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Encyclopedia > British Empire
The British Empire in 1897, marked in the traditional colour for imperial British dominions on maps
The British Empire in 1897, marked in the traditional colour for imperial British dominions on maps
An anachronous map of British and, prior to the Acts of Union 1707, English imperial possessions

The British Empire was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the maritime explorations of the 15th century, that sparked the era of the European colonial empires. By 1921, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, approximately one-quarter of the world's population.[1] It covered about 36.7 million km² (14.2 million square miles),[2] about a quarter of Earth's total land area. As a result, its legacy is widespread, in legal and governmental systems, economic practice, militarily, educational systems, sports, and in the global spread of the English language. At the peak of its power, it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous colonies or subject nations.[3] An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // The Spanish-Portuguese empire in the period of personal union under the Habsburgs (1581-1640) Red/Pink - Spanish Empire Blue/Light Blue - Portuguese Empire The phrase The Empire on which the sun never sets (Spanish: ) was first used to describe the Spanish Empire in the 16th century, and originates with... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ...


During the five decades following World War II, most of the territories of the Empire became independent. Many went on to join the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

Contents

Origins (1497–1583)

The foundations of the British Empire were laid at a time before the Kingdom of Great Britain existed as a single sovereign state, when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496 King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Portugal and Spain in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, and though he successfully made landfall on the coast of Canada (mistakenly believing, like Christopher Columbus five years earlier, that he had reached Asia[4]), no attempt at establishing a colony was made, and the voyage was unprofitable. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard from his ships again. In 1551, the Company of Merchant Adventurers, later renamed the Muscovy Company, was founded by Richard Chancellor and others, to open trade with Russia and probe the Northeast Passage to China. For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) The Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Richard Chancellor (birth date unknown — 1556) was an English explorer; the first to penetrate to the White Sea and establish relations with Russia. ... The Northern Sea Route (Russian Северный морской путь) is a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast of Russia. ...


Enmity and rivalry between Roman Catholic Spain and Protestant England during the Anglo-Spanish Wars led to the English Crown sanctioning English privateers such as John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake to engage in piratical attacks on Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World. At the same time, influential writers such as Richard Hakluyt and John Dee (who was the first to use the term "British Empire"[5]) were beginning to press for the establishment of England's own empire, to rival those of Spain and Portugal. By this time, Spain was firmly entrenched in the Americas, Portugal had established a string of trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River, later to become New France. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Combatants Spain England Dutch Republic Commanders Philip II, Philip III, Marquis of Santa Cruz, Duke of Medina Sidonia, Duke of Parma Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, John Hawkins, Earl of Leicester The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England, which was never... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Richard Hakluyt (~1552 - November 23, 1616) was an English writer, famous for his Voyages which provided William Shakespeare and others with material. ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


Plantations of Ireland

Though a relative latecomer to overseas colonisation in comparison to Spain and Portugal, England had been engaged in a form of domestic colonisation[6] in Ireland that had begun during Norman times and accelerated with the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland and Cromwellian conquest.[7] The Plantations of Ireland, run by English colonists, were a precursor to the overseas Empire,[8][9] and several people involved in these projects also had a hand in the early colonisation of North America, particularly a group known as the "West Country men",[10] which included Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, Sir Richard Grenville and Sir Ralph Lane. After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Irish Catholics were dispossessed of their land, and replaced with a Protestant landowning class from England and Scotland. The new Protestant ruling class was known as the Protestant Ascendancy. Catholics and, to a lesser extent, Presbyterians were discriminated against under the Penal Laws. Combatants Normans: Leinster,  England,  Fleming,  Welsh, Irish Kingdoms: Ulster, Munster Connaught  Norsemen Commanders Dermot MacMurrough, King Henry II, Strongbow, Raymond Carew, Richard Fitz Godbert Rhys ap Gruffydd, Maurice Fitz Gerald, Robert Fitz Stephen, Rory OConnor Askuluv Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... For other persons named John Hawkins, see John Hawkins (disambiguation). ... Sir Richard Grenville (June 6, 1542 – September 10, 1591) (sp. ... Sir Ralph Lane (~1530 - 1603) was an English explorer of the Elizabethan era. ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual...


"First British Empire" (1583–1783)

Plaque in St. John's, Newfoundland, commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British overseas Empire
Plaque in St. John's, Newfoundland, commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British overseas Empire

In 1578 Sir Humphrey Gilbert was granted a patent by Queen Elizabeth I for discovery and overseas exploration, and set sail for the West Indies with the intention of first engaging in piracy and on the return voyage, establishing a colony in North America. The expedition failed at the outset due to bad weather. In 1583 Gilbert embarked on a second attempt, on this occasion to the island of Newfoundland where he formally claimed for England the harbour of St. John's, though no settlers were left behind to colonise it. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleigh, who was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in 1584, in the same year founding the colony of Roanoke on the coast of present-day North Carolina. The colony did not survive due to lack of supplies. Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... North American redirects here. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... Lost Colony redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


In 1603, King James VI of Scotland ascended to the English throne and in 1604 negotiated the Treaty of London, ending hostilities with Spain. Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructure to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies.[11] Although its beginnings were hit-and-miss, the British Empire began to take shape during the early 17th century, with the English settlement of North America and the smaller islands of the Caribbean, and the establishment of a private company, the English East India Company, to trade with Asia. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the United States Declaration of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to as the "First British Empire".[12] James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... The Somerset House Conference. ... North American redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


The Americas

British colonies in North America, c. 1750. 1: Newfoundland; 2: Nova Scotia; 3: The Thirteen Colonies; 4: Bermuda; 5: Bahamas; 6: British Honduras; 7: Jamaica; 8: Lesser Antilles
British colonies in North America, c. 1750. 1: Newfoundland; 2: Nova Scotia; 3: The Thirteen Colonies; 4: Bermuda; 5: Bahamas; 6: British Honduras; 7: Jamaica; 8: Lesser Antilles

The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,[13] but not before several attempts at colonisation failed. An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in 1604 lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits.[14] Colonies in St Lucia (1605) and Grenada (1609) also rapidly folded, but settlements were successfully established in St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627) and Nevis (1628). The colonies soon adopted the system of sugar plantations successfully used by the Portuguese in Brazil, which depended on slave labour, and—at first—Dutch ships, to sell the slaves and buy the sugar. To ensure that the increasingly healthy profits of this trade remained in English hands, Parliament decreed in 1651 that only English ships would be able to ply their trade in English colonies. This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces—a series of Anglo-Dutch Wars—which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch. In 1655 England annexed the island of Jamaica from the Spanish, and in 1666 succeeded in colonising the Bahamas. British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... [--168. ... Flag Capital Belize City Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy History  - Established 1871  - Disestablished 1981 Area 22,966 km2 8,867 sq mi Currency British Honduran dollar Flag of British Honduras British Honduras was the former name of what is now the independent nation of Belize and was a British... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... West Indies redirects here. ... British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... For other uses, see Nevis (disambiguation). ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Slave redirects here. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Belligerents Dutch Republic Denmark England France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Maarten Tromp The Duke of York Robert Blake Jean II dEstrées Strength Dutch Republic 600 warships 1,500 Marines 50 soldiers Denmark-Norway Fortress, 250 soilders England 650 warships 300 soldiers France 60 ships Casualties and losses Dutch... [--168. ...


England's first permanent overseas settlement was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, led by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company, an offshoot of which established a colony on Bermuda, which had been discovered in 1609. The Company's charter was revoked in 1624 and direct control was assumed by the crown, thereby founding the Colony of Virginia. The Newfoundland Company was created in 1610 with the aim of creating a permanent settlement on Newfoundland, but was largely unsuccessful. In 1620, Plymouth was founded as a haven for puritan religious separatists, later known as the Pilgrims. Fleeing from religious persecution would become the motive of many English would-be colonists to risk the arduous trans-Atlantic voyage: Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics (1634), Rhode Island (1636) as a colony tolerant of all religions and Connecticut (1639) for congregationalists. The Province of Carolina was founded in 1663. In 1664, England gained control of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (renamed New York) via negotiations following the Second Anglo-Dutch War, in exchange for Suriname.. In 1681, the colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbor. ... Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 Captain/Sir John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ... A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... The London and Bristol Company came about in the early 1600’s when English merchants had begun to express an interest in the Newfoundland fishery. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... For the similarly named rock band, see TransAtlantic. ... A map of the Province of Maryland. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Baptist minister fleeing from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Belligerents Dutch Republic Denmark England France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Maarten Tromp The Duke of York Robert Blake Jean II dEstrées Strength Dutch Republic 600 warships 1,500 Marines 50 soldiers Denmark-Norway Fortress, 250 soilders England 650 warships 300 soldiers France 60 ships Casualties and losses Dutch... A map of the Province of Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ...

The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West. The defeat of the French by Wolfe's forces foreshadowed British ascendancy in North America.
The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West. The defeat of the French by Wolfe's forces foreshadowed British ascendancy in North America.

In 1695 the Scottish parliament granted a charter to the Company of Scotland, which proceeded in 1698 to establish a settlement on the isthmus of Panama, with a view to building a canal there. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granada, as well as by malaria, the colony was abandoned two years later. The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland as a quarter of Scottish capital was lost in the enterprise. This episode is viewed as a major factor in persuading the Scottish Parliament to accept the terms of the Treaty of Union 1707 as the new Kingdom of Great Britain would take responsibility for some of Scotland's debts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1441, 306 KB) Year 1770 Technique de: Öl auf Leinwand en: Oil on canvas Dimensions de: 151 × 213 cm Current location de: National Gallery of Canada, de: Ottawa Source The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by artist Benjamin West depicting the final moments of General James Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham during the 1759 Battle of Quebec. ... Self Portrait of Benjamin West, ca. ... The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies was an overseas trading company created by an act of the Scots Parliament in 1695. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... New Granada can mean: the English rendering of any Spanish geographical or administrative name Nueva Granada, always named after the deep southern Spanish port city Granada, as in: the Spanish American colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada the post-colonial Republic of New Granada (1831 to 1856), which included modern Colombia... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... The Darien scheme (colony of New Caledonia), was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama in the 1690s. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...

The Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West (1783) depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British commissioners refused to pose, so the painting was never finished.
The Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West (1783) depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British commissioners refused to pose, so the painting was never finished.

The American colonies, which provided tobacco, cotton, and rice in the south and naval materiel and furs in the north, were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who were also more favorable of temperate climates.[15] The American Revolution resulted in de-facto self-government by 1775 for the Thirteen Colonies, which eventually declared their independence in 1776 to create the United States of America. The new nation was forced to defend that declaration against Britain in the American Revolutionary War, with victory on the battlefield resulting in recognition of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783). In the end, this became the first successful colonial war of independence.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Treaty_of_Paris_by_Benjamin_West_1783. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Treaty_of_Paris_by_Benjamin_West_1783. ... For other persons named John Jay, see John Jay (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American political figure. ... Henry Laurens Henry Laurens (1724–1792) was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... This article is about military actions only. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time, including such disparate peoples as the Hittites, the Incas and the British, although the term colonialism is normally used with reference to European overseas empires rather than land-based empires, European or otherwise, which are...


From the outset, slavery was a vital economic component of the British Empire in the Americas. Until the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, Britain was responsible for the transportation of 3.5 million African slaves to the Americas, a third of all slaves transported across the Atlantic.[17] To facilitate this trade, forts were established on the coast of West Africa, such as James Island, Accra and Bunce Island. In the British Caribbean, the percentage of the population comprising blacks rose from 25% in 1650 to around 80% in 1780, and in the Thirteen Colonies from 10% to 40% over the same period (the majority in the south).[18] For the slave traders, the trade was extremely profitable, and became a major economic mainstay for such western British cities as Bristol and Liverpool, which formed the third corner of the so-called triangular trade with Africa and the Americas. However, for the transportees, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the middle passage was one in seven. The profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.[19] Slave redirects here. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffure, The Gambia. ... Jamestown (or James Town) is a district in the city of Accra, Ghana. ... Plan of Bunce Island, 1726 Bunce Island (also spelled Bence, Bense, or Bance at different periods) is the site of an 18th century British slave castle in the Republic of Sierra Leone. ... West Indies redirects here. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... This article is about the slave trade route. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Asia

At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English (later British) and Dutch East India Companies, chartered in 1600 and 1602 respectively. The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice trade, and they focused their efforts on the source, the Indonesian archipelago, and an important hub in the trade network, India. The close proximity of London and Amsterdam across the North Sea and intense rivalry between England and the Netherlands inevitably led to conflict between the two companies, with the Dutch gaining the upper hand in the Moluccas (previously a Portuguese stronghold) after the withdrawal of the English in 1622, and the English enjoying more success in India, at Surat, after the establishment of a factory in 1613. Though England would ultimately eclipse the Netherlands as a colonial power, in the short term the Netherlands's more advanced financial system[20] and the three Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century left it with a stronger position in Asia. Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the Indonesian archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and by 1720, in terms of sales, the English company had overtaken the Dutch.[20] The English East India Company shifted its focus from Surat—a hub of the spice trade network—to Fort St George (later to become Madras), Bombay (ceded by the Portuguese to Charles II of England in 1661 as dowry for Catherine de Braganza) and Sutanuti (which would merge with two other villages to form Calcutta). For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Dutch Republic Denmark England France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Maarten Tromp The Duke of York Robert Blake Jean II dEstrées Strength Dutch Republic 600 warships 1,500 Marines 50 soldiers Denmark-Norway Fortress, 250 soilders England 650 warships 300 soldiers France 60 ships Casualties and losses Dutch... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Fort St George is the name of the first British fortress in India, built in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras (modern city of Chennai. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Catherine of Braganza. ... Sutanuti was one of the three villages which were merged to form the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in India. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Company rule in India

Main article: Company rule in India
Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey established the Company as a military as well as a commercial power
Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey established the Company as a military as well as a commercial power

During its first century of operation, the focus of the East India Company had been trade, not the building of an empire in India. Indeed, the Company was no match in the region for the powerful Mughal Empire,[21] which had granted the Company trading rights in 1617. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the British East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the La Compagnie française des Indes orientales, during the Carnatic Wars in southeastern India in the 1740s and 1750s. The Battle of Plassey, which saw the British, led by Robert Clive, defeat the French and their Indian allies, left the Company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force of the Indian Army, 80% of which was composed of native Indian sepoys. // The East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... French and other European settlements in India. ... The Carnatic Wars were a series of battles that took place in the Carnatic region of modern-day southern India between the British, French, Marathas and Mysore for control of the region in the late eighteenth century. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ...


Global struggles with France

Peace between England and the Netherlands in 1688 meant that the two countries entered the Nine Years' War as allies, but the conflict—waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget on the costly land war in Europe.[22] The 18th century would see England (after 1707, Britain) rise to be the world's dominant colonial power, and France becoming its main rival on the imperial stage.[23] The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between France and the... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to Philippe of Anjou, a grandson of the King of France, raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable state of affairs for Britain and the other powers of Europe. In 1701, Britain, Portugal and the Netherlands sided with the Holy Roman Empire against Spain and France in the War of the Spanish Succession. The conflict, which France and Spain were to lose, lasted until 1714. At the concluding peace Treaty of Utrecht, Philip renounced his and his descendents' right to the French throne. Spain lost its empire in Europe, and though it kept its empire in the Americas and the Philippines, it was irreversibly weakened as a power. The British Empire was territorially enlarged: from France, Britain gained Newfoundland and Acadia, and from Spain, Gibraltar and Minorca. Gibraltar, which is still a British overseas territory to this day, became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Minorca was returned to Spain at the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, after changing hands twice. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento (permission to sell slaves in Spanish America) to Britain. Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and the United Kingdom. ... In the history of slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning assent ) refers to the permission given by the Spanish government to other countries to sell slaves to the Spanish colonies, from the years 1543-1834. ...


The Seven Years' War, which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale, fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa. The signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763) had important consequences for Britain and its empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power there was effectively ended with the ceding of New France to Britain (leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control) and Louisiana to Spain. Spain ceded Florida to Britain. In India, the Carnatic War had left France still in control of its enclaves but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, effectively leaving the future of India to Britain. The British victory over France in the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's dominant colonial power.[24] For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Carnatic Wars were a series of battles that took place in the Carnatic region of modern-day southern India between the British, French, Marathas and Mysore for control of the region in the late eighteenth century. ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ...


Rise of the "Second British Empire" (1783–1815)

Loss of the Thirteen Colonies in America

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown (John Trumbull, 1797). The second British army to surrender in four years to the American revolutionaries, and the last significant military attempt to restore the Thirteen Colonies. The loss of the American colonies marked the end of the "first British Empire"
Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown (John Trumbull, 1797). The second British army to surrender in four years to the American revolutionaries, and the last significant military attempt to restore the Thirteen Colonies. The loss of the American colonies marked the end of the "first British Empire"

During the 1760s and 1770s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent,[25] summarised at the time by the slogan "No taxation without representation". Disagreement over the American colonist's guaranteed Rights as Englishmen turned to violence and, in 1775, the American Revolutionary War began. The following year, the colonists declared the independence of the United States and, with economic and naval assistance from France, would go on to win the war in 1783. Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... Image File history File links Yorktown80. ... This article is about the American painter. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... No taxation without representation was a slogan in the period 1763–1776 that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the thirteen American colonies. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about military actions only. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


The loss of such a large portion of British America, at the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,[26] in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal. The growth of trade between the newly independent United States and Britain after 1783[27] confirmed Smith's view that political control was not necessary for economic success. British America may refer to: British North America, former British possessions in North America north of the United States, eventually consolidating into Canada British overseas territories in the Americas; also see British West Indies This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ...


Events in America influenced British policy in Canada, which had seen a large influx of loyalists during the Revolutionary War. The Constitutional Act of 1791 created the provinces of Upper Canada (mainly English-speaking) and Lower Canada (mainly French-speaking) to defuse tensions between the two communities, and implemented governmental systems similar to those employed in Britain, with the intention of asserting imperial authority and not allowing the sort of popular control of government that was perceived to have led to the American Revolution.[28] The future of British North America was briefly threatened during the War of 1812 resulting in large part from British attempts to forcibly control Atlantic trade during the Napoleonic Wars, and in which the United States unsuccessfully took the opportunity to extend its border northwards. This was the last time that Britain and America went to war. The last major territorial dispute between the two countries, the Oregon boundary dispute, was settled peacefully in 1846. The Constitutional Act of 1791 was a British law which changed the government of the province of Quebec to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, known as the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Origins of the War of 1812 outlines the causes of the War of 1812. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also...


Australia and New Zealand

Since 1718, transportation to the American colonies had been a penalty for various criminal offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year across the Atlantic.[29] Forced to find an alternative location after the loss of the Thirteen Colonies in 1783, the British government turned to the newly discovered land of New South Wales, later shown to be a single land mass with New Holland, discovered in 1606 by the Dutch but never colonized, and again later altogether renamed Australia. NSW redirects here. ... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ...


In 1770 James Cook had discovered the eastern coast of Australia whilst on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific and named it New South Wales. In 1778 Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bay for the establishment of a penal settlement, and in 1787 the first shipment of convicts set sail, arriving in 1788. Matthew Flinders proved New Holland and New South Wales to be a single land mass by completing a circumnavigation of it in 1803. In 1826, Australia was formally claimed for the United Kingdom with the establishment of a military base, soon followed by a colony in 1829. The colonies later became self-governing colonies and became profitable exporters of wool and gold. This article is about the British explorer. ... Route of the first voyage of James Cook The First voyage of James Cook was the initial voyage of James Cook. ... The South Pacific is an area in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... NSW redirects here. ... For clothing store, see JoS. A. Bank Clothiers. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other Botany Bays see Botany Bay (disambiguation) Bicentennial Monument at Botany Bay Botany Bay is a bay in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, a few kilometers south of the central business district. ... A studio photograph of Tasmanian convict Bill Thompson, showing the convict uniform and the use of leg irons. ... Captain Matthew Flinders RN (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was one of the most successful navigators and cartographers of his age. ... NSW redirects here. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Abolition of slavery

Under increasing pressure from the abolitionist movement, the United Kingdom outlawed the slave trade (1807) and soon began enforcing this principle on other nations. By the mid-19th century the United Kingdom had largely eradicated the world slave trade. An act making not just the slave trade but slavery itself illegal was passed in 1833 and became law on August 1, 1834. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Slavery Abolition Act (citation ) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of the Pax Britannica
The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of the Pax Britannica

The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The battle of Waterloo, by William Sadler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ...

War with Napoleonic France

Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations.[30] It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened to invade Britain itself, like his armies had overrun many countries of continental Europe. The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navy, which won a decisive victory over the French fleet at Trafalgar in 1805. Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in 1810. France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in 1815. Britain and its empire were again the beneficiaries of peace treaties: France ceded the Ionian Islands (including Corfu) and Malta (which it had occupied in 1797 and 1798 respectively), St Lucia and Mauritius; Spain ceded Trinidad and Tobago; the Netherlands Guyana and the Cape Colony. Britain returned Guadeloupe and Réunion to France, and Java and Surinam to the Netherlands. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ... Capital Corfù[1] Largest city  - 1856 (est. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... This article is about the Java island. ... The Republic of Suriname, more commonly known as Suriname or Surinam, (formerly known as Netherlands Guiana and Dutch Guiana) is a country in northern South America, in between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. ...


The imperial century (1815–1914)

Between 1815 and 1914, a period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians,[31][32] around 10 million square miles of territory and roughly 400 million people were added to the British Empire.[33] Victory over Napoleon left Britain without any serious international rival, other than Russia in central Asia[34] and, unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica.[35] Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Britain's dominant position in world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many nominally independent countries, such as in Latin America, China and Siam, which has been characterised by some historians as an "informal empire"[36]. Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Siam redirects here. ...

An 1876 political cartoon of Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) making Queen Victoria Empress of India. The caption was "New crowns for old ones!"
An 1876 political cartoon of Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) making Queen Victoria Empress of India. The caption was "New crowns for old ones!"

Image File history File links Victoria_Disraeli_cartoon. ...

Asia

Until its dissolution in 1858, the East India Company was key in the expansion of the British Empire in Asia. The Company's Army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to cooperate in arenas outside of India: the eviction of Napoleon from Egypt (1799), the capture of Java from the Netherlands (1811), the acquisition of Singapore (1819) and Malacca (1824) and the defeat of Burma (1826).[34] This article is about the Java island. ... This article is about the state in Malaysia. ...


From its base in India, the Company had also been engaged in an increasingly profitable opium export trade to China since the 1730s. This trade, technically illegal since it was outlawed by the Qing dynasty in 1729, helped reverse the trade imbalances resulting from the British imports of tea, which saw large outflows of silver from Britain to China. In 1839, the seizure by the Chinese authorities at Canton of 20,000 chests of opium led Britain to attack China in the First Opium War, and the seizure by Britain of the island of Hong Kong (then a minor outpost) as a base. This article is about the drug. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British...


The end of the Company was precipitated by a mutiny of sepoys against their British commanders over the rumoured introduction of rifle cartridges lubricated with animal fat. Use of the cartridges, which required biting open before use, would have been in violation of the religious beliefs of Hindus and Muslims (had the fat been that of cows or pigs, respectively). However, the Indian Rebellion of 1857 had causes that went beyond the introduction of bullets: at stake was Indian culture and religion, in the face of the steady encroachment of that by the British. The rebellion was suppressed by the British, but not before heavy loss of life on both sides. As a result of the war, the British government assumed direct control over India, ushering in the period known as the British Raj. The East India Company was dissolved the following year, in 1858. Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy...


The Cape Colony

The Dutch East India Company had founded the Cape Colony on the southern tip of Africa in 1652 as a way station for its ships travelling to and from its colonies in the East Indies. Britain formally acquired the colony, and its large Afrikaner (or Boer) population in 1806, having occupied it in 1795 after the Netherlands was invaded by France. British immigration began to rise after 1820, and pushed thousands of Boers, resentful of British rule, northwards to found their own – mostly short-lived and independent republics during the Great Trek of the late 1830s and early 1840s. In the process the Voortrekkers clashed repeatedly with the British, who had their own agenda with regard to colonial expansion in South Africa and with several African polities, including the those of the Sotho and the Zulu nations. Eventually the Boers established two republics which had a longer lifespan: the South African Republic or Transvaal Republic (1852-1877; 1881-1902) and the Orange Free State (1854-1902). Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ... This article is about the migration in southern Africa. ... The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans for pioneers, literally those who move ahead or first/forward traveler) were white Afrikaner farmers, then known as Boers, who in the 1830s and 1840s emigrated during a series of mass movements of a number of separate trekking contingents under different leaders in what is called the... The Sotho-speaking people have lived in southern Africa since around 15th century. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Anthem Transvaalse Volkslied Location of the Transvaal in pre-1994 South Afica Capital Pretoria Language(s) Dutch, English, Afrikaans Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1857-1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius  - 1883-1902 Paul Kruger  - 1900-1902 Schalk Willem Burger (acting) History  - Established June 27, 1857  - British annexation 1877-1881... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ...


The Suez Canal

In 1875, the Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Ismail's 44% shareholding in the Suez Canal for £4 million to secure control of this strategic waterway, a channel for shipping between the United Kingdom and India since its opening six years earlier under Emperor Napoleon III. Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (December 21, 1804 – April 19, 1881), born Benjamin DIsraeli was a British Conservative statesman and literary figure. ... Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ...


Scramble for Africa

Main article: Scramble for Africa
The Rhodes Colossus- Cecil Rhodes spanning "Cape to Cairo"
The Rhodes Colossus- Cecil Rhodes spanning "Cape to Cairo"

In 1875 the two most important European holdings in Africa were French-controlled Algeria and the United Kingdom's Cape Colony. By 1914 only Ethiopia and the republic of Liberia remained outside formal European control. The transition from an "informal empire" of control through economic dominance to direct control took the form of a "scramble" for territory by the nations of Europe. The United Kingdom tried not to play a part in this early scramble, being more of a trading empire rather than a colonial empire; however, it soon became clear it had to gain its own African empire to maintain the balance of power.[citation needed] Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... The Rhodes Colossus Striding from Cape Town to Cairo (original caption) The Rhodes Colossus is an iconic editorial cartoon of the Scramble for Africa period, depicting British colonialist Cecil John Rhodes as a giant standing over the continent. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and a politician. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Cape Colony Capital Cape Town Language(s) English and Dutch1 Religion Dutch Reformed Church, Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Last Monarch King George VI Last Prime Minister  - 1908 – 1910 John X. Merriman Last Governor  - 1901 - 1910 Walter Hely-Hutchinson Historical era 19th century  - Dutch East India...


As French, Belgian and Portuguese activity in the lower Congo River region threatened to undermine orderly penetration of tropical Africa, the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 sought to regulate the competition between the powers by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims, a formulation which necessitated routine recourse to armed force against indigenous states and peoples.[37] The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ... For the Cold War conference see Berlin Conference of 1954. ...


The United Kingdom's 1882 military occupation of Egypt (itself triggered by concern over the Suez Canal) contributed to a preoccupation over securing control of the Nile valley, leading to the conquest of the neighbouring Sudan in 1896–98 and confrontation with a French military expedition at Fashoda (September 1898). For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of territorial disputes between imperial Britain and France in Eastern Africa. ...


In 1902 the United Kingdom completed its military occupation of the Transvaal and Free State by concluding a treaty with the two Boer Republics following the Second Boer War 1899-1902. The four colonies of Natal, Transvaal, Free State and Cape Province later merged in 1910 to form the Union of South Africa. The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent self-governed republics created by the Dutch-speaking (proto Afrikaans) inhabitants of the Cape of Good Hope and their descendants (variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers) in mainly the northern and eastern parts of what is now the... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


British gains in southern and East Africa prompted Cecil Rhodes, pioneer of British expansion from South Africa northward, to urge a "Cape-to-Cairo" British controlled empire linking by rail the strategically important Suez Canal to the mineral-rich South. In 1888 Rhodes with his privately owned British South Africa Company occupied and annexed territories which were called after him: Rhodesia between 1896 and 1980, when it became independent under the name Zimbabwe. Together with British High Commissioner in South Africa between 1897-1905, Alfred Milner, Rhodes pressured the British government for further expansion into Africa. German occupied territories in East Africa would hamper Rhodes’ Cape-to-Cairo-ambition until the end of World War I. In 1903, the All Red Line telegraph system communicated with the major parts of the Empire.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... All Red Line is an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked all the British Empire. ...


Paradoxically, the United Kingdom, the staunch advocate of free trade, emerged in 1914 with not only the largest overseas empire thanks to its long-standing presence in India, but also the greatest gains in the "scramble for Africa", reflecting its advantageous position at its inception. Between 1885 and 1914 the United Kingdom took nearly 30% of Africa's population under its control, compared to 15% for France, 9% for Germany, 7% for Belgium and 1% for Italy: Nigeria alone contributed fifteen million subjects, more than in the whole of French West Africa or the entire German colonial empire.[citation needed] Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ...


Home rule in white-settler colonies

The United Kingdom's empire had already begun its transformation into the modern Commonwealth with the extension of Dominion status to the already self-governing colonies of Canada (1867), Australia (1901), New Zealand (1907), Newfoundland (1907), and the newly created Union of South Africa (1910). Leaders of the new states joined with British statesmen in periodic Colonial (from 1907, Imperial) Conferences, the first of which was held in London in 1887. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The foreign relations of the Dominions were still conducted through the Foreign Office of the United Kingdom: Canada created a Department of External Affairs in 1909, but diplomatic relations with other governments continued to be channelled through the Governors-General, Dominion High Commissioners in London (first appointed by Canada in 1880 and by Australia in 1910) and British legations abroad. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... A legation was the term used in diplomacy to denote a diplomatic representative office lower than an embassy. ...


But the Dominions did enjoy a substantial freedom in their adoption of foreign policy where this did not explicitly conflict with British interests: Canada's Liberal government negotiated a bilateral free-trade Reciprocity Agreement with the United States in 1911, but went down to defeat by the Conservative opposition. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty, also known as the Elgin-Marcy Treaty, was a trade treaty between the colonies of British North America and the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In defence, the Dominions' original treatment as part of a single imperial military and naval structure proved unsustainable as the United Kingdom faced new commitments in Europe and the challenge of an emerging German High Seas Fleet after 1900. In 1909 it was decided that the Dominions should have their own navies, reversing an 1887 agreement that the then Australasian colonies should contribute to the Royal Navy in return for the permanent stationing of a squadron in the region. German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


World War I (1914–1918)

Britain's declaration of war in 1914 on Germany and its allies, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, also committed the colonies and Dominions, which provided invaluable military, financial and material support during the war. Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Germany's overseas colonies in Africa were invaded and occupied, though German forces in German East Africa remained undefeated during the war. In the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand occupied German New Guinea and Samoa respectively. The contributions of Australian and New Zealand troops during the 1915 Battle of Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire had a great impact on the national conscious at home, and marked a watershed in the transition of Australia and New Zealand from colonies to nations in their own right. The countries continue to commemorate this occasion on ANZAC Day. Canadians viewed the Battle of Vimy Ridge in a similar light.[38] In 1917, the Imperial War Cabinet was set up, with representation from each of the Dominion Prime Ministers, to coordinate imperial policy. The First World War placed enormous financial strain on Britain and its empire with resources, cash and foreign assets being diverted for the war. In 1914 Britain had £750,000,000[39] invested in the United States; by 1918 much of this had been sold in order to pay for the war effort. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ... Belligerents British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal Ottoman Empire German Empire[2] Austria-Hungary[3] Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Anzac Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. Anzac Day is also a public holiday in the Cook Islands, Niue, Samoa and... Belligerents Canada United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 5 Divisions 3 Divisions Casualties and losses 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military offensive of World War I by the... The Imperial War Cabinet in 1917 The Imperial War Cabinet was created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the spring of 1917 as a means of co-ordinating the British Empires military policy during the First World War. ...


Interwar period (1918–1939)

Map showing British Empire in 1921 coloured pink
Map showing British Empire in 1921 coloured pink

The aftermath of World War I saw the last major extension of British rule, with the United Kingdom gaining control through League of Nations Mandates in Palestine and Iraq after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East, as well as in the former German colonies of Tanganyika, South-West Africa (now Namibia) and New Guinea (the last two actually under South African and Australian rule respectively). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 43 KB) There is currently no text in this page. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the San Remo conference... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ...


The 1920s saw a rapid transformation of Dominion status. Although the Dominions had had no formal voice in declaring war in 1914, each was included separately among the signatories of the 1919 peace Treaty of Versailles, which had been negotiated by a British-led united Empire delegation. In 1922 Dominion reluctance to support British military action against Turkey influenced the United Kingdom's decision to seek a compromise settlement. The League of Nations deputed former German colonies to come under the control of the United Kingdom's colonies. For example, New Zealand took over the mandate of Western Samoa, Australia that of Rabaul and South Africa that of German South-West Africa. This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904...


Full Dominion independence was formalised in the 1931 Statute of Westminster: each Dominion was henceforth to be equal in status to the United Kingdom itself, free of British legislative interference and autonomous in international relations. The Dominions section created within the Colonial Office in 1907 was upgraded in 1925 to a separate Dominions Office and given its own Secretary of State in 1930. This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


Canada led the way, becoming the first Dominion to conclude an international treaty entirely independently (1923) and obtaining the appointment (1928) of a British High Commissioner in Ottawa, thereby separating the administrative and diplomatic functions of the Governor-General and ending the latter's anomalous role as the representative of the head of state and of the British Government. Canada's first permanent diplomatic mission to a foreign country opened in Washington, DC, in 1927: Australia followed in 1940. High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ... -1... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Egypt, formally independent from 1922 but bound to the United Kingdom by treaty until 1936 (and under partial occupation until 1956) similarly severed all constitutional links with the United Kingdom. Iraq, which became a British Protectorate in 1922, also gained complete independence ten years later in 1932.


The Irish Free State

A memorial to the Irish War of Independence
A memorial to the Irish War of Independence

Irish home rule was to be provided under the Home Rule Act 1914, but the onset of World War I delayed its implementation indefinitely. At Easter 1916 an unsuccessful armed uprising was staged in Dublin by a mixed group of nationalists and socialists. From 1919 the Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war to secede from the United Kingdom. This Anglo-Irish War ended in 1921 with a stalemate and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The treaty confirmed the division of Ireland into two states. Most of the island (26 counties) became independent as the Irish Free State, a dominion within the British Commonwealth. Meanwhile, the four counties in the north of the island with a majority Unionist community, along with two counties that had a Nationalist majority,[40] [41] [42] remained a part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The Free State evolved into the Republic of Ireland, which withdrew from the Commonwealth when the Republic of Ireland Act was enacted in 1949. memorial to Irish War of Independence. ... memorial to Irish War of Independence. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... This article is about the prior state. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Republic of Ireland Act was an enactment of Oireachtas Éireann passed in 1948, which came into force on April 18, 1949 and which declared that the official description of Ireland was to be the Republic of Ireland. ...


Ireland's Constitution claimed Northern Ireland as a part of the Republic until 1998. The issue of whether Northern Ireland should remain in the United Kingdom or join the Republic of Ireland has divided Northern Ireland's people and was a factor in a long and bloody conflict known as the Troubles. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 brought about a ceasefire between most of the major organisations on both sides. The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... The Nineteenth Amendment of Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution of the Republic of Ireland, introduced changes to Articles 2 and 3 of the constitution required by the 1998 Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement). ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ...


Second World War (1939-1945)

See also: Allies of World War II

The United Kingdom's declaration of hostilities against Nazi Germany in September 1939 included the Crown Colonies and the British Indian Empire but did not automatically commit the Dominions. All except Ireland declared a state of hostility with Germany. The Irish Free State had negotiated the removal of the Royal Navy from the Treaty Ports the year before, and chose to remain legally neutral throughout the war. Australia entered the war as a British ally; Prime Minister Robert Menzies viewed Britain's declaration of war as automatically including Australia. Menzies was, however, concerned about Churchill's mis-handling of Australian forces in the Middle East.[43] Menzies's successor John Curtin had a 'profound disillusionment with Britain, which led him to have Australia declare war on Japan in her own right. As Beaumont further said, relations between Britain and Australia 'soured rapidly' from that point on. "Curtin's call to the USA on 27 December 1941 gave an indication that Australian governments would no longer subordinate their own national interests to British strategic perspectives.[44] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... This article is about the prior state. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... After the Irish Free State won independence in 1922, three deep water Treaty Ports, at Berehaven, Queenstown (renamed Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom as sovereign bases. ... Irish neutrality has been a policy of the Irish Free State and its successor, Ireland, since independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1922. ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Sudan was a British co-Dominion with Egypt; Newfoundland was controlled by the Colonial office. Newfoundland may refer to: Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province (known simply as Newfoundland until 2001) Dominion of Newfoundland, an independent country (from 1907 to 1934) Colony of Newfoundland, a British colony prior to 1907 Newfoundland (island), a Canadian island that forms part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador...


The war would involve the whole of the Empire. Materiel and manpower would be drawn from all parts of the world. The dominions contributed large numbers of aircrew for the war in the air over Europe; many trained in Canada. The British Eighth Army fighting in North Africa was multi-national. Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ...


Decolonisation and decline (1945–1997)

Though the United Kingdom and its empire emerged victorious from World War II, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad. Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for four hundred years, was now literally in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, to whom the balance of global power had now shifted.[45] Britain itself was left virtually bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $3.5 billion loan from the United States,[46] the last installment of which was repaid in 2006[47]. Image File history File links Jinnah_Gandhi. ... Image File history File links Jinnah_Gandhi. ... office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai 1892–1893, Rattanbai Petit 1918–1929 Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... The term Indian independence movement is diffused, incorporating various national and regional campaigns, agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant philosophy and involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending the British Colonial Authority as well as other colonial... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ...


At the same time, anti-colonial movements were on the rise in the colonies of European nations. The situation was complicated further by the increasing Cold War rivalry of the United States and the Soviet Union, both nations opposed to the European colonialism of old, though American anti-Communism prevailed over anti-imperialism, which led the US to support the continued existence of the British Empire.[48] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ...


However, the "wind of change" ultimately meant that the British Empire's days were numbered, and on the whole, Britain adopted a policy of peaceful disengagement from its colonies once stable, non-Communist governments were ready to transition power to, in contrast to France and Portugal[49], which waged costly wars to keep their empires intact. Between 1945 and 1965 the number of people under British rule drastically fell from 700 million to 5 million, 3 million of which were in Hong Kong.[48] The Wind of Change speech was a historically-important address made by British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town. ...


The Dominions

After the war, Australia and New Zealand joined with the United States in the ANZUS regional security treaty in 1951 (although the US repudiated its commitments to New Zealand following a 1985 dispute over port access for nuclear vessels). The United Kingdom's pursuit (from 1961) and attainment (in 1973) of European Community membership weakened the old commercial ties to the Dominions, ending their privileged access to the UK market. The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In January 1947, Canada became the first Dominion to create its nationals as citizens in addition to their status as British subjects (which was retained until 1977). Canada became legally independent after the passing by the British Parliament of the Canada Act 1982, effecting the patriation of the national constitution. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... Look up Patriation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


End of British Raj

Last Viceroy of India Louis Mountbatten in New Delhi with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background.
Last Viceroy of India Louis Mountbatten in New Delhi with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background.

The British Empire lost its most valuable colony, India, the jewel in the crown, when the British Raj came to an end in August 1947 after a forty-year-long campaign by the Indian National Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose, first for self-government and later for full sovereignty. Another organization, called the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, led a successful movement for the creation of a separate Muslim-state called Pakistan (later East Pakistan gained independence and came to be known as Bangladesh). The Partition of India resulted in massive population exchanges and widespread violence and riots costing hundreds of thousands of lives and creating the Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of India (later Republic of India). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Indian National Congress, Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developed into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was a Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... This article is under construction. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... The Dominion of Pakistan was an entity that was established as a result of partition from India as a homeland for the Muslims in August 1947. ... ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


Palestine

The United Kingdom's Palestine Mandate ended in 1948. British forces withdrew as there was open warfare between the territory's Jewish and Arab populations. Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Southeast Asia and Ceylon

Burma achieved independence (1948) outside the Commonwealth, being the first colony since the United States to sever all ties with the British. Ceylon (1948) and Malaya (1957) achieved their independence within the Commonwealth. The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ...


Singapore became independent in two stages. The British did not believe that Singapore would be large enough to defend itself against others alone. Therefore, Singapore was joined with Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo, Sabah to form the Federation of Malaysia upon independence from the Empire. This short-lived union was dissolved in 1965 when Singapore left Malaysia and achieved complete independence, although the United Kingdom continued to offer protection through the Five Power Defence Arrangements. The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... For the river, see Sarawak River. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a defence relationship established by an agreement between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971, whereby the five nations will consult each other in the event of external aggression or threat of attack against Malaysia or Singapore. ...


In 1984, the United Kingdom ended the protectorate status of Brunei, although the British Army continues to maintain a presence in the sultanate at the request of the government of Brunei. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The Suez Crisis

Main article: Suez Crisis

Britain's limitations were very publicly exposed to the world by the Suez Crisis of 1956, in which the United States and the Soviet Union opposed the British, French and Israeli intervention in Egypt. The British Prime Minister, Anthony Eden, had infuriated his US counterpart, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, by his lack of consultation, and Eisenhower refused to back the invasion. Another of Eisenhower's concerns was the possibility of a wider war with the Soviet Union after Nikita Khrushchev threatened to intervene on the Egyptian side. Eisenhower applied financial leverage by threatening to sell US reserves of the British pound and thereby precipitate a collapse of the British currency. Though the invasion force was militarily successful in its objective of recapturing the Suez Canal, Britain was forced into a very humiliating withdrawal of its forces due to UN intervention and US pressure, and Eden resigned. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ...


The Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline on the world stage, and demonstrated that henceforth it could no longer act without at least the acquiescence, if not the full support, of the United States.[50][51] The events at Suez wounded British national pride, leading one MP to describe it as "Britain's Waterloo"[52] and another to suggest that the country had become an "American satellite".[53] Margaret Thatcher later described the mindset she believed had befallen the British political establishment as "Suez syndrome",[54] from which Britain did not recover until the successful recapture of the Falkland Islands from Argentina in 1982. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


However, whilst The Suez Crisis caused British power in the Middle East to weaken, it did not collapse[55]. Britain again soon deployed its armed forces to the region, intervening in Oman (1957), Jordan (1958) and Kuwait (1961), though on these occasions with American approval,[56] as the new Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's foreign policy was to remain firmly aligned with the United States[52]. Britain maintained a presence in the Middle East for another decade, withdrawing from Aden in 1967, and Bahrain in 1971. Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...


The Mediterranean

A guerrilla war waged by Greek Cypriot advocates of union with Greece ended (1960) in an independent Cyprus, although the United Kingdom did retain four military bases - Akrotiri, Dhekelia, Episkopi and Ayios Nikolaos. The Mediterranean islands of Malta and Gozo were given independence from the United Kingdom in 1964. Greek Cypriot refers to the ethnic Greek population of Cyprus. ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... Map of Akrotiri (Western) SBA Akrotiri (also known as the Western Sovereign Base Area or WSBA) and Dhekelia (also known as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area or ESBA) are UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. ... Map of Akrotiri (Western) SBA Akrotiri (also known as the Western Sovereign Base Area or WSBA) and Dhekelia (also known as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area or ESBA) are UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. ... Episkopi may refer to: Episkopi, Heraklion, a town in the Heraklion prefecture, Greece Episkopi, Lasithi, a town in the Lasithi prefecture, Greece Episkopi, Rethymno, a town in the Rethymno prefecture, Greece Episkopi Bay, a bay of the Mediterranean Sea near Cyprus Category: ... Agios Nikolaos is Greek (Aγιος Nικολαος) and means Saint Nicholas. ... Gozo (Maltese: Għawdex) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, the island is part of the Southern European country Malta and is the second largest after the island of Malta itself within the archipelago. ... Malta has been inhabited since around 5200 BC and a significant pre-historic civilisation existed on the islands before the arrival of the Phoenicians who named the main island Malat, meaning safe haven . // Further information: Timeline of Maltese history about 5200 BCE: Earliest settlers arrive on Malta. ...


Africa

The end of Britain's Empire in Africa came rapidly: Ghana's independence (1957) after a ten-year nationalist political campaign was followed by that of Nigeria and Somaliland (1960), Sierra Leone (1961), Uganda (1962), Kenya and Zanzibar (1963), Tanganyika (1964), The Gambia (1965), Lesotho (formerly Basutoland) (1966), Botswana (formerly Bechuanaland) (1967), and Swaziland (1968). For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919) Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961) Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1962–64 Tanganyika is the name of an East African territory lying between the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika, after which it was named. ...


British withdrawal from the southern and eastern parts of Africa was complicated by the region's white settler populations: Kenya had already provided an example in the Mau Mau Uprising of violent conflict exacerbated by white landownership and reluctance to concede majority rule.[citation needed] White minority rule in South Africa remained a source of bitterness within the Commonwealth until the Union of South Africa left the Commonwealth in 1961. Combatants Mau Mau British Empire Commanders * Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi * General China (Waruhiu Itote) * Stanley Mathenge * Evelyn Baring(Governor) * General Sir George Erskine Strength Unknown 10,000 regular troops (Africans and Europeans) 21,000 police, 25,000 home guard[1] Casualties 10,527 killed in action;[2] 2,633 captured... Motto Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Anthem Die Stem van Suid-Afrika Capital Cape Town (legislative) Pretoria (administrative) Bloemfontein (judicial) Language(s) Afrikaans, Dutch, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1952-1961 Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1959-1961 Charles Robberts Swart Prime Minister  - 1958-1961 Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd...


Although the white-dominated Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland ended in the independence of Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) and Zambia (the former Northern Rhodesia) in 1964, Southern Rhodesia's white minority (a self-governing colony since 1923) declared independence with their UDI rather than submit to the immediate majority rule of black Africans. The support of South Africa's apartheid government, and the Portuguese rule of Angola and Mozambique helped support the Rhodesian regime until 1979, when agreement was reached on majority rule, ending the Rhodesian Bush War and creating the new nation of Zimbabwe. As a result of the Lancaster House Agreement, the British Empire briefly expanded, as Lord Soames became interim governor in December of 1979. In February, the empire returned to size as Robert Mugabe won the first premiership of newly independent Zimbabwe. Anthem God Save the Queen The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1953-1963 Elizabeth II Governor-General  - 1953-1957 Lord Llewellin  - 1957-1963 The Earl of Dalhousie  - 1963 Sir Humphrey Gibbs Prime Minister  - 1953-1956 Sir Godfrey Huggins  - 1956-1963 Sir... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ... Arthur Christopher John Soames, Baron Soames (October 12, 1920-September 16, 1987) was the last Governor of Zimbabwe. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...


The West Indies / Caribbean

Most of the United Kingdom's West Indies territories opted for eventual separate independence after the failure of the West Indies Federation (1958–62): Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago (1962) were followed into statehood by Barbados (1966) and the smaller islands of the eastern Caribbean (1970s and 1980s), Antigua and Barbuda being the last in November 1981. West Indies redirects here. ... Flag Motto To dwell together in unity Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Chaguaramas Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Lord Hailes Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹ History  - Established January 3, 1958  - Disestablished May 31, 1962 Area  - 1960 20,253 km² Population  - 1960 est. ...


Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United Kingdom's last colony on the American mainland, British Honduras, became a self-governing colony in 1964 and was renamed Belize on 1 June 1973, achieving full independence in 1981. Flag Capital Belize City Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy History  - Established 1871  - Disestablished 1981 Area 22,966 km2 8,867 sq mi Currency British Honduran dollar Flag of British Honduras British Honduras was the former name of what is now the independent nation of Belize and was a British... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...

Newsweek magazine, April 19, 1982
Newsweek magazine, April 19, 1982

Some nations in the West Indies have decided to revert to the United Kingdom after they started on a path to independence. The island of Anguilla was a part of the island grouping, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, which in 1967 was granted full internal autonomy by the United Kingdom. Anguillans challenged the move and sought to separate from the group. In 1971 the change was granted by the United Kingdom and Saint Kitts and Nevis continued towards independence in 1973. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (794x1061, 248 KB) Summary The Empire Strike Back Newsweek magazine, April 19, 1982 Licensing This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (794x1061, 248 KB) Summary The Empire Strike Back Newsweek magazine, April 19, 1982 Licensing This image is of a magazine cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by either the publisher of the magazine or the individual contributors... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... A former British colony in the Caribbean. ...


In the 1970s the Turks and Caicos Islands were another group of islands placed on the path to political independence from the United Kingdom. Following elections, a change in the local administration put off this policy and the TC's have remained an overseas territory since.

The handover of Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, the last major overseas British territory

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) occurred on June 30, 1997. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

Rockall

As decolonisation and the Cold War were gathering momentum during the 1950s, an uninhabited rock in the Atlantic Ocean, Rockall, became the last territorial acquisition of the United Kingdom. Concerns that the Soviet Union might use the island to spy on a British missile test[57] prompted the landing of a Royal Navy party to officially claim the rock in the name of the Queen in 1955. In 1972 the Island of Rockall Act formally incorporated the island into the United Kingdom. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean Rockall is a small, uninhabited, rocky islet in the North Atlantic, and one of the sea areas named in the Shipping Forecast broadcast on BBC Radio 4. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Island of Rockall Act 1972 (1972 c. ...


The Falklands War

In 1982, the United Kingdom's resolve to defend her remaining overseas territories was tested when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, acting on a long-standing claim that dated back to the Spanish Empire. The United Kingdom's ultimately successful military response to retake the islands during the ensuing Falklands War prompted headlines in the US press that "the Empire strikes back", and was viewed by many to have contributed to reversing the downward trend in the UK's status as a world power.[58] An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Handover of Hong Kong

In 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, per the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration. For many, including Charles, Prince of Wales who was in attendance at the ceremony, the handover of Britain's last major and by far most populous overseas territory marked "the end of Empire".[59][60] A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Handover ceremony of Hong Kong in 1997: The Union Flag lowered and the Flag of China raised. ...


Legacy

The remaining overseas territories
The remaining overseas territories

The United Kingdom retains sovereignty over 14 territories outside of the British Isles,[61] collectively named the British overseas territories, which remain under British rule due to lack of support for independence among the local population or because the territory is uninhabited except for transient military or scientific personnel. British sovereignty of several of the overseas territories is disputed by their geographical neighbours: Gibraltar is claimed by Spain, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are claimed by Argentina, and the British Indian Ocean Territory is claimed by Mauritius and Seychelles.[62] The British Antarctic Territory is subject to overlapping claims by Argentina and Chile, whilst many nations do not recognise any territorial claims to Antarctica.[63] Image File history File links Location_of_the_BOTs. ... Image File history File links Location_of_the_BOTs. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... Motto: Research and Discovery Anthem: God Save the Queen Status British overseas territory Official language(s) - Commissioner Tony Crombie Administrator Michael Richardson Area 1,395,000 km² Population c. ...


Most former British colonies (and one former Portuguese colony) are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, a non-political, voluntary association of equal members, in which the United Kingdom has no privileged status. The head of the Commonwealth is currently Queen Elizabeth II. Fifteen members of the Commonwealth continue to share their head of state with the United Kingdom, as Commonwealth realms. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ...


Many former British colonies share or shared certain characteristics:

Several ongoing conflicts and disputes around the world can trace their origins to borders inherited by countries from the British Empire: the Guatemalan claim to Belize, the Kashmir conflict, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and within Africa, where political boundaries did not reflect homogeneous ethnicities or religions. The British Empire was also responsible for large migrations of peoples. Millions left the British Isles, with the founding settler populations of the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand coming mainly from Britain and Ireland. Tensions remain between the mainly British-descended populations of Canada, Australia and New Zealand and the indigenous minorities in those countries, and between settler minorities and indigenous majorities in South Africa and Zimbabwe. British settlement of Ireland continues to leave its mark in the form of a divided Catholic and Protestant community. Millions of people also moved between British colonies, for example from India to the Caribbean and Africa, creating the conditions for the expulsion of Indians in Uganda in 1972. The makeup of Britain itself was changed after the Second World War with immigration to the United Kingdom from the colonies to which it was granting independence.[64] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A legal system is the mechanism for creating, interpreting and enforcing the laws in a given jurisdiction. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... The Imperial units are an irregularly standardized system of units that have been used in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, including the Commonwealth countries. ... U.S. customary units, also known in the United States as English units[1] (but see English unit) or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the USA, in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units — the modern metric system). ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ...  drive on right drive on left Driving on either the left or the right side of the road reduces the incidence of vehicles being involved in head-on collisions with each other. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Belizes principal external concern has been the dispute involving the Guatemalan claim to Belizean territory. ... The disputed areas of the region of Kashmir. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... On 4 August 1972, Idi Amin President of Uganda gave Ugandas 50,000 Asians (mostly Indians of Gujarati origin) 90 days to leave the country, following an alleged dream in which, he claimed, God told him to expel them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Highly Skilled Migrant Programme. ...


See also

British Empire Portal
British Empire
Wikisource has several original texts related to:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
British Empire
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article British Empire.

Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Although in the past the style of British Emperor has been (retroactively) applied to a few mythical and historical rulers of Britain or Great Britain, it is sometimes used as a colloquialism to designate either Plantagenet and Tudor caesaropapism or, more frequently, the British sovereign during the period of the... An anachronous map of British (and prior to the existence of Britain, English) imperial possessions This is a list of the various overseas territories that have been under the political control of the United Kingdom and/or its predecessor states[1]. Collectively, these territories are traditionally referred to as the... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Commonwealth Day is the annual celebration of the Commonwealth of Nations held on the second Monday in March, and which is marked by a multi-faith service in Westminster Abbey normally attended by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth, the Commonwealth Secretary-General and the Commonwealth High... The British Empire and Commonwealth Museum is a museum in Bristol, United Kingdom which explores the history of the British empire and the impact that British colonial rule had on the rest of the world. ... Government House is the name usually given to the residence of Governors-General, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors in the Commonwealth and the British Empire. ... The British Empire has often been portrayed in fiction. ... The Commonwealth Realms as of 2006. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Combatants United Irishmen French First Republic Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Commanders Local leaders, General Humbert Cornwallis Lake Strength  ? Various, at peak mid-June c. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... A studio photograph of Tasmanian convict Bill Thompson, showing the convict uniform and the use of leg irons. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... The Vikings were the first Europeans to reach the Americas, starting but then abandoning a colonisation process. ... British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ... Scottish colonization of the Americas consisted of a number of failed or abandoned Scottish settlements in North America, a colony at Darien, Panama and a number of wholly or largely Scottish settlements made after the Acts of Union 1707. ... Welsh settlement in the Americas was the result of several individual initiatives to found distinctively Welsh settlements in the New World. ... This article is about military actions only. ... An historic example of three way trade in the North Atlantic Triangular trade is a historical term indicating trade between three ports or regions. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... A replica of the slave ship the Zong, moored by Tower Bridge to mark 200 years since the Slave Trade Act 1807 (April 2007). ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... All Red Line is an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked all the British Empire. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article lists the wars fought by England prior to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain via the Act of Union 1707. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sizes of the biggest Empires in history (To be finished on a later date. ... Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean Rockall is a small, uninhabited, rocky islet in the North Atlantic, and one of the sea areas named in the Shipping Forecast broadcast on BBC Radio 4. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Angus Maddison. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (p. 98, 242). OECD, Paris, 2001.
  2. ^ Bruce R. Gordon. To Rule the Earth... (See Bibliography for sources used.)
  3. ^ This phrase had already been used a few centuries before by the king Charles I of Spain, referring to the Spanish Empire.
  4. ^ Andrews, Kenneth (1985). Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge Paperback Library, 45. 
  5. ^ Ken MacMillan (2001-04). "Discourse on history, geography, and law: John Dee and the limits of the British empire, 1576–80". Canadian Journal of History. 
  6. ^ Nicholas, Canny (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 7. 
  7. ^ BBC The curse of Cromwell
  8. ^ Nicholas Canny, Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire
  9. ^ Alan, Taylor (2001). American Colonies, The Settling of North America. Penguin, 123. 
  10. ^ Alan, Taylor (2001). American Colonies, The Settling of North America. Penguin, 119. 
  11. ^ Nicholas, Canny (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 70. 
  12. ^ Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 34. 
  13. ^ James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Abacus, 17. 
  14. ^ Nicholas, Canny (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 71. 
  15. ^ Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire. Penguin, 72-73. 
  16. ^ Dull, Jonathan R. (2003). "Diplomacy of the Revolution, to 1783," p. 352, chap. in A Companion to the American Revolution, ed. Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole. Maiden, Mass.: Blackwell, pp. 352–361. ISBN 1405116749.
  17. ^ Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire. Penguin, 62. 
  18. ^ Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 228. 
  19. ^ Was slavery the engine of economic growth?
  20. ^ a b Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire. Penguin, 19. 
  21. ^ Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 93. 
  22. ^ Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 441. 
  23. ^ Anthony, Pagden (2003). Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present. Modern Library, 90. 
  24. ^ Anthony, Pagden (2003). Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present. Modern Library, 91. 
  25. ^ Niall, Ferguson (2004). Empire. Penguin, 73. 
  26. ^ Anthony, Pagden (1998). The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 92. 
  27. ^ James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Abacus, 119. 
  28. ^ Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750-1970. Cambridge University Press, 28. 
  29. ^ Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750-1970. Cambridge University Press, 20. 
  30. ^ James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Abacus, 152. 
  31. ^ Hyam, Ronald (2002). Britain's Imperial Century, 1815-1914: A Study of Empire and Expansion. Palgrave Macmillan, 1. 
  32. ^ Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750-1970. Cambridge University Press, 71. 
  33. ^ Timothy, Parsons (1999). The British Imperial Century, 1815-1914: A World History Perspective. Rowman & Littlefield, 3. 
  34. ^ a b Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 401. 
  35. ^ Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 323. 
  36. ^ Porter, Andrew (1998). The Nineteenth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire. Oxford University Press, 8. 
  37. ^ Wright, Donald R. (2007). "Berlin West Africa Conference". Encarta Online Encyclopedia.  
  38. ^ Lloyd, T (1996). The British Empire 1558-1995. Oxford University Press, 227. 
  39. ^ Lloyd, T (1996). The British Empire 1558-1995. Oxford University Press, 258. 
  40. ^ McLean, Iain (2001). Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair. Oxford University Press, 272. 
  41. ^ Morland and Cowling (2004). Political issues for the twenty-first century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 270. 
  42. ^ Hollowell, Jonathan (2002). Britain Since 1945. Blackwell Publishing, 480. 
  43. ^ Joan Beaumont, Australia's war in Asia and the Pacific, in Joan Beaumont (ed.) Australia's War 1939-45(1996, Ch.2)
  44. ^ Beaumont, Ibid.
  45. ^ Abernethy, David (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance, European Overseas Empires 1415-1980. Yale University Press, 146. 
  46. ^ Louis, Roger (1999). The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV, The Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 331. 
  47. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | What's a little debt between friends?
  48. ^ a b Louis, Roger (1999). The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV, The Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 330. 
  49. ^ Abernethy, David (2000). The Dynamics of Global Dominance, European Overseas Empires 1415-1980. Yale University Press, 148. 
  50. ^ Louis, Roger (1999). The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV, The Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 342. 
  51. ^ Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750-1970. Cambridge University Press, 105. 
  52. ^ a b Louis, Roger (1999). The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. IV, The Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 343. 
  53. ^ James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Abacus, 585. 
  54. ^ Margaret, Thatcher (1993). The Downing Street Years. Harper Collins. 
  55. ^ Smith, Simon (1998). British Imperialism 1750-1970. Cambridge University Press, 106. 
  56. ^ James, Lawrence (2001). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Abacus, 586. 
  57. ^ Macdonald, Fraser (2006) Journal of Historical Geography 32 (2006) 627-647 [1]PDF (396 KiB)
  58. ^ Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (Abacus, 1994), p629
  59. ^ BBC NEWS | UK | Charles' diary lays thoughts bare
  60. ^ BBC - History - Britain, the Commonwealth and the End of Empire
  61. ^ UK Overseas Territories Foreign and Commonwealth Office, retrieved 2007-09-05
  62. ^ British Indian Ocean Territory. The World Factbook. CIA.
  63. ^ Antarctica. The World Factbook. CIA.
  64. ^ Nigel, Dalziel (2006). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the British Empire. Penguin, 135. 

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ...

External links

  • Extensive information on the British Empire
  • Sizes of various empires and quasi-empires
  • The Commonwealth - UK government site


  Results from FactBites:
 
British Empire - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
A tendency which had seemed temporarily to point towards a complacent dissolution of the empire was arrested, and the closing years of the 19th century were marked by a growing disposition to appreciate the value and importance of the unique position which the British empire has created for itself in the world.
The extent of this burden was emphasized in 1909 by the revelations as to the increase of the German (and the allied Austrian) fleet.
Systems of justice throughout J the empire have a close resemblance to each other, and the judicial committee of the privy council, on which the self-governing colonies and India are represented, constitutes a supreme court of appeal (q.v.) for the entire empire.
The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The 20th Century: Topic 1: Overview (0 words)
At no time in the first half of her reign was empire a central preoccupation of her or her governments, but this was to change in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71), which altered the balance of power in Europe.
It was "a Roman moment." The analogy of the Roman Empire was endlessly invoked in discussions of the British Empire.
The most recent development in the dismantling of the British Empire was the restoration to Chinese rule, under a declaration signed in 1984, of the former British crown colony of Hong Kong, on the southeastern coast of China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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