FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > British East India Company

The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as "John Company", was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the newly created Honourable East India Company (HEIC) a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858. A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... A Royal Charter is a charter given by a monarch to legitimize an incorporated body, such as a city, company, university or such. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

The company's flag initially had the flag of England, the St. George's Cross, in the corner
The company's flag initially had the flag of England, the St. George's Cross, in the corner

Contents

Image File history File links British_East_India_Company_flag. ... Image File history File links British_East_India_Company_flag. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... The St Georges cross, a red cross on a white background, is the national flag of England and has been since about 1277. ...

Impact

Based in London, the company presided over the creation of the British Raj. In 1617, the Company was given trade rights by the Mughal Emperor. 100 years later, it was granted a royal dictate from the Emperor exempting the Company from the payment of custom duties in Bengal, giving it a decided commercial advantage in the Indian trade. A decisive victory by Sir Robert Clive at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 established the British East India Company as a military as well as a commercial power. By 1760, the French were driven out of India, with the exception of a few trading posts on the coast, such as Pondicherry. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, Commander-in-chief of the Nawab, M. Sinfray, French Secretary to the Council Strength 2... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...


The Company also had interests along the routes to India from Great Britain. As early as 1620, the company attempted to lay claim to the Table Mountain region in South Africa, later it occupied and ruled St Helena. The Company also established Hong Kong and Singapore; employed Captain Kidd to combat piracy; and cultivated the production of tea in India. Other notable events in the Company's history were that it held Napoleon captive on St Helena, and made the fortune of Elihu Yale. Its products were the basis of the Boston Tea Party in Colonial America. Table Mountain is a mountain in the Western Cape, South Africa, overlooking the greater Cape Town area. ... William Captain Kidd (1645–May 23, 1701) was a notorious pirate. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Elihu Yale Elihu Yale, (April 5, 1649 – July 8, 1721), was the first benefactor of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut in the United States. ... The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. ... Colonial America may refer to: Colonial North America north of Rio Grande the Thirteen Colonies that declared independence from Britain in 1776 The period after the European colonization of the Americas Category: ...


Its shipyards provided the model for St Petersburg, elements of its administration survive in the Indian bureaucracy, and its corporate structure was the most successful early example of a joint stock company. However, the demands of Company officers on the treasury of Bengal contributed tragically to the province's incapacity in the face of a famine which killed millions of people in 1770-1773. Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Dockyards and shipyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... A joint stock company is a type of business partnership in which the capital is formed by the individual contributions of a group of shareholders. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


History

British and other European settlements in India
British and other European settlements in India

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x700, 232 KB) Summary Map of India with Sri Lanka, illustrating locations of European settlements in the subcontinent between 1501 and 1739 CE. Adaptation from: [1] with reference varification from: [2] (URL accessed: 23-Mar-2006) Licensing File links The following... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x700, 232 KB) Summary Map of India with Sri Lanka, illustrating locations of European settlements in the subcontinent between 1501 and 1739 CE. Adaptation from: [1] with reference varification from: [2] (URL accessed: 23-Mar-2006) Licensing File links The following...

The foundation years

The Company was founded as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies[1] by a coterie of enterprising and influential businessmen, who obtained the Crown's charter for exclusive permission to trade in the East Indies for a period of fifteen years. The Company had 125 shareholders, and a capital of £72,000. Initially, however, it made little impression on the Dutch control of the spice trade and at first it could not establish a lasting outpost in the East Indies. Eventually, ships belonging to the company arrived in India, docking at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point in 1608. In the next two years, it managed to build its first factory (as the trading posts were known) in the town of Machilipatnam in the Coromandel Coast in the Bay of Bengal. The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India (presumably owing to a reduction in overhead costs effected by the transit points), initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licenses to other trading companies in England. But, in 1609, he renewed the charter given to the Company for an indefinite period, including a clause which specified that the charter would cease to be in force if the trade turned unprofitable for three consecutive years. The monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... Machilipatnam (Telugu:మచిలిపట్నం)  , also known as Masulipatnam or Bandar or Masula (for short among Finnish mission workers[2]), is a city and a special grade municipality in Krishna district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ...


The Company was led by one Governor and 24 directors who made up the Court of Directors. They were appointed by, and reported to, the Court of Proprietors. The Court of Directors had ten committees reporting to it. The following list of British East India Company directors is taken from the “Alphabetical List of Directors of the East India Company from 1758 to 1858”, compiled by C.H. & D. Philips and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, October 1941. ...


Footholds in India

Traders were frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. A key event providing the Company with the favour of Mughal emperor Jahangir was their victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612. Perhaps realizing the futility of waging trade wars in remote seas, the English decided to explore their options for gaining a foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested the Crown to launch a diplomatic mission. In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James I to visit the Mughal emperor Jahangir (who ruled over most of the subcontinent, along with Afghanistan). The purpose of this mission was to arrange for a commercial treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas. In return, the Company offered to provide to the emperor goods and rarities from the European market. This mission was highly successful and Jahangir sent a letter to the King through Sir Thomas Roe. He wrote: n ... The naval Battle of Swally took place on 29-30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali (anglicised to Swally), a village near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India, and was a victory for four British East India Company ships over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks (rowing vessels with... Sir Thomas Roe (or Row) (c. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

Upon which assurance of your royal love I have given my general command to all the kingdoms and ports of my dominions to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place soever they choose to live, they may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port soever they shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest their quiet; and in what city soever they shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom answerable to their own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into their country at their pleasure.
For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire your Majesty to command your merchants to bring in their ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me your royal letters by every opportunity, that I may rejoice in your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal. [1]

Expansion

The company, under such obvious patronage, soon managed to eclipse the Portuguese Estado da India, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong and Bombay (which was later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza). It managed to create strongholds in Surat (where a factory was built in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668) and Calcutta (1690). By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a 'factor' or master merchant, and 90 employees in India. The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras and the Bombay Castle. In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal (and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade). The company's mainstay businesses were by now in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpeter and tea. All the while, it was making inroads into the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade in the Malaccan straits, which the Dutch had acquired by ousting the Portuguese in 1640-41. In 1711, the Company established a trading post in Canton (Guangzhou), China, to trade tea for silver. In 1657, Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and brought about minor changes in the holding of the Company. The status of the Company was further enhanced by the restoration of monarchy in England. By a series of five acts around 1670, King Charles II provisioned it with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas. By 1689, the Company was arguably a "nation" in the Indian mainland, independently administering the vast presidencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay and possessing a formidable and intimidating military strength. From 1698 the company was entitled to use the motto "Auspico Regis et Senatus Angliae" meaning, "Under the patronage of the King and Parliament of England". Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: गोवा govā; Portuguese: Goa) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram) is the major seaport and second largest city of Bangladesh. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ... Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, 1705) (Catherine Henrietta, Portuguese: Catarina Henriqueta de Bragança), was the queen consort of King Charles II of England. ... For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ... “Madras” redirects here. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... Fort St George is the name of the first British fortress in India, built in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras (modern city of Chennai. ... Bombay Castle is one of the oldest defensive structures built in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


The road to a complete monopoly

Trade monopoly

The prosperity that the employees of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to their country and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power. Consequently, the Company developed for itself a lobby in the English parliament. However, under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the Company (pejoratively termed Interlopers by the Company), who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in 1694. This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that was in force for almost 100 years. By an act that was passed in 1698, a new "parallel" East India Company (officially titled the English Company Trading to the East Indies) was floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million. However, the powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body. The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade. However, it quickly became evident that, in practice, the original Company faced scarcely any measurable competition. Both companies finally merged in 1702, by a tripartite indenture involving them both as well as the state. Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies. It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ...


In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the parliament. The Company sought a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy, and so relinquish the opportunity to exploit the Company's profits. In 1712, another act renewed the status of the Company, though the debts were repaid. By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the Company, which reasserted the influence of the Company lobby. The license was prolonged until 1766 by yet another act in 1730.


At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals, and there were frequent skirmishes between them for control of colonial possessions. In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million. The skirmishes did escalate to the feared war, and between 1756 and 1763 the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America. The war also took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces. Around the same time, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals with the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production. As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living, and this spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand and production had a profound influence on overseas trade. The Company became the single largest player in the British global market, and reserved for itself an unassailable position in the decision-making process of the Government. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ... English colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A Watt steam engine. ...


William Pyne notes in his book The Microcosm of London (1808) that

On the 1st March, 1801, the debts of the East India Company amounted to £5,393,989 their effects to £15,404,736 and their sales increased since February 1793, from £4,988,300 to £7,602,041. [emphasis added]

Saltpetre Trade

Sir John Banks, a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life. He knew Pepys and John Evelyn and founded a substantial fortune from the Levant and Indian trades. He also became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he was able to arrange a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle'[citation needed] - that is by auction - where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue. The agreement also included with the price 'an allowance of interest which is to be expressed in tallies.'[citation needed] This was something of a breakthrough in royal prerogative because previous requests for the King to buy at the Company's auctions had been turned down as 'not honourable or decent.'[citation needed] Outstanding debts were also agreed and the Company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre. Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company. So urgent was the need to supply the armed forces in the United Kingdom, America and elsewhere that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales. One governor of the Company was even reported as saying in 1864 that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt. [2] This article is about the county in England. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, famous chiefly for his comprehensive diary. ... John Evelyn (October 31, 1620 – February 27, 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


The British East India Company developed a triangular commerce among China, India and Britain that enabled the English to drink tea and wear silk.


The basis for the monopoly

Opium Trade

In the eighteenth century, illegal opium was highly sought after by Chinese drug addicts, and so in 1773, the Company assumed the British monopoly of opium trading in Bengal. As opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China. So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China [3]. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Opium is a narcotic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy . ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799, it was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses averaging 900 tons a year. The proceeds from drug-runners at Lintin were paid into the Company’s factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade. In 1838, with opium smuggling approaching 1400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty on opium smuggling and sent a new governor, Lin Zexu to curb smuggling. This finally resulted in the Opium War of 1840, eventually leading to the British seizing Hong Kong and opening of the Chinese market to British drug traffickers. These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought in the mid-1800s that were the climax of a long dispute between China and Britain. ...


Colonial monopoly

Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal.
Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal.

The Seven Years' War (1756 – 1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces and limited French imperial ambitions, also stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories. Robert Clive, the Governor General, led the Company to an astounding victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French. The Company took this respite to seize Manila[2] in 1762. By the Treaty of Paris (1763), the French were forced to maintain their trade posts only in small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar without any military presence. Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the Company. In contrast, the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers. Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Clive This work is copyrighted. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... Nickname: Pearl of the Orient, City by the Bay, Distinguished and Ever Loyal City Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government... The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Carnatic is a name given by Europeans to a region of southern India, between the Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. ...


Local resistance

However, the Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers. Robert Clive led company forces against French-backed Siraj Ud Daulah to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, thereby snuffing out the last known resistances in Bengal. This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj had effectively been a Mughal feudatory ally. But the Mughal empire was already on the wane after the demise of Aurangzeb, and was breaking up into pieces and enclaves. After the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam, the ruling emperor, gave up the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. Clive thus became the first British Governor of Bengal. Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, the legendary rulers of Mysore (in Carnatic), also gave a tough time to the British forces. Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the slaying of Tipu Sultan. With the gradual weakening of the Maratha empire in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured Bombay and the surrounding areas. It was during these campaigns, both against Mysore and the Marathas, that Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, first showed the abilities which would lead to victory in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo. A particularly notable engagement involving forces under his command was the Battle of Assaye. Thus, the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India. The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh, Rajputana, and Punjab, where the Company's presence was ever increasing amidst the infighting and dubious offers of protection against each other. Coercive action, threats and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle against it. The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 were a period of consolidation for the Company, which began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern. Mîrzâ Mah. ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan, Commander-in-chief of the Nawab, M. Sinfray, French Secretary to the Council Strength 2... Aurangzeb (Persian: , English: ) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... Nickname: Bandar Raya Anggerik Motto: Indah Bestari (English: ) Location in Malaysia Country Malaysia State Selangor Establishment November 1978 Government  - Mayor Dato Ramlan Bin Othman Area    - City 290. ... Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ... Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Engraving of Hyder Ali by William Dickes, 1846 Hyder Ali or Haidar Ali (c. ... A potrait of Tippu Sultan by Edward Orme (1774 -1822). ... Mysore   or MaisÅ«ru (Kannada: ) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of eighteenth-century wars fought in India between the Kingdom of Mysore (then a French ally) and the British East-India Company, represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency. ... Flag of former princely state of Mysore. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769–14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ... The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Spain United Kingdom Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War was a major conflict during the Napoleonic Wars, fought on the Iberian Peninsula by an alliance of Spain, Portugal, and Britain against the Napoleonic French Empire. ... Combatants France Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Michel Ney Duke of Wellington Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 dead or wounded; 7,000 Captured; 15... Combatants United Kingdom Maratha Confederacy Commanders Arthur Wellesley Sindhia, Ragojee Bhonsla Strength 4,500 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 50,000 infantry, 100 cannons Casualties 3,657 6,000 The Battle of Assaye occurred September 23, 1803 near the village of Assaye in south-central India. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. ...

See also: Company rule in India in the History of South Asia series for the history of the Company's rule in India between 1757 and 1857.

// Company Rule, 1757-1857 Expansion and territory It was not until the middle of the 19th century that almost all of the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh, India and Pakistan came under the rule of the British East India Company. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ...

Regulation of the company's affairs

Monopolistic activity by the company triggered the Boston Tea Party.
Monopolistic activity by the company triggered the Boston Tea Party.

Image source : http://teachpol. ... Image source : http://teachpol. ... This article is about economic monopoly. ... The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. ...

Financial troubles

Though the Company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was getting clearer day by day that the Company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories. The Bengal famine, in which one-sixth of the local population died, set the alarm bells ringing back home. Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity. At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe following the lull in the post-Industrial Revolution period. The desperate directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help. This led to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773, which gave the Company greater autonomy in running its trade in America. Its monopolistic activities triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one of the major events leading up to the American War for Independence. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Watt steam engine. ... The so-called Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c. ... The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of tea bricks on ships in Boston Harbor. ... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...


Regulating Acts

East India Company Act 1773

By this Act (13 Geo. III, c. 63), the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms and by doing so clearly established its sovereignty and ultimate control over the Company. The Act recognized the Company's political functions and clearly established that the "acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right." The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in parliament, and from the Company's shareholders, the Act was passed. It introduced substantial governmental control, and allowed the land to be formally under the control of the Crown, but leased to the Company at £40,000 for two years. Under this provision, the governor of Bengal Warren Hastings was promoted to the rank of Governor General, having administrative powers over all of British India. It provided that his nomination, though made by a court of directors, should in future be subject to the approval of a Council of Four appointed by the Crown - namely Lt. General John Clavering, George Monson, Richard Barwell and Philip Francis. He was entrusted with the power of peace and war. British judicial personnel would also be sent to India to administer the British legal system. The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers. Thus, Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of Bengal. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade, in exchange for the biennial sum and an obligation to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain. The costs of administration were also to be met by the company. These provisions, initially welcomed by the Company, backfired. The Company had an annual burden on its back, and its finances continued steadily to decline. Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... A Governor-General (in Canada always, and frequently in India prior to the abolition of the last monarchy, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the... The Council of Four was set up to limit the influence of the Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings. ... Sir Philip Francis (October 22, 1740 – December 23, 1818), English politician and pamphleteer, the probable author of the Letters of Junius, and the chief antagonist of Warren Hastings. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ...


East India Company Act (Pitt's India Act) 1784

This Act (24 Geo. III, s. 2, c. 25) had two key aspects:

  • Relationship to the British Government - the Bill clearly differentiated the political functions of the East India Company from its commercial activities. For its political transactions, the Act directly subordinated the East India Company to the British Government. To accomplish this, the Act created a Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India usually referred to as the Board of Control. The members of the Board of Control were the Chancellor of the Exchequer, a Secretary of State, and four Privy Councillors, nominated by the King. The Act specified that the Secretary of State, "shall preside at, and be President of the said Board".
  • Internal Administration of British India – the Bill laid the foundation of the British centralized bureaucratic administration of India which would reach its peak at the beginning of the twentieth century with the governor-generalship of George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Baron Curzon.
The expanded East India House, Leadenhall Street, London, as rebuilt 1799-1800, Richard Jupp, architect (as seen c. 1817; demolished in 1929)
The expanded East India House, Leadenhall Street, London, as rebuilt 1799-1800, Richard Jupp, architect (as seen c. 1817; demolished in 1929)

Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it was immediately apparent that the boundaries between governmental control and the Company's powers were obscure and highly subject to interpretation. The government also felt obliged to answer humanitarian voices pleading for better treatment of natives in British occupied territories. Edmund Burke, a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, felt compelled to relieve the situation and introduced before parliament a new Regulating Bill in 1783. The Bill was defeated due to intense lobbying by Company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the Bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The President of the Board of Control was a British government official in the late 18th and early 19th century responsible for overseeing the British East India Company and generally serving as the chief official in London responsible for Indian affairs. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman The Most Honourable George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 – March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman who served as Viceroy of India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata East_India_House_THS_1817_edited. ... Image File history File linksMetadata East_India_House_THS_1817_edited. ... East India House in the early 19th century. ... Richard Jupp (1728-17 April 1799) was an 18th century English architect, particularly associated with buildings in and around London. ... Edmund Burke (12 January 1729 – 9 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...


Act of 1786

This Act (26 Geo. III c. 16) enacted the demand of Lord Cornwallis, that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility. The Act also enabled the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be jointly held by the same official. Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (December 31, 1738-October 5, 1805) was a British general and colonial governor. ...


This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the Company. After this point, the Company functioned as a regularized subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation. Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the Company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions. By the middle of the 19th century, the Company's rule extended across most of India, Burma, Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong, and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence. British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ...


Charter Act 1813

The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India, except for the Punjab, Sind and Nepal. The Indian Princes had become vassals of the Company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the Company’s finances to the breaking point. The Company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of 1813 (53 Geo. III c. 155) which, among other things: Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Francis, 1st Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira) Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, (9 December 1754 - 28 November 1826) was a British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. ...

  • asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company;
  • renewed the Charter of Company for a further twenty years but,
    • deprived the Company of its Indian trade monopoly except for trade in tea and the trade with China;
    • required the Company to maintain separate and distinct its commercial and territorial accounts; and,
  • opened India to missionaries.

Charter Act 1833

The Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to this act.


The Act:

  • divested the Company of its commercial functions;
  • renewed for another twenty years the Company’s political and administrative authority;
  • invested the Board of Control with full power and authority over the Company. As stated by Kapur Professor Sri Ram Sharma, thus, summed up the point: "The President of the Board of Control now became Minister for Indian Affairs".
  • carried further the ongoing process of administrative centralization through investing the Governor-General in Council with, full power and authority to superintend and, control the Presidency Governments in all civil and military matters.
  • initiated a machinery for the codification of laws;
  • provided that no Indian subject of the Company would be debarred from holding any office under the Company by reason of his religion, place of birth, descent or colour. However, this remained a dead letter well into the 20th century.

Meanwhile, British influence continued to expand; in 1845, the Danish colony of Tranquebar was sold to Great Britain. The Company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java. It had solved its critical lack of the cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China. China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War with Britain. Tranquebar, 1600. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between Great Britain and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British opium. ...


Charter Act 1853

This Act provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in trust for the Crown until Parliament should decide otherwise.


The end

The efforts of the company in administering India emerged as a model for the civil service system in Britain, especially during the 19th century. Deprived of its trade monopoly in 1813, the company wound up as a trading enterprise. In 1858, the Company lost its administrative functions to the British government following the 1857 uprising which began with what the Company's Indian soldiers called the Sepoy Mutiny, Indian Rebellion of 1857 or War of Independence of 1857. India then became a formal crown colony. In the early 1860s, all of the Company's Indian possessions - including its armed forces - were appropriated by the Crown. The Company was still managing the tea trade on behalf of the British government (and supplying Saint Helena). When the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act came into effect, the Company was dissolved on January 1, 1874. The Times reported, "It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other company ever attempted and as such is ever likely to attempt in the years to come." The Byzantine civil service in action. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a British perspective. ... After the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, things went downhill for the British East India Company. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ...


In 1987, coffee merchants Tony Wild and David Hutton created a public limited company called "The East India Company" and in 1990 registered versions of the Company's coat of arms as a trademark, although the Patent Office noted 'Registration of this mark shall give no right to the exclusive use of the words "The East India Company"' [4]. By December 1996, this company had a website at www.theeastindiacompany.com. It sold St Helena coffee branded with the Company name and also produced a book on the history of the Company. This company has no legal continuity with the original Company, even though it claims on its website to have been founded in 1600. The initials PLC after a UK or Irish company name indicate that it is a public limited company, a type of limited company whose shares may be offered for sale to the public. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ...


East India Club

On the eve of the demise of the East India Company, the East India Club in London was formed for current and former employees of the East India Company. The Club still exists today and its club house is situated at 16 St. James's Square, London. Badge of the East India Club, London The East India, Devonshire, Sports and Public Schools Club, usually known as the East India Club, is a gentlemens club founded in 1849 and situated at 16 St. ... St Jamess Square in 1750, looking north St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Flags

The East India Company flag changed over time. From the period of 1600 to 1707 (Act of Union between England and Scotland) the flag consisted of a St George's cross in the canton and a number of alternating Red and White stripes. After 1707 the canton contained the original Union Flag consisting of a combined St George's cross and a St Andrew's cross. After the Act of Union 1800, that joined Ireland into the United Kingdom, the canton of the East India Company's flag was altered accordingly to include the new Union Flag with the additional St Patrick's cross. There has been much debate and discussion regarding the number of stripes on the flag and the order of the stripes. Historical documents and paintings show many variations from 9 to 13 stripes, with some images showing the top stripe being red and others showing the top stripe being white. The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots3 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  -  First Minister Jack McConnell... St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Saltire (or St Andrews Cross) is the national flag of Scotland. ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The National Flag of Ireland (Irish: An Bhratach Náisiúnta), also known as the Irish tricolour, was adopted officially in 1919 by the the state called Ireland (Éire in Irish), sometimes known as the Republic of Ireland. ...


At the time of the American Revolution the East India Company flag would have been identical to the Grand Union Flag. The flag probably inspired the Stars and Stripes (as argued by Sir Charles Fawcett in 1937). [5] Comparisons between the Stars and Stripes and the Company's flag from historical records present some convincing arguments. The John Company flag dates back to the 1600s whereas the United States adopted the Stars and Stripes in 1777 [6]. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Grand Union flag North Carolina Currency, 1776 Painting of flag of East India Company, 1732 The Grand Union Flag, also known as the Congress flag, the First Navy Ensign, The Cambridge Flag, and The Continental Colors is the first true Flag of the United States. ... National flag and ensign. ... Charles Fawcett was a British historian. ...


The stripes and gridlike appearance of the flag gave rise to several pieces of imperial slang. Most notably is the phrase 'riding the gridiron'; this referred to travelling on a ship flying the company flag to / from India.


Ships

A ship of the East India Company can also be called an East Indiaman. An East Indiaman was a ship belonging to the British East India Company. ...

The Earl of Abergavenny was an East Indiaman which was wrecked in Weymouth Bay, England in 1805. ... Royal Captain The Royal Captain was a 44 meter, 860 ton schooner under command of Captain Edward Berrow belonging to the British East India Company. ...

East India Company Records

Unlike all other British Government records, the records from the East India Company (and its successor India Office) are not in The National Archives at Kew, London, but are stored by the British Library in London as part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collection. The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues. Many of The East India Company Records are freely available online under an agreement that FIBIS have with the British Library. The National Archives building at Kew. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


References

  1. ^ John Keay, The Honourable Company - A History of the English East India Company, HarperCollins, London, 1991, ISBN 0-00-217515-0 (page 9)
  2. ^ Company incursion, Manila 1762-1763. See the Bib. for the citation of Sirs Draper and Cornish; see also Cushner's citation.

HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ...

See also

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... // Company Rule, 1757-1857 Expansion and territory It was not until the middle of the 19th century that almost all of the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh, India and Pakistan came under the rule of the British East India Company. ... The term New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europes powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. ... Western imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. ... The arms of the British South Africa Company Chartered companies are associations formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonisation. ... The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... The list was taken from only one source [1]. Some checking had been done but the dates and the links to names need further work. ... The following list of British East India Company directors is taken from the “Alphabetical List of Directors of the East India Company from 1758 to 1858”, compiled by C.H. & D. Philips and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, October 1941. ... East India Company was the name of several historic European companies chartered with the monopoly of trading with Asia for their respective countries. ... Dutch colonial possessions, with the Dutch East India Company possessions marked in a paler green, surrounding the Indian Ocean plus Saint Helena in the mid-Atlantic. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... The East Indiaman Götheborg in Oslo, for the centenary of the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden on 10 June 2005 The Swedish East India Company (Swedish: Svenska Ostindiska Companiet or SOIC) was founded in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1731 for the purpose of conducting trade with the... There has been more than one West India Company: The Dutch West India Company The French West Indies Company The Danish West India Company The Swedish West India Company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... A joint stock company is a special kind of partnership. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. ... The East India Company College was from 1805 to 1858 the college of the British East India Company (EIC). ... Sir Robert Brooke probably c. ... Sign above the entrance to the Protestant Cemetery in Macau. ... The spice wars were fought over the spice trade between Europe and the East Indies beginning in the Age of Exploration in the 15th century, and continuing through the 18th century. ...

External links

British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Untitled Document (2058 words)
The British East India company was a joint-stock company where the company was funded by several investors, each with individual shares in the company, for both profits and acquired debts.
The company received its charter to operate from Queen Elizabeth I on December 31 st, 1600 with the intent of obtaining a trade monopoly in the area.
Although the Nawab’s forces outnumbered the company’s forces greatly, with 50,000 of the Nawab’s soldiers compared to the 800 British and 2200 soldiers that were a part of the British East India Company.
British East India Company information - Search.com (4586 words)
The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as "John Company", was a joint-stock company which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India.
By 1689, the Company was arguably a "nation" in the Indian mainland, independently administering the vast presidencies of Bengal, Madras and Bombay and possessing a formidable and intimidating military strength.
Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in parliament, and from the Company's shareholders, the Act was passed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m