FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > British Honduras
British Honduras
1871 – 1981 Flag of Belize

Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Motto (Latin) Under the Shade I Flourish Anthem Land of the Free Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Belmopan Largest city Belize City Official languages English (and Spanish)1 Government Commonwealth Realm  -  Monarch Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Colville Young  -  Prime Minister Said Musa Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Date... Image File history File links British_Honduras_flag. ...


Flag

Capital Belize City
Language(s) English
Government Constitutional monarchy
History
 - Established 1871
 - Disestablished 1981
Area 22,966 km2
8,867 sq mi
Currency British Honduran dollar
Flag of British Honduras

British Honduras was the former name of what is now the independent nation of Belize and was a British colony on the east coast of Central America, adjacent to the southeast of Mexico. First settled by Europeans in the seventeenth century, it was a crown colony from 1871 through 1964, when it became self-governing. Belize became fully independent from the United Kingdom in 1981. Belize was the last continental possession of the United Kingdom in the Americas. Image File history File links LocationBelize. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Belize City, Belize is the largest city of the Central American nation Belize, and its former capital. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... ISO 4217 Code BZD User(s) Belize Inflation 3% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... Image File history File links British_Honduras_flag. ... Image File history File links British_Honduras_flag. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

History of the colony

Establishment and territorial disputes

The first European settlement of British Honduras was by British loggers in 1638. The colony was of value to the British Empire for production of dyes and for mahogany lumber, used in vessels of the Royal Navy. Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An example of Mahogany The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood, originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, sometimes referred to as Spanish or Cuban Mahogany. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


The colony was frequently attacked by neighbouring Spanish settlers throughout the 17th and 18th centuries due to economic rivalry and the territorial claim of Spain to the entire colony. In one notable clash in April 1754, a small British force of 250 men repelled an invasion by a Spanish expeditionary force of 1,500. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, Spain finally recognized the right of British settlers to log the territory, which logging rights were further confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles (1783). Significantly, Spain did not surrender its territorial claim in either treaty. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ...


The treaties did little to abate the warfare between British and Spanish colonists. A Spanish attack on September 15, 1779 led to the destruction of Belize City and the taking of many prisoners to Havana, Cuba. In 1797, war broke out between Great Britain and Spain, leading to an increase of Spanish attacks on the colony. With Royal Navy support, the British settlers finally won a decisive victory over the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye on September 10, 1798. September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Belize City, Belize is the largest city of the Central American nation Belize, and its former capital. ... Nickname: (Spanish) City of Columns Position of Havana in Cuba Coordinates: Country Cuba Province Ciudad de La Habana Administrative Divisions 15 Founded 1515a Government  - President of the Peoples Power Provincial Assembly Juan Contino Aslán Area  - City 721. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of St. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the Gregorian calendar (254th in leap years). ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


As British loggers moved into the interior of the colony in search of mahogany, they came into contact with the native Maya people. Eventually, this led to conflict, with the Maya attempting to evict British loggers and troops from their forest lands in many clashes during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One Maya attack in 1866 successfully captured a logging camp and routed a small British force, causing panic among the colonists. An unsuccessful attack on a British fort at Orange Walk in 1872 marked the last significant Maya attack on the British. this article concerns in particular the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Orange Walk Town is the second largest town in the nation of Belize, with a population of about 14,000. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The breakup of the Spanish Empire in the New World (1811-1822) did not end the territorial dispute regarding the Spanish claim. The colony's neighbor to the west, the newly independent Republic of Guatemala, saw itself as the heir to the Spanish claim. In 1859, the United Kingdom and Guatemala formed a treaty acknowledging British sovereignty and establishing a boundary between the republic and the colony. The treaty in part provided that the parties would co-operate in building a road between Belize City and Guatemala City. In 1940 Guatemala abrogated this treaty, asserting lack of co-operation by the British on the road project, and renewed its claim. Guatemala on several occasions thereafter threatened to resolve the matter by military invasion, but unlike the Spanish before them, did not attempt to do so. Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Guatemala City (in full, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción; locally known as Guatemala or Guate) is the capital and largest city of the nation of Guatemala. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Guatemalan claim delayed the independence of the colony, renamed Belize in 1973, until intervention by the United Nations in 1980, which adopted a resolution demanding independence for Belize. Belize formally declared its independence on September 21, 1981. Guatemala refused to extend diplomatic recognition to Belize until 1991. As of October, 2006, a boundary dispute still exists between Belize and Guatemala. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Administration

Before 1884 the colonial administration of British Honduras was rather haphazard. In the early days, the colonists governed themselves under a public meeting system, similar to the town meeting system used in New England. A set of regulations called "Burnaby's Code" was adopted in 1765, which continued in force until 1840, when an Executive Council was created. Also in 1840, the colony formally became known as British Honduras, although it was also referred to as "the Belize". In 1853 the public meeting system was abandoned in favor of a Legislative Assembly, part of which was elected by a restricted franchise. The Assembly was presided over by the British Superintendent, an office created in 1784. Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A town meeting is a meeting where an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political or administrative purpose. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


From 1749 until 1884, British Honduras was governed as a dependency of the British colony of Jamaica. Upon its designation as a crown colony in 1871, a Lieutenant Governor under the Governor of Jamaica replaced the Superintendent, and a nominated Legislative Council replaced the Legislative Assembly. When the colony was finally severed from the administration of Jamaica in 1884, the colony gained its own Governor. Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Dependency has a number of meanings: In project management, a dependency is a link amongst a projects terminal elements. ...


In 1935 legislative franchise was reintroduced with a lower income qualification. Universal adult franchise was adopted in 1954, and a majority of seats in the legislature were made elective. A ministerial system was introduced in 1961, and the colony achieved Self Government status in 1964. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Economy

Forestry dominated the economy of British Honduras. Initially, the focus was upon logwood, which was used in dye manufacture. Falling prices for logwood in the 1770s led to a shift toward logging mahogany, which would dominate the economy until the mid-twentieth century. As the logging of mahogany was far more labor intensive, this also led to a significant increase of the importation of African slaves to the colony, mainly from Britain's Caribbean colonies. Due largely to extremely harsh working conditions the colony experienced four slave revolts; the first in 1765, and the last in 1820. Slavery was finally abolished in 1838. Exports of mahogany continued as an economic mainstay, as commercial agriculture remained unprofitable due to unfavorable colonial tax policies and trade restrictions. Binomial name Haematoxylum campechianum The Logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum) was once an important source of red dye. ... Events and Trends For more events, see 18th century United States Declaration of Independence ratified by the Continental Congress (July 4, 1776). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... West Indian redirects here. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ...


The lack of diversification in the economy left the colony very susceptible to swings in the mahogany market. The Great Depression of the 1930s, and an especially destructive hurricane in 1931, further depressed the economy and already low living conditions. From 1914 on, the forestry industry was in steady decline, outside of a brief revival during World War II (1939-1945). In the 1950s agriculture finally became a dominant part of economy, and in the 1970s fishing became significant. Land reform after World War II aided this expansion of the ecomony. Diversification is a measure of the commonality of a population. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) is an often-controversial type of government-initiated or government-backed real estate property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. ...


People

By the time of the colony's 1790 census, three-fourths of the population of British Honduras were African slaves. These slaves were ancestors of the Garifuna and Creole peoples of modern Belize. However, the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, high death rates, and low birth rates substantially reduced the ethnic African portion of the population. The white portion of the population remained consistently at around 10%. The largest portion of the population became the Mestizo people, now about 50% of modern Belize. The Mayans are still present in Belize, at around 11%. Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Garífuna is a spanish term for the people and language of the Garínagu. ... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ...


The population of the colony was always fairly small. In 1790, it was around 4,000. In 1856, it was estimated to be 20,000. By 1931, this grew to just over 50,000; and in 1946 to just under 60,000. However, by 1970 the population doubled to just under 120,000. On the eve of independence in 1980, the population stood at over 145,000. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: British Honduras (1356 words)
At present, under the vicar Apostolic, Right Reverend Frederick C. Hopkins, S.J., titular Bishop of Athribis, the vicariate is ministered to by 6 priests, all members of the Society of Jesus, under the immediate jurisdiction of the Missouri province, assisted by four clerics not priests, and by four lay brothers, all of the same society.
The territory long known as British Honduras was originally part of the Spanish claim, but in the first half of the seventeenth century was settled by English adventurers, mostly of the buccaneering type, without even pretence of legal right.
At length, in 1893, in response to the general desire of the Catholics of the territory, British Honduras was made a vicariate, and the prefect Apostolic appointed vicar Apostolic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m