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Government is an unofficial term often used to describe the Scottish Executive. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ...

Welsh Assembly Government
National Assembly for Wales

Politics of Northern Ireland
Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ...

Northern Ireland Executive
Northern Ireland Assembly

Politics of England
The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ...

English Regional Assemblies

Reserved matters
Local government
Greater London Authority Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...

Elections
Parliament constituencies

Political parties
Last election
Next election
The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010, barring exceptional circumstances. ...

Other
Foreign relations

Politics of the European Union
The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Other countries · Atlas
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The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords (the upper house). Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 646 members, who are known as "Members of Parliament" or MPs. Members are elected, through the first-past-the-post system of election, by electoral districts known as constituencies, and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved (a maximum of five years). Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ...


The House of Commons evolved at some point during the 14th century and has been in continuous existence since. The House of Commons (the "lower house") was originally far less powerful than the House of Lords (as the "upper house"), but today its legislative powers exceed those of the Lords. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject most bills was reduced to a delaying power. Moreover, the Government of the United Kingdom is primarily responsible to the House of Commons; the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as he or she retains the support of the lower house. Almost all government ministers are drawn from the House of Commons and, with one brief exception,[1] all Prime Ministers since 1902 have sat in the Commons. In the United Kingdom, Parliament Act refers to each of two Acts of Parliament, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ...


The full, formal, style and title of the House of Commons is The Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. The term "Commons" derives from the Norman French word communes, referring to the geographic and collective communities of their representatives. It is often wrongly believed that "Commons" refers to the fact that its members are "commoners", as "Lords" indicates that the members of that house are peers. The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland largely descends from the Parliament of the Kingdom of England. That Parliament developed from the council that advised the English monarch in medieval times. This royal council, meeting for short periods, included ecclesiastics, noblemen, as well as representatives of the counties (known as "knights of the shire"). The chief duty of the council was to approve taxes proposed by the Crown. In many cases, however, the council demanded the redress of the people's grievances before proceeding to vote on taxation. Thus, it developed legislative powers. Parliament was, however, always summoned by royal authority - a fact that is still symbolised today by the presence of the royal ceremonial mace at sittings of both houses. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... In English and British politics from mediaeval times until the Representation of the People Act 1884, Knights of the Shire were representatives of counties sent to advise the government of the day. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In the "Model Parliament" of 1295, representatives of the boroughs (including towns and cities) were also admitted. Thus, it became settled practice that each county send two knights of the shire, and that each borough send two burgesses. At first, the burgesses were almost entirely powerless; whilst county representation was fixed, the monarch could enfranchise or disfranchise boroughs at pleasure. Any show of independence by burgesses would have led to the exclusion of their towns from Parliament. The knights of the shire were in a better position, though less powerful than their aristocratic counterparts in the still unicameral Parliament. The division of Parliament into two houses occurred during the reign of Edward III: the knights and burgesses formed the House of Commons, whilst the clergy and nobility became the House of Lords. The Model Parliament is the term used for the 1295 parliament of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


Though they remained subordinate to both the Crown and the Lords, the Commons did act with increasing boldness. During the Good Parliament (1376), the Speaker of the House of Commons, Sir Peter de la Mare, complained of heavy taxes, demanded an accounting of the royal expenditures, and criticised the King's management of the military. The Commons even proceeded to impeach some of the King's ministers. The bold Speaker was imprisoned, but was soon released after the death of King Edward III. During the reign of the next monarch, Richard II, the Commons once again began to impeach errant ministers of the Crown. They insisted that they could not only control taxation, but also public expenditures. Despite such gains in authority, however, the Commons still remained much less powerful than the Lords and the Crown. The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament of 1376. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Sir Peter de la Mare, (died c. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ...


The influence of the Crown was increased by the civil wars of the late fifteenth century, which destroyed the power of the great nobles. Both houses of Parliament held little power during the ensuing years, and the absolute supremacy of the Sovereign was restored. The domination of the monarch grew further under the Tudor dynasty in the sixteenth century. This trend, however, was somewhat reversed when the House of Stuart came to the English Throne in 1603. The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, provoked conflicts with the Commons over issues such as taxation, religion, and royal powers. For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


The differences between Charles I and Parliament were great, and resulted in the English Civil War, in which the armed forces of Parliament were victorious. In December 1648 the House of Commons was purged by the New Model Army, which was supposed to be subservient to Parliament. Pride's Purge was indeed the first and only military coup in English history. Subsequently, King Charles I was beheaded and the Upper House was abolished. The unicameral Parliament that remained was later referred to by critics as the Rump Parliament, as it consisted only of a small selection of Members of Parliament approved by the army - some of whom were soldiers themselves. In 1653, when leading figures in this Parliament began to disagree with the army, it was dissolved by Oliver Cromwell. However, the monarchy and the House of Lords were both restored with the Commons in 1660. The influence of the Crown had been decreased, and was further diminished when James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[1] became King of England, King of Scots,[2] and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...

The House of Commons in the early 19th century.
The House of Commons in the early 19th century.

The eighteenth century saw the development of the office of Prime Minister. The notion that a government remains in power only as long as it retains the support of Parliament evolved, leading to history's first-ever motion of no confidence, when Lord North's government failed to end the American Revolution. The modern notion that only the support of the House of Commons is necessary to a government, however, was of later development. Similarly, the custom that the Prime Minister is always a Member of the Lower House, rather than the Upper one, did not evolve immediately. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (846x622, 113 KB) Summary The House of Commons at Westminster as drawn by Ausgustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (846x622, 113 KB) Summary The House of Commons at Westminster as drawn by Ausgustus Pugin and Thomas Rowlandson for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford (April 13, 1732–August 5, 1792), more often known by his earlier title, Lord North, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


The House of Commons experienced an important period of reform during the nineteenth century. Over the years, several anomalies had developed in borough representation. The constituency boundaries had not been changed since 1660, so many towns that were once important but had declined by the nineteenth century still retained their ancient right of electing two members. The most notorious of these "rotten boroughs" were Old Sarum, which had only six voters for two MPs, and Dunwich which had fallen into the sea. At the same time, large cities such as Manchester received no separate representation (although their eligible residents were able to vote in the corresponding county seat). Also notable were the pocket boroughs, small constituencies controlled by wealthy landowners and aristocrats, whose "nominees" were invariably elected. The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... Woodcut of Old Sarum as it was during its height Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, England, with evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. It sits on a hill about two miles (3km) north of modern Salisbury on the west side of... Dunwich was a parliamentary borough in Suffolk, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ...


The Commons attempted to address these anomalies by passing a Reform Bill in 1831. At first, the House of Lords proved unwilling to pass the bill, but were forced to relent when the Prime Minister, Lord Grey, advised King William IV to flood the House of Lords by creating pro-Reform peers. To avoid this the Lords relented and passed the bill in 1832. The Reform Act 1832, also known as the "Great Reform Act," abolished the rotten boroughs, established uniform voting requirements for the boroughs, and granted representation to populous cities, but still retained many pocket boroughs. In the ensuing years, the Commons grew more assertive, the influence of the House of Lords having been reduced by the Reform Bill Crisis, and the power of the patrons reduced. The Lords became more reluctant to reject bills that the Commons passed with large majorities, and it became an accepted political principle that the confidence of the House of Commons alone was necessary for a government to remain in office. The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... William IV King of the United Kingdom William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765–20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...


Many more reforms were introduced in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The Reform Act 1867 lowered property requirements for voting in the boroughs, reduced the representation of the less populous boroughs, and granted parliamentary seats to several growing industrial towns. The electorate was further expanded by the Representation of the People Act 1884, under which property qualifications in the counties were lowered. The Redistribution of Seats Act of the following year replaced almost all multi-member constituencies with single-member constituencies. Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Representation of the People Act 1884 In the United Kingdom, The Representation of the People Act of 1884 (48 & 49 Vict. ... The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 (48 & 49 Vict. ...

The old Chamber of the House of Commons built by Sir Charles Barry was destroyed by German bombs during the Second World War. The essential features of Barry's design were preserved when the Chamber was rebuilt.
The old Chamber of the House of Commons built by Sir Charles Barry was destroyed by German bombs during the Second World War. The essential features of Barry's design were preserved when the Chamber was rebuilt.

Progress continued in the early twentieth century. In 1908, the Liberal Government under Asquith introduced a number of social welfare programmes, which, together with an expensive arms race, forced the Government to seek higher taxes. In 1909, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, introduced the "People's Budget", which proposed a new tax targeting wealthy landowners. The unpopular measure, however, failed in the heavily Conservative House of Lords - and the government resigned. Having made the powers of the House of Lords a primary campaign issue, the Liberals were re-elected in January 1910. Asquith then proposed that the powers of the Lords be severely curtailed. After an election in December 1910, caused by the death of the monarch, the Asquith Government secured the passage of a bill to curtail the powers of the House of Lords. The King agreed that the House of Lords would be flooded by the creation of 500 new Liberal peers if it failed to pass the bill. Thus, the Parliament Act 1911 came into effect, destroying the legislative equality of the two Houses of Parliament. The House of Lords was permitted only to delay most legislation, for a maximum of three parliamentary sessions or two calendar years (reduced to two sessions or one year by the Parliament Act 1949). Since the passage of these Acts, the House of Commons has become the dominant branch of Parliament, both in theory and in practice. Chamber of the House of Commons (Charles Barry) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chamber of the House of Commons (Charles Barry) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ... In the United Kingdom, Parliament Act refers to each of two Acts of Parliament, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. ...


Since the 17th century, MPs had been unpaid. Most of the men elected to the Commons had private incomes, while a few relied on financial support from a wealthy patron. Early Labour MPs were often provided with a salary by a trade union, but this was declared illegal by a House of Lords judgement of 1910. Consequently a clause was included in the Parliament Act 1911 introducing salaries for MPs. Government ministers had always been paid.


Members and elections

Since 1948, each Member of Parliament represents a single constituency. There remains a technical distinction between county constituencies and borough constituencies, but the only effect of this difference is the amount of money candidates are allowed to spend during campaigns. The boundaries of the constituencies are determined by four permanent and independent Boundary Commissions, one each for England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The Commissions conduct general reviews of electoral boundaries once every 8 to 12 years, as well as a number of interim reviews. In drawing boundaries, they are required to take into account local government boundaries, but may deviate from this requirement in order to prevent great disparities in the populations of the various constituencies. The proposals of the Boundary Commissions are subject to parliamentary approval, but may not be amended. After the next general review of constituencies, the Boundary Commissions will be absorbed into the Electoral Commission, which was established in 2000. Currently the United Kingdom is divided into 646 constituencies, with 529 in England, 40 in Wales, 59 in Scotland, and 18 in Northern Ireland. A County constituency is a constituency in the United Kingdom that covers a predominantly rural area. ... A borough constituency (in Scotland, a burgh constituency) is a type of parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the four Boundary Commissions are responsible for determining the boundaries of House of Commons constituencies. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Electoral Commission is an independent body with powers in the United Kingdom, which was created by an Act of Parliament, the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. ... To see the list in alphabetical order see the categories UK Parliamentary constituencies and UK Parliamentary constituencies (historic). ...


General elections occur whenever Parliament is dissolved by the Sovereign. The timing of the dissolution is normally chosen by the Prime Minister (see relationship with the Government below); however, a parliamentary term may not last for more than five years, unless a Bill extending the life of Parliament passes both Houses and receives Royal Assent. The House of Lords, exceptionally, retains its power of veto over such a Bill. This is a list of United Kingdom general elections since 1802. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ...


The date of a General Election is the choice of the Prime Minister, but traditionally, it tends to be a Thursday. Each candidate must submit nomination papers signed by ten registered voters from the constituency, and pay a deposit of £500, which is refunded only if the candidate wins at least five per cent of the vote. The deposit seeks to discourage frivolous candidates. Each constituency returns one Member, using the first-past-the-post electoral system, under which the candidate with a plurality of votes wins. Minors, Members of the House of Lords, prisoners, and insane persons are not qualified to become Members of the House of Commons. In order to vote, one must be a resident of the United Kingdom as well as a citizen of the United Kingdom, of a British overseas territory, of the Republic of Ireland, or of a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. British citizens living abroad are allowed to vote for 15 years after moving from the United Kingdom. No person may vote in more than one constituency. A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The First Past the Post electoral system, is a voting system for single-member districts. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Once elected, Members of Parliament normally continue to serve until the next dissolution of Parliament. If a Member, however, dies or ceases to be qualified (see qualifications below), his or her seat falls vacant. It is also possible for the House of Commons to expel a Member, but this power is exercised only in cases of serious misconduct or criminal activity. In each case, a vacancy may be filled by a by-election in the appropriate constituency, with the same electoral system as in general elections. A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ...


The term "Member of Parliament" is normally used only to refer to Members of the House of Commons, even though the House of Lords is also a part of Parliament. Members of the House of Commons may use the post-nominal letters "MP". The annual salary of each Member is currently £59,095. Members may also receive additional salaries in right of other offices they hold (for instance, the Speakership). Most Members also claim between £100,000 and £150,000 for various office expenses (staff costs, postage, travelling, etc.) and, in the case of non-London Members, for the costs of maintaining a home in the capital. Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ...


Qualifications

There are numerous qualifications that apply to Members of Parliament. Most importantly, one must be aged at least 18 (the limit was 21 until S.17 of the Electoral Administration Act 2006 came into force), and must be a citizen of the United Kingdom, of a British overseas territory, of the Republic of Ireland, or of a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. These restrictions were introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981, but were previously far more stringent: under the Act of Settlement 1701, only natural-born subjects were qualified. Members of the House of Lords may not serve in the House of Commons, or even vote in parliamentary elections; however, they are permitted to sit in the chamber during debates. The Electoral Administration Act 2006 is an Act which was passed by Parliament of the United Kingdom on 11 July 2006. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The British Nationality Act 1981 was an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...


A person may not sit in the Commons if he or she is the subject of a Bankruptcy Restrictions Order (applicable in England and Wales only), or if he or she is adjudged bankrupt (in Northern Ireland), or if his or her estate is sequestered (in Scotland). Also, lunatics are ineligible to sit in the House of Commons. Under the Mental Health Act 1983, two specialists must report to the Speaker that a Member is suffering from mental illness before a seat can be declared vacant. There also exists a common law precedent from the 18th century that the "deaf and dumb" are ineligible to sit in the Lower House; this precedent, however, has not been tested in recent years. Jack Ashley continued to serve as an MP for 25 years after becoming profoundly deaf. There is no single law on bankruptcy in the United Kingdom with there being one system for England and Wales, one for Northern Ireland and one for Scotland. ... Sequestration, the act of removing, separating or seizing anything from the possession of its owner, particularly in law, of the taking possession of property under process of law for the benefit of creditors or the state. ... The Mental Health Act 1983 (1983 c. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Jack Ashley, Baron Ashley of Stoke, CH PC (born 6 December 1922), is a Labour member of the House of Lords. ...


Anyone found guilty of high treason may not sit in Parliament until he or she has either completed the term of imprisonment, or received a full pardon from the Crown. Moreover, anyone serving a prison sentence of one year or more is ineligible. Finally, the Representation of the People Act 1983 disqualifies for ten years those found guilty of certain election-related offences. Several other disqualifications are codified in the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975: holders of high judicial offices, civil servants, members of the regular armed forces, members of foreign legislatures (excluding the Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth countries), and holders of several Crown offices. Ministers, even though they are paid officers of the Crown, are not disqualified. {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... The Representation of the People Act 1983 changed the British electoral process in the following ways: Amended the 1969 Representation of the People Act. ... The House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 was an Act of the British Parliament which prohibited certain groups of people from becoming members of the House of Commons. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...


The rule that precludes certain Crown officers from serving in the House of Commons is used to circumvent a resolution adopted by the House of Commons in 1623, under which Members are not permitted to resign their seats. In practice, however, they always can. Should a Member wish to resign from the Commons, he may request appointment to one of two ceremonial Crown offices: that of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds, or that of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead. These offices are sinecures (that is, they involve no actual duties); they exist solely in order to permit the "resignation" of Members of the House of Commons. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is responsible for making the appointment, and, by convention, never refuses to do so when asked by a Member who desires to leave the House of Commons. Members of Parliament sitting in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom are technically forbidden to resign. ... The Chiltern Hundreds date back to the 13th century. ... The Manor of Northstead was once a collection of fields and farms in the parish of Scalby in the North Riding of Yorkshire. ... A sinecure (from Latin sine, without, and cura, care) means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ...


Officers

The Speaker presides over debates in the House of Commons, as depicted in the above print commemorating the destruction of the Commons Chamber by fire in 1834.
The Speaker presides over debates in the House of Commons, as depicted in the above print commemorating the destruction of the Commons Chamber by fire in 1834.

The House of Commons elects a presiding officer, known as the Speaker, at the beginning of each new parliamentary term. If the incumbent Speaker seeks a new term, then the House may re-elect him or her merely by passing a motion; otherwise, a secret ballot is held. A Speaker-elect cannot take office until he or she has been approved by the Sovereign; the granting of the royal approbation, however, is a formality. The Speaker is assisted by three Deputy Speakers, the most senior of which holds the title of Chairman of Ways and Means. The two other Deputy Speakers are known as the First and Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means. These titles derive from the Committee of Ways and Means, a body over which the Chairman once used to preside; even though the Committee was abolished in 1967, the traditional titles of the Deputy Speakers are still retained. The Speaker and the Deputy Speakers are always Members of the House of Commons. Image File history File links British_House_of_Commons_1834. ... Image File history File links British_House_of_Commons_1834. ...


Whilst presiding, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker wears a ceremonial black robe. The presiding officer may also wear a wig, but this tradition has been abandoned by the present Speaker, Michael Martin, and by his predecessor, Betty Boothroyd. The Speaker or deputy presides from a chair at the front of the House. The Speaker is also chairman of the House of Commons Commission, which oversees the running of the House, and he or she controls debates by calling on members to speak. If a member believes that a rule (or Standing Order) has been breached, he or she may raise a "point of order," on which the Speaker makes a ruling that is not subject to any appeal. The Speaker may discipline members who fail to observe the rules of the House. Thus, the Speaker is far more powerful than his Lords counterpart, the Lord Speaker, who has no disciplinary powers. Customarily, the Speaker and the deputies are non-partisan; they do not vote, or participate in the affairs of any political party. By convention, a Speaker seeking re-election to parliament is not opposed in his or her constituency by any of the major parties. The lack of partisanship continues even after the Speaker leaves the House of Commons. Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Betty Boothroyd, Baroness Boothroyd, OM, PC (born October 8, 1929 in Dewsbury, England), is a British politician and was the first female Speaker of the House of Commons. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ...


The Clerk of the House is both the House's chief adviser on matters of procedure and Chief Executive of the House of Commons. He is a permanent official, not a Member of the House itself. The Clerk advises the Speaker on the rules and procedure of the House, signs orders and official communications, and signs and endorses bills. He chairs the Board of Management, which consists of the heads of the six departments of the House. The Clerk's deputy is known as the Clerk Assistant. Another officer of the House is the Serjeant-at-Arms, whose duties include the maintenance of law, order, and security on the House's premises. The Serjeant-at-Arms carries the ceremonial Mace, a symbol of the authority of the Crown and of the House of Commons, into the House each day in front of the Speaker, and the Mace is laid upon the Table of the House during sittings. The Librarian is head of the House of Commons Library, the House's research and information arm. The Clerk of the House of Commons is the chief clerk in the House of Commons in the parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament. ...


Procedure

Like the Lords, the Commons meets in the Palace of Westminster in London. The Commons chamber is small and modestly decorated in green, in contrast with the large, lavishly furnished red Lords chamber. There are benches on two sides of the chamber, divided by a centre aisle. This arrangement reflects the design of St Stephen's Chapel, which served as the home of the House of Commons until destroyed by fire in 1834. The Speaker's chair is at one end of the Chamber; in front of it is the Table of the House, on which the Mace rests. The Clerks sit at one end of the Table, close to the Speaker so that they may advise him or her on procedure when necessary. Members of the Government sit on the benches on the Speaker's right, whilst members of the Opposition occupy the benches on the Speaker's left. In front of each set of benches, a red line is drawn on the carpet - and members are traditionally not allowed to cross the line during debates. The red lines in front of the two sets of benches are said to be set two sword-lengths apart; a Member is thus supposed to be unable to attack an individual on the opposite side. This, however, is a picturesque fiction. Government ministers and important Opposition leaders sit on the front rows, and are known as "frontbenchers." Other Members of Parliament, in contrast, are known as "backbenchers." Oddly, all Members of Parliament cannot fit in the Chamber, which can seat only 427 of the 646 Members. Members who arrive late must stand near the entrance of the House if they wish to listen to debates. Sittings in the Chamber are held each day from Monday to Thursday, and also on some Fridays. During times of national emergency, the House may also sit at weekends. St. ...


Sittings of the House are open to the public, but the House may at any time vote to sit in private. (This has been done only twice since 1950.) Traditionally, a Member who desired that the House sit privately could shout "I spy strangers” and a vote would automatically follow. In the past, when relations between the Commons and the Crown were less than cordial, this procedure was used whenever the House wanted to keep its debate private. More often, however, this device was used to delay and disrupt proceedings; as a result, it was abolished in 1998. Now, Members seeking that the House sit in private must make a formal motion to that effect. Public debates are broadcast on the radio, and on television by BBC Parliament, and are recorded in Hansard. BBC Parliament is a British television channel from the BBC. It broadcasts live and recorded coverage of the British House of Commons and House of Lords, Select Committees, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly, and occasionally from the General Synod of the Church of England. ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ...


Sessions of the House of Commons have sometimes been disrupted by angry protesters throwing objects into the Chamber from the galleries - items thrown include leaflets, manure, flour (see Fathers 4 Justice House of Commons protest), and a canister of chlorobenzylidene malonitrile (tear gas). Even members have been known to disturb proceedings of the House; for instance, in 1976, Conservative MP Michael Heseltine seized and brandished the Mace of the House during a heated debate. However, perhaps the most famous disruption of the House of Commons was caused by King Charles I, who entered the Commons Chamber in 1642 with an armed force in order to arrest five members for high treason. This action was deemed a breach of the privilege of the House, and has given rise to the tradition that the monarch may not set foot in the House of Commons. Tony Blair being hit by one of the missiles The Fathers 4 Justice House of Commons protest, also dubbed The Fun Powder Plot, is an incident that took place on May 19, 2004. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


Each year, the parliamentary session begins with the State Opening of Parliament, a ceremony in the Lords Chamber during which the Sovereign, in the presence of Members of both Houses, delivers an address outlining the Government's legislative agenda. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod (a Lords official) is responsible for summoning the Commons to the Lords Chamber. When he arrives to deliver his summons, the doors of the Commons Chamber are traditionally slammed shut in his face, symbolising the right of the Lower House to debate without interference. The Gentleman Usher then knocks on the door thrice with his Black Rod, and only then is granted admittance. He then informs the MPs that the Monarch awaits them, and proceed to to the House of Lords for the Queen's Speech. In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of a number of Commonwealth countries. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or...


During debates, Members may speak only if called upon by the Speaker (or a Deputy Speaker, if the Speaker is not presiding). Traditionally, the presiding officer alternates between calling Members from the Government and Opposition. The Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition, and other leaders from both sides are normally given priority. Formerly, all Privy Counsellors were also granted priority; however, the modernisation of Commons procedure in 1998 led to the abolition of this tradition. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ...


Speeches are addressed to the presiding officer, using the words "Mr Speaker," "Madam Speaker," "Mr Deputy Speaker," or "Madam Deputy Speaker." Only the presiding officer may be directly addressed in debate; other Members must be referred to in the third person. Traditionally, Members do not refer to each other by name, but by constituency, using forms such as "the Honourable Member for [constituency]," or, in the case of Privy Counsellors, "the Right Honourable Member for [constituency]." Mostly, members of the House refer to each other as "my Right Honourable friend". The Speaker enforces the rules of the House, and may warn and punish Members who deviate from them. Disregarding the Speaker's instructions is considered a severe breach of the rules of the House, and may result in the suspension of the offender from the House. In the case of grave disorder, the Speaker may adjourn the House without taking a vote.


The Standing Orders of the House of Commons do not establish any formal time limits for debates. The Speaker may, however, order a Member who persists in making a tediously repetitive or irrelevant speech to stop speaking. The time set aside for debate on a particular motion is, however, often limited by informal agreements between the parties. Debate may also be restricted by the passage of "Allocation of Time Motions", which are more commonly known as "Guillotine Motions". Alternatively, the House may put an immediate end to debate by passing a motion to invoke the Closure. The Speaker is allowed to deny the motion if he or she believes that it infringes upon the rights of the minority. Today, Bills are scheduled according to a Timetable Motion, which the whole House agrees in advance, obviating use of the guillotine. A Guillotine Motion is the common name for an Allocation of Time Motion which is a British House of Commons procedure that can be used to restrict the time set aside for debate during the passage of a bill through the House. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


When the debate concludes, or when the Closure is invoked, the motion in question is put to a vote. The House first votes by voice vote; the Speaker or Deputy Speaker puts the question, and Members respond either "Aye" (in favour of the motion) or "No" (against the motion). The presiding officer then announces the result of the voice vote, but if his or her assessment is challenged by any Member, a recorded vote known as a division follows. (The presiding officer, if he or she believes that the result of the voice vote is clear, may reject the challenge.) When a division occurs, members enter one of two lobbies (the "Aye" lobby or the "No" lobby) on either side of the Chamber, where their names are recorded by clerks. At each lobby are two tellers (themselves Members of the House) who count the votes of the members. It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ...


Once the division concludes, the tellers provide the results to the presiding officer, who then announces them to the House. If there is an equality of votes, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker has a casting vote. Traditionally, this casting vote is exercised to allow further debate, if this is possible, or otherwise to avoid a decision being taken without a majority (e.g. voting No to a motion or the third reading of a bill). Ties rarely occur — the last one was in July 1993. The quorum of the House of Commons is 40 members for any vote. If fewer than 40 members have participated, the division is invalid. A casting vote is a vote given to the presiding officer of a council or legislative body in order to resolve a deadlock. ...


Formerly, if a Member sought to raise a point of order during a division, suggesting that some of the rules governing parliamentary procedure are violated, he was required to wear a hat, thereby signaling that he was not engaging in debate. Collapsible top hats were kept in the Chamber just for this purpose. This custom was discontinued in 1998. A Point of Order is a matter raised during a debate concerning the rules of debating themselves. ...


The outcome of most votes is largely known beforehand, since political parties normally instruct members on how to vote. A party normally entrusts some Members of Parliament, known as whips, with the task of ensuring that all party members vote as desired. Members of Parliament do not tend to vote against such instructions, since those who do so jeopardise promotion, or may be deselected as party candidates for future elections. Ministers, junior ministers and parliamentary private secretaries who vote against the whips' instructions usually resign. Thus, the independence of Members of Parliament tends to be low, although "backbench rebellions" by members discontent with their party's policies do occur. A member is also traditionally allowed some leeway if the interests of her/his constituency are adversely affected. In some circumstances, however, parties announce "free votes", allowing members to vote as they please. Votes relating to issues of conscience such as abortion and capital punishment are typically free votes. In politics, a whip is a member of a political party in a legislature whose task is to ensure that members of the party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. ... A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are each expected to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Committees

The Parliament of the United Kingdom uses committees for a variety of purposes, e.g. for the review of bills. Committees consider bills in detail, and may make amendments. Bills of great constitutional importance, as well as some important financial measures, are usually sent to the "Committee of the Whole House", a body that includes all members of the Commons. Instead of the Speaker, the Chairman or a Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means presides. The Committee meets in the House of Commons Chamber. The British Parliament (that is, the Houses of Commons and Lords) has a number of Committees – small numbers of members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues; most are made up of members of the Commons. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ...


Most bills were until 2006 considered by Standing Committees, which consisted of between 16 and 50 members. The membership of each Standing Committee roughly reflected the strength of the parties in the House. The membership of Standing Committees changed constantly; new Members were assigned each time the committee considered a new bill. There was no formal limit on the number of Standing Committees, but usually only ten existed. Rarely, a bill was committed to a Special Standing Committee, which investigated and held hearings on the issues raised. In November 2006, Standing Committees were replaced by Public Bill Committees.


The House of Commons also has several Departmental Select Committees. The membership of these bodies, like that of the Standing Committees, reflects the strength of the parties. Each committee elects its own Chairman. The primary function of a Departmental Select Committee is to scrutinise and investigate the activities of a particular government department. To fulfil these aims, it is permitted to hold hearings and collect evidence. Bills may be referred to Departmental Select Committees, but such a procedure is seldom used.


A separate type of Select Committee is the Domestic Committee. Domestic Committees oversee the administration of the House and the services provided to Members. Other committees of the House of Commons include Joint Committees (which also include members of the House of Lords), the Committee on Standards and Privileges (which considers questions of parliamentary privilege, as well as matters relating to the conduct of the members), and the Committee of Selection (which determines the membership of other committees). The Committee on Standards and Privileges of the UK House of Commons was established in 1995 to replace the earlier Committee of Privileges. ... Parliamentary privilege, also known as absolute privilege, is a legal mechanism employed within the legislative bodies of countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system. ...


Legislative functions

Bills may be introduced in either house, though controversial bills normally originate in the House of Commons.


The supremacy of the Commons in legislative matters is assured by the Parliament Acts, under which certain types of bills may be presented for the Royal Assent without the consent of the House of Lords. The Lords may not delay a money bill (a bill that, in the view of the Speaker of the House of Commons, solely concerns national taxation or public funds) for more than one month. Moreover, the Lords may not delay most other public bills for more than two parliamentary sessions, or one calendar year. These provisions, however, only apply to public bills that originate in the House of Commons. Moreover, a bill that seeks to extend a parliamentary term beyond five years requires the consent of the House of Lords. // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


By a custom that prevailed even before the Parliament Acts, only the House of Commons may originate bills concerning taxation or Supply. Furthermore, supply bills passed by the House of Commons are immune to amendments in the House of Lords. In addition, the House of Lords is barred from amending a bill so as to insert a taxation or supply-related provision, but the House of Commons often waives its privileges and allows the Lords to make amendments with financial implications. Under a separate convention, known as the Salisbury Convention, the House of Lords does not seek to oppose legislation promised in the Government's election manifesto. Hence, as the power of the House of Lords has been severely curtailed by statute and by practice, the House of Commons is clearly the more powerful branch of Parliament. A government budget is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature, and approved by the chief executive. ... The Salisbury Convention is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom that means that the House of Lords will not oppose any government legislation promised by its election manifesto. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Further information: Act of Parliament

An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...

Relationship with the Government

Although it does not elect the Prime Minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention the Prime Minister is answerable to, and must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of Prime Minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person most likely to command the support of the House — normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons. (The leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition.) In modern times, by convention, the Prime Minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords. The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ...


The Lower House may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a Motion of Confidence, or by passing a Motion of No Confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are sometimes phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions are considered confidence issues, even though not explicitly phrased as such. In particular, important bills that form a part of the Government's agenda are generally considered matters of confidence, as is the annual Budget. When a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged to either resign, or request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Except when compelled to do so by an adverse vote on a confidence issue, the Prime Minister is allowed to choose the timing of dissolutions with the permission of the Monarch, and consequently the timing of general elections. The timing reflects political considerations, and is generally most opportune for the Prime Minister's party. However, no parliamentary term can last for more than five years; a dissolution is automatic upon the expiry of this period unless an act of Parliament is passed extending the maximum term as happened during both World Wars. Parliament is almost never permitted to sit for the maximum possible term, with dissolutions customarily being requested earlier.


A Prime Minister may resign even if he or she is not defeated at the polls (for example, for personal health reasons); in such a case, the premiership goes to the new leader of the outgoing Prime Minister's party. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no mechanism for electing a new leader and when Anthony Eden resigned as PM in 1957 without recommending a successor, the party was unable to nominate one. It fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new Prime Minister, after taking the advice of ministers. For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ...


By convention, all ministers must be members of the House of Commons or House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who are outside Parliament but in most cases they subsequently entered Parliament either by means of a by-election or receiving a peerage. Since 1902, all Prime Ministers have been members of the Commons (the sole exception, the Earl of Home, disclaimed his peerage days after becoming Prime Minister, and was immediately elected to the House of Commons as Sir Alec Douglas-Home). Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October...


In modern times, a vast majority of ministers belong to the Commons rather than the Lords. No major cabinet position (except Lord Privy Seal, Lord Chancellor and Leader of the House of Lords) has been filled by a Lord since Lord Carrington resigned as Foreign Secretary in 1982. The elected status of members of the Commons, as opposed to the unelected nature of members of the Lords, is seen to lend more legitimacy to ministers. The Prime Minister chooses the Ministers, and may decide to remove them at any time; the formal appointment or dismissal, however, is made by the Sovereign. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Leader of the House of Lords is a function in the British government that is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, most often Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. ... Lord Carrington wearing his robes as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter, in procession to St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter. ...


The House of Commons scrutinises the Government through "Question Time," during which members have the opportunity to ask questions of the Prime Minister and of other cabinet ministers. Prime Minister's question time occurs once each week, normally for a half-hour each Wednesday. Questions must relate to the responding Minister's official Government activities, not to his or her activities as a party leader or as a private Member of Parliament. Customarily, members of the Government party and members of the Opposition alternate when asking questions. In addition to questions asked orally during Question Time, Members of Parliament may also make inquiries in writing. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In practice, the House of Commons' scrutiny of the Government is fairly weak. Since the first-past-the-post electoral system is employed, the governing party tends to enjoy a large majority in the Commonsm, and there is often little need to compromise with other parties. Modern British political parties are so tightly organised that they leave relatively little room for free action by their MPs. Thus, during the 20th century, the Government has lost confidence issues only thrice — twice in 1924, and once in 1979. However, the threat of rebellions by their own party's backbench MPs often forces Governments to make concessions (recently over top-up fees and foundation hospitals). Occasionally the Government is defeated by backbench rebellions (Terrorism Act 2006). However, the scrutiny provided by the Select Committees is more serious. Top-up fees (not their official name) are a new way of charging tuition to undergraduate and PGCE students who study at universities in the United Kingdom from the 2006-2007 academic year onwards. ... Foundation Hospitals are a scheme created by the Labour Party and Prime Minister Tony Blair to improve the provision of healthcare in the UK. The program is designed to designate the best hospitals as Foundation Hospitals and grant them greater feedom, particularly with regard to their budgets. ... Charles Clarke as former Home Secretary held primary responsibility for the Terrorism Bill The Terrorism Act is a UK Act made law on March 30, 2006, after being introduced on October 12, 2005. ...


The House of Commons technically retains the power to impeach Ministers of the Crown (or any other subject, even if not a public officer) for their crimes. Impeachments are tried by the House of Lords, where a simple majority is necessary to convict. The power of impeachment, however, has fallen into disuse: the House of Commons exercises its checks on the Government through other means, such as No Confidence Motions; the last impeachment was that of Viscount Melville in 1806. Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville (April 28, 1742 - May 28, 1811) was a British statesman. ...


Latest election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 5 May 2005 House of Commons of the United Kingdom election results
Parties
This table indicates those parties with over 500 votes nationwide
Seats Gains Losses Net
Gain/Loss
Seats % Votes % Votes +/-
Labour 356 0 47 -47 55.2 35.3 9,562,122 -5.5%
Conservative 198 36 3 +33 30.7 32.3 8,772,598 +0.6%
Liberal Democrat 62 16 5 +11 9.6 22.1 5,981,874 +3.7%
UK Independence 0 0 0 0 0 2.2 603,298 +0.8%
Scottish National Party 6 2 0 +2 0.9 1.5 412,267 -0.3%
Green 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 257,758 +0.4%
Democratic Unionist 9 4 0 +4 1.4 0.9 241,856 +0.2%
British National Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 192,746 +0.5%
Plaid Cymru 3 0 1 -1 0.5 0.6 174,838 -0.1%
Sinn Féin 5 1 0 +1 0.8 0.6 174,530 -0.1%
Ulster Unionist 1 0 5 -5 0.2 0.5 127,414 -0.3%
Social Democratic and Labour 3 1 1 0 0.5 0.5 125,626 -0.1%
Independent 1 1 0 0 0.2 0.5 122,000 +0.1%
Respect 1 1 0 +1 0.2 0.3 68,094 N/A
Scottish Socialist 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 43,514 -0.1%
Veritas 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 40,481 N/A
Alliance 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 28,291 0.0%
Scottish Green Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 25,760 +0.1%
Socialist Labour 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 20,192 0.0%
Liberal 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 19,068 0.0%
Health Concern 1 0 0 0 0.2 0.1 18,739 0.0%
English Democrats 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 14,506 N/A
Socialist Alternative 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 9,398 N/A
National Front 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 8,029 N/A
Legalise Cannabis 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 6,985 0.0%
Community Action 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 6,557 N/A
Monster Raving Loony 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 6,311 0.0%
Christian Vote 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 4,004 N/A
Mebyon Kernow 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 3,552 0.0%
Forward Wales 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 3,461 N/A
Christian Peoples 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 3,291 N/A
Rainbow Dream Ticket 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,463 N/A
Community Group 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,365 N/A
Ashfield Independents 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2,292 N/A
Alliance for Green Socialism 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,978 N/A
Residents' Association of London 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,850 N/A
Workers' Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,669 0.0%
Socialist Environmental 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,649 N/A
Scottish Unionist 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,266 0.0%
Workers' Revolutionary 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,143 0.0%
New England 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,224 N/A
Communist 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,124 0.0%
The Community (Hounslow) 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,118 N/A
Peace and Progress 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,036 N/A
Scottish Senior Citizens 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,017 N/A
Your Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 1,006 N/A
SOS! Northampton 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 932 N/A
Independent Working Class 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 892 N/A
Democratic Labour 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 770 N/A
British Public Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 763 N/A
Free Scotland Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 743 N/A
Pensioners Party Scotland 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 716 N/A
Publican Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 678 N/A
English Independence Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 654 N/A
Socialist Unity 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 581 N/A
Local Community Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 570 N/A
Clause 28 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 516 N/A
UK Community Issues Party 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 502 N/A
Total 646 27,110,727

is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom Independence Party (commonly known as UKIP, pronounced //) is a British political party. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... Ceredigion is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Newry and Armagh is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... North Down is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Creation 1922 MP Alasdair McDonnell Party Social Democratic and Labour Type House of Commons Districts Belfast, Castlereagh EP constituency Northern Ireland Belfast South is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Newry and Armagh is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Blaenau Gwent is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Blaenau Gwent is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bethnal Green and Bow is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Bethnal Green and Bow is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a radical left-wing Scottish political party which campaigns on a socialist economic platform and for Scottish independence. ... Veritas is a political party in the United Kingdom, formed in February 2005 by politician-celebrity Robert Kilroy-Silk following a split from the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP). ... The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the Green party of Scotland, and a full member of the European Federation of Green Parties. ... The Socialist Labour Party (SLP) is a small left-wing political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Party is a minor United Kingdom political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wyre Forest is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The English Democrats Party is the largest English Nationalist political party in England committed to the formation of a devolved English Parliament with at least the same powers as those granted to the Scottish Parliament. ... The Socialist Party is a Trotskyist political party active in England and Wales and part of the Committee for a Workers International. ... The British National Front (most commonly called the National Front) is a British far right political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... The Community NO Action Party is a British political party mostly active in WIGAN BRYN and Greater Manchester. ... The Official Monster Raving Loony Party (OMRLP) is a registered political party established in the United Kingdom in 1983 by musician and anti-politician David Sutch, also known as Screaming Lord Sutch (1940-1999). ... Operation Christian Vote (OCV) is a minor British Political Party founded in May 2004. ... Mebyon Kernow (Cornish for Sons of Cornwall, often abbrieviated MK) is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Forward Wales (or Cymru Ymlaen in Welsh) is a political party operating in Wales. ... Logo of the Christian Peoples Alliance The Christian Peoples Alliance is a minor political party operating in the United Kingdom. ... Vote For Yourself Rainbow Dream Ticket is a United Kingdom Political party which advocates the abolition of parliament in favour of devolution to city states and decision-making by referendum. ... Community Group are a political party in the United Kingdom whose representative Martin Williams contested the constituency of Doncaster North at the 2005 general election, receiving 2,365 votes (the elected Labour MP, Ed Miliband, received 19,788 votes). ... Ashfield Independents are a political party in the United Kingdom whose representative, Roy Adkins, contested the 2005 general election in the constituency of Ashfield, obtaining 2,292 votes (the elected Labour MP, Geoff Hoon, received 20,433 votes). ... The Alliance for Green Socialism is a socialist grouping based in Leeds in the United Kingdom. ... The Residents Association of London is a minor political party in the United Kingdom, based in the London Borough of Havering, where its member Malvin Brown holds a seat on the council. ... The Workers Party (in Irish Páirtí na nOibrithe) is an Irish left wing political party that evolved from Official Sinn Féin. ... The Socialist Environmental Alliance (SEA) are a minor political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Logo of the current Workers Revolutionary Party The Workers Revolutionary Party is a small Trotskyist political party in the United Kingdom. ... New England Party are a political party in the United Kingdom whose representative Michael Tibby contested the constituency of Dartford at the 2005 general election, receiving 1,224 votes (the elected Labour MP, Howard Stoate, received 19,909 votes). ... The Communist Party of Britain, which claims to have around 900 members, is the largest Communist party in the United Kingdom. ... The Community Group, also known as the Independent Community Group (ICG), and registered with the Electoral Commission as The Community (London Borough of Hounslow), is a small political party based in Isleworth, in the London Borough of Hounslow. ... Peace and Progress Party A British political party founded by Vanessa Redgrave to campaign for human rights, Peace and Progress has been seen as an-anti SWP version of RESPECT. Combining members like the Redgraves from the traditional Trotskyist mileau with others from the media and legal fields, the party... The Scottish Senior Citizens Unity Party (SSCUP) were formed in February 2003, in time to contest that years elections to the Scottish Parliament. ... Your Party was formed at the beginning of 2004. ... Logo of the Independent Working Class Association The Independent Working Class Association (IWCA) is a small working class political party in Britain with the avowed aim of promoting the political and economic interests of the working class, regardless of the consequences to existing political and economic structures. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Pensioners Party are a minor political party operating in Scotland. ... Publican Party - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Socialist Green Unity Coalition is an electoral alliance formed by leftist parties and political organisations in Great Britain to contest English and Welsh seats in the 2005 parliamentary election. ... The Local Community Party is a minor political party in England, based in Tameside. ... Clause 28 Childrens Protection Christian Democrats are a very minor political party in the United Kingdom. ... The UK Community Issues Party is a minor political party based in North West Surrey and [[South West London. ...

Current composition

Affiliation Members
  Labour Party 353 1 2 3
  Conservative Party 195 3
  Liberal Democrats 63 2
  Democratic Unionist Party 9
  Scottish National Party 6
  Sinn Féin 5 4
  Plaid Cymru 3
  Social Democratic and Labour Party 3
  Independents
1 5
  Independent Labour
1 1
  Ulster Unionist Party 1
  RESPECT The Unity Coalition 1
  Health Concern
1
  Speaker and Deputies
4 6
  Vacant
0
 Total
646
 Government Majority
64

This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Graphical Representation of the House of Commons This is a comparison of the party strengths in the British House of Commons. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... Plaid Cymru (IPA:; English: ; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Clare Short (born 15 February 1946) is a British politician and a member of the British Labour Party. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (John) Quentin Davies (born 29 May 1944) is a British Labour Party politician, and Member of Parliament for Grantham and Stamford. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Abstentionism is the policy of seeking election to a body while refusing to take up the seats or even sitting in an alternative assembly. ... David Clifford Davies, some times known as Dai Davies, (born 26 November 1959) is the Independent MP for Blaenau Gwent. ... Two by-elections are to be held for the constituency of Blaenau Gwent in Wales following the death of Member of Parliament and Assembly Member Peter Law on April 25, 2006. ... Dr Richard Thomas Taylor (born July 7, 1934) is an English medical doctor turned politician, and an independent Member of Parliament for Wyre Forest, having run as the Independent Kidderminster Hospital and Health Concern candidate. ...

The chamber in film and television

In 1986, the British television production company Granada Television created a near-full size replica of the post-1950 House of Commons debating chamber at its studios in Manchester for use in its adaptation of the Jeffrey Archer novel First Among Equals. The set was highly convincing, and was retained after the production – since then, it has been used in nearly every British film and television production that has featured scenes set in the chamber. From 1988 until 1999 it was also one of the prominent attractions on the Granada Studios Tour, where visitors could watch actors performing mock political debates on the set. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Not to be confused with Geoffrey Archer. ... First among Equals could refer to Primus inter pares, a political concept or First Among Equals, a novel by Jeffrey Archer ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Granada Studios Tour was an entertainment complex in Castlefield, Manchester operating from 1988 to 1999. ...


In 2002 the set was purchased by the scriptwriter Paul Abbott so that it could be used in his BBC drama serial State of Play. Abbott, a former Granada Television staff writer, bought it personally as the set would otherwise have been destroyed and he feared it would take too long to get the necessary money from the BBC. He currently keeps it in storage in Oxford.[2] Paul Abbott (born February 22, 1960 in Burnley, Lancashire) is an English television scriptwriter, who has worked on many popular series, including Coronation Street, Cracker and Shameless, the latter of which he created. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... State of Play is a British television drama serial, first broadcast on BBC One in 2003. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


A stage mock-up of the House of Commons also features in the political satire Restart by Komedy Kollective, about a British prime minister seeking re-election. In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ...


The House of Commons is also featured in the Robin Williams stand-up special "Robin Williams Live on Broadway" in which he describes it as "like Congress, but with a two drink minimum."


The pre-1941 Chamber was recreated in Shepperton Studios for the Ridley Scott/Richard Loncraine 2002 biopic on Churchill, The Gathering Storm. Shepperton Studios, located in Shepperton, Middlesex, England is a film studio with a long history of film making. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... Richard Loncraine Richard Loncraine is a director of movies and TV. He also invented the chrome version of the popular desk item Newtons cradle. ... A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... The Gathering Storm is a BAFTA and Emmy award winning BBC television biographical movie about Winston Churchills life in the years just prior to World War II. The title of the film is the same as the title of the first volume of Churchills largely autobiographical six-volume...


The Commons Chamber (post 1941) was also used in the film Ali G in Da House.


See also

In the Westminster System, an adjournment debate is a debate on the motion, That this House do now adjourn. ... Early day motion is a phrase used in the Westminster system for motions tabled by Members of Parliament for debate on an early day. In practice, they are never debated but are mostly used for MPs to publicise and express support for their own pet projects. ... Father of the House is a term that has by tradition been unofficially bestowed on certain members of some national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... In the British House of Commons, members of the House elected at a by-election must be formally introduced to the House. ... Speaker Denisons rule is an explanation given by a 19th century Speaker of the British House of Commons, John Evelyn Denison, as to why the Speaker casts his or her vote in most cases in favour of, rather than against, a government, where they have the casting vote. ... The House of Commons Library is the library and information resource of the lower house of the British Parliament. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... // see also: Baby of the House Of those whose age can be verified, the youngest MP since the Reform Act 1832[1] was Esmond Harmsworth, elected on 15 November 1919 from Isle of Thanet aged 21 years 170 days. ...

References

  1. ^ in 1963, Sir Alec Douglas-Home was a member of the Lords when chosen as Prime minister, however he entered the commons before taking office
  2. ^ Abbott, Paul. Audio commentary on the DVD release of State of Play. BBC Worldwide. BBCDVD 1493.
  • Farnborough, T. E. May, 1st Baron. (1896). Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George the Third, 11th ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • Mackenzie, K.R., "The English Parliament", (1950) Pelican Books.
  • "Parliament" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Pollard, Albert F. (1926). The Evolution of Parliament, 2nd ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • Porritt, Edward, and Annie G. Porritt. (1903). The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation before 1832. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Raphael, D. D., Donald Limon, and W. R. McKay. (2004). Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice, 23rd ed. London: Butterworths Tolley.

Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... A major selling point of DVD video is that its storage capacity allows for a wide variety of extra features in addition to the feature film itself. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... State of Play is a British television drama serial, first broadcast on BBC One in 2003. ... BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly-owned commercial subsidiary of the British Broadcasting Corporation, formed out of a restructuring of its predecessor BBC Enterprises in 1995. ... Kenneth R. Mackenzie (1908-1990) was a British scholar and parliamentary clerk. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 51°29′59.6″N, 0°07′28.8″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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