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Encyclopedia > British Civil Service
United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
United Kingdom
Image File history File links Her_Majesty's_Government_Coat_of_Arms. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Her Majesty's Government
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)

The Crown
The Privy Council
Cabinet
A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Prime Minister (Gordon Brown MP)
Chancellor (Alistair Darling MP)
Foreign Secretary (David Miliband MP)
Home Secretary (Jacqui Smith MP)
Justice Secretary (Jack Straw MP)
Full list of members
Parliament
State Opening of Parliament

House of Lords
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British politician who has been Home Secretary since 28 June 2007 and is the current Member of Parliament for Redditch, since 1997. ... The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...

Lord Speaker (Baroness Hayman)

House of Commons
The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...

Speaker (Michael Martin MP)
Prime Minister's Questions
Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
Leader (David Cameron)
Shadow Cabinet
Bureaucracy
Government departments

The Civil Service In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Prime Ministers Questions (PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada, this convention is known as... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ...

Judiciary
Courts of the United Kingdom
Courts of England and Wales
Courts of Northern Ireland
Courts of Scotland

Constitution
Human rights The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ...

Constituent countries
Politics of Scotland
Scottish Government
Scottish Parliament

Politics of Wales
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Government is an unofficial term often used to describe the Scottish Executive. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ...

Welsh Assembly Government
National Assembly for Wales

Politics of Northern Ireland
Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ...

Northern Ireland Executive
Northern Ireland Assembly

Politics of England
The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ...

English Regional Assemblies

Reserved matters
Local government
Greater London Authority Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...

Elections
Parliament constituencies

Political parties
Last election
Next election
The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... The United Kingdom House of Commons is made up of Members of Parliament (MPs). ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Marginal constituencies in the United Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010, barring exceptional circumstances. ...

Other
Foreign relations

EU Politics
The United Kingdom (UK) is a major player in international politics, with interests throughout the world. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ...


Other countries · Atlas
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Her Majesty's Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. Ministers are responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom, but their executive decisions are implemented by civil servants, who are employees of the Crown and not Parliament. Civil servants also have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account to Parliament. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


In general use, the term "civil servant" in the United Kingdom does not include all public sector employees; although there is no fixed legal definition, the term is usually defined as "a servant of the Crown working in a civil capacity who is not the holder of a political (or judicial) office; the holder of certain other offices in respect of whose tenure of office special provision has been made; [or] a servant of the Crown in a personal capacity paid from the Civil List".[1] As such, the Civil Service does not include government ministers (who are politically appointed), members of the British Armed Forces, police officers, local government officials, members of the National Health Service, or staff of the Royal Household. As of 2003, there are approximately 450,000 civil servants in the British Civil Service.[1] < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... Crown names several entities associated with monarchy: A crown (headgear), the headgear worn by a monarch, other high dignitaries, divinities etcetera. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... “NHS” redirects here. ... In all the medieval monarchies of western Europe the general system of government sprang from, and centred in, the royal household. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Establishment

Offices of state grew up in England, and later the United Kingdom, piecemeal. Initially, as in other countries, they were little more than secretariats for their leaders, who held positions at Court. In the 18th century, in response to empire and economic change, institutions such as the Office of Works and the Navy Board grew large. Each had its own system, and staff were appointed by purchase or patronage. By the 19th century it became increasingly clear that these arrangements were not working. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Secretariat may refer to: A racehorse who won the Triple Crown in 1973, see Secretariat (horse) In a Communist Party, a Secretariat is a key body that controls the central administration of the party, and if it is a ruling party, the country. ... Royal court (as distinguished from a court of law) may refer to a number of institutions: A noble court - the household or entourage of a monarch or other ruler The Royal Court of Jersey - the main court of justice of Jersey The Royal Court of Guernsey - the main court of... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1943 to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1806, the British East India Company established a college near London for training administrators based on the recommendation of officials in China who had seen the Chinese examination system. The civil service based on examination similar to the Chinese system was advocated by a number of Englishmen over the next several decades. (Bodde 2005) The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


A permanent, unified and politically neutral civil service, in which appointments were made on merit, was introduced on the recommendations of the Northcote-Trevelyan report of 1854, which also recommended a clear division between staff responsible for routine (“mechanical”) work, and those engaged in policy formulation and implementation in an “administrative” class. The report was well-timed, since bureaucratic chaos in the Crimean War promptly caused a clamour for the change. A Civil Service Commission was accordingly set up in 1855 to oversee open recruitment and end patronage, and most of the other Northcote-Trevelyan recommendations implemented over some years. This system was broadly endorsed by Commissions chaired by Playfair (1874), Ridley (1886), MacDonnell (1914), Tomlin (1931) and Priestley (1955). 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Chairmen John Houghton MHK, 2004-date George Waft MLC, 1996-2004 Claire Christian MLC, 1981-1982 Noel Cringle MLC, 1992-1996 This article about the Isle of Man is a stub. ...


The Northcote-Trevelyan model remained essentially stable for a hundred years. This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services (even under the stress of two world wars), and responding effectively to political change.


Lord Fulton's committee report

Following the Second World War, however, demands for change again grew. There was a concern (illustrated in C. P. Snow’s Strangers and Brothers series of novels) that technical and scientific expertise was mushrooming, to a point at which the “good all-rounder” culture of the administrative civil servant with a classics or other arts degree could no longer properly engage with it: as late as 1963, for example, the Treasury had just 19 trained economists. The times were, moreover, ones of keen respect for technocracy, with the mass mobilisation of war having worked effectively, and the French National Plan apparently delivering economic success. And there was also a feeling which would not go away, following the war and the radical social reforms of the 1945 Labour government, that the so-called “mandarins” of the higher civil service were too remote from the people. Indeed, between 1948 and 1963 only 3% of the recruits to the administrative class came from the working classes, and in 1966 more than half of the administrators at under-secretary level and above had been privately educated. Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, CBE (15 October 1905–1 July 1980) was a scientist and novelist. ... Strangers and Brothers is a series of novels by C.P.Snow, published between 1940 and 1974. ... A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... A Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, in the United Kingdom government structure, is a minister who is junior to a Minister of State who is then junior to a Secretary of State. ...


Lord Fulton’s committee reported in 1968 . He found that administrators were not professional enough, and in particular lacked management skills; that the position of technical and scientific experts needed to be rationalised and enhanced; and that the service was indeed too remote. His 158 recommendations included the introduction of a unified grading system for all categories of staff, a Civil Service College, and a central policy planning unit. He also said that control of the service should be taken from the Treasury, and given to a new Department, and that the “fast stream” recruitment process for accessing the upper echelons should be made more flexible, to encourage candidates from less privileged backgrounds.


Into Heath’s Downing Street came the Central Policy Review Staff (CPRS), and they were in particular given charge of a series of Programme Analysis and Review (PAR) studies of policy efficiency and effectiveness. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of...


But, whether through lack of political will, or through passive resistance by a mandarinate which the report had suggested were “amateurs”, Fulton failed. The Civil Service College equipped generalists with additional skills, but did not turn them into qualified professionals as ENA did in France. Recruits to the fast stream self-selected, with the universities of Oxford and Cambridge still producing a large plural majority of successful candidates, since the system continued to favour the tutorial system at Oxbridge. The younger mandarins found excuses to avoid managerial jobs in favour of the more prestigious policy postings. The generalists remained on top, and the specialists on tap. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Oxbridge is a name used to refer to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the two oldest in the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world. ...


Margaret Thatcher's government

Margaret Thatcher came to office in 1979 determined to prefer the free market to the state: government should be small but active. Many of her ministers were suspicious of the civil service, following the New Right doctrine that public servants always seek to increase their own power and budgets. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


She immediately set about reducing the size of the civil service, cutting numbers from 732,000 to 594,000 over her first seven years in office. Derek Rayner, the former chief executive of Marks and Spencer, was appointed as an efficiency expert with the Prime Minister's personal backing; he identified numerous problems with the Civil Service, arguing that only three billion of the eight billion pounds a year spent at that time by the Civil Service consisted of essential services, and that the "mandarins" (senior civil servants) needed to focus on efficiency and management rather than on policy advice.[2] In late 1981 the Prime Minister announced the abolition of the Civil Service Department, transferring power over the Civil Service to the Prime Minister's Office and Cabinet Office.[3] Marks and Spencer plc (known also as M&S and sometimes colloquially as Marks and Sparks) is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom by sales. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Pound may refer to Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet in progressing matters that require coordination across Government departments. ...


Meanwhile Michael Heseltine had introduced a comprehensive system of corporate and business planning (known as MINIS) first in the Department of the Environment and then in the Ministry of Defence. Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... The Department for the Environment (Formerly the Department of Environmental Protection) was West Australias environmental agency. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...


A Financial Management Initiative was launched in September 1982 (Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Civil Service (Cmnd 8616)) as an umbrella for the efficiency scrutiny programme and with a wider focus on corporate planning, efficiency and objective-setting. But by the mid 1980s, although cuts had been made, transformation had not happened. In February 1988 Robin Ibbs, recruited from ICI in July 1983 to run the Efficiency Unit (now in No. 10), published his report Improving Management in Government: The Next Steps. This envisaged a new approach to delivery featuring clear targets and personal responsibility. Without any statutory change, the managerial functions of Ministries would be hived off into Executive Agencies, with clear Framework Documents setting out their objectives, and whose chief executives would be made accountable directly (in some cases to Parliament) for performance. Agencies were to, as far as possible, take a commercial approach to their tasks. However, the Government conceded that agency staff would remain civil servants, which diluted the radicalism of the reform. The approach seems somewhat similar to the Swedish model, though no influence from Sweden has ever been acknowledged. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An Executive Agency is a British public institution that carries out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Next Steps Initiative took some years to get off the ground, and progress was patchy. Significant change was achieved, although agencies never really achieved the level of autonomy envisaged at the start. Meanwhile, the accountability of the remaining civil servants began to be improved. MINIS-style business planning became standard, and delegated budgets were introduced, so that individual managers were for the first time held fully accountable for meeting objectives, and for the resources they used to do so. The Priestley Commission principle of pay comparability with the private sector had been abandoned in February 1982. Performance-related pay began in December 1984, was built on thereafter, and continues to this day. Performance Related Pay is money paid to someone relating to how well s/he works at their workplace, Car salesmen, production line workers etc may be in this way or through commission. ... This article is about the year. ...


Next Steps may always have had the ultimate goal of privatisation. Certainly, the focus on smaller, more accountable, units revived the keenness of Ministerial interest in the perceived efficiencies of the private sector. Already in the late 1980s, some common services once set up in the expectation of economies of scale, such as the Property Services Agency or the Crown Suppliers, were being dismantled or sold off. Next, shortly after Thatcher left office, in July 1991, a new programme of market-testing of central government services began, with the White Paper Competing for Quality (Cm 1730). Five-yearly or three-yearly policy and finance reviews of all agencies and other public bodies were instituted, where the first question to be answered (the “prior options exercise") was why the function should not be abolished or privatised. Strategic contracting-out also took place, where the Government did not wait to examine whether a private sector solution would be more efficient, but went ahead with it on the principle that the private sector was always more efficient and more responsive. For example, the Government's internal Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA), a civil-service staffed consultancy which monitored and directed internal government IT projects was closed down as it was leading the fight to retain internal expertise. This has led to most IT services within the UK Government being managed by private companies; the US firm EDS now has a large proportion of the total, which some have suggested gives it the capacity to manipulate pricing, or even be a strategic threat to UK interests. In November 1991 the Private Finance Initiative was launched, and by November 1994 the Chancellor of the Exchequer had referred to it as ‘the funding mechanism of choice for most public sector projects’. In 1995 the decision was taken to privatise the Chessington Computer Centre, HMSO, the Occupational Health & Safety Agency and Recruitment & Assessment Services. The Property Services Agency (PSA) was an agency of the United Kingdom government, in existence from 1972 to 1993. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) was a UK government agency providing computer and telecoms support to Government departments. ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) (NYSE: EDS, LSE: EDC) is a global business and technology services company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... The Private Finance Initiative specifies a method, developed initially by the United Kingdom government, to provide financial support for Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) between the public and private sectors. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ...


The Citizen’s Charter

It was believed with the Thatcher reforms that efficiency was improving. But there was still a perception of carelessness and lack of responsiveness in the quality of public services. The government of John Major sought to tackle this with a Citizen’s Charter programme. This sought to empower the service user, by setting out rights to standards in each service area, and arrangements for compensation when these were not met. An Office of Public Service and Science was set up in 1992, to see that the Charter policy was implemented across government. For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ...


By 1998, 42 Charters had been published, and they included services provided by public service industries such as the health service and the railways, as well as by the civil service. The programme was also expanded to apply to other organisations such as local government or housing associations, through a scheme of “Chartermark” awards. The programme was greeted with some derision, and it is true that the compensation sometimes hardly seemed worth the effort of claiming, and that the service standards were rarely set with much consumer input. But the initiative did have a significant effect in changing cultures, and paradoxically the spin-off Chartermark initiative may have had more impact on local organisations uncertain about what standards to aim for, than the parent Citizen’s Charter programme itself.


Political neutrality

The British Civil Service is a politically neutral body, with the function of impartially implementing the policy programme of the elected government.


Like all servants of the Crown, civil servants are legally barred from standing for election as Members of Parliament or any other political office.[4] Also, under regulations first adopted in 1954 and revised in 1984, members of the Senior Civil Service (the top management grades) are barred from holding office in a political party or publicly expressing controversial political viewpoints, while less senior civil servants at an intermediate (managerial) level must generally seek permission to participate in political activities. The most junior civil servants are permitted to participate in political activities, but must be politically neutral in the exercise of their duties.[4] Crown names several entities associated with monarchy: A crown (headgear), the headgear worn by a monarch, other high dignitaries, divinities etcetera. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ...


All civil servants are subject to the Official Secrets Act, meaning that they may not disclose sensitive government information. Since 1998, there have also been restrictions on contact between civil servants and lobbyists; this followed an incident known as "Lobbygate", where an undercover reporter for The Observer, posing as a business leader, was introduced by a lobbyist to a senior Downing Street official who promised privileged access to government ministers.[5][6] The Committee on Standards in Public Life, also created in 1998, is responsible for regulation of contacts between public officials and lobbyists. Official Secrets Act warning sign, Foulness. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of... The Committee on Standards in Public Life is a Standing Committee of the British House of Commons. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


One criticism of Civil Service neutrality in recent years has centred around the increasing influence of politically-appointed "special advisers" in government departments, which is alleged to have reduced the political neutrality of public administration. In 2000, then-Prime Minister Tony Blair was criticised for appointing 20 special advisers (compared to eight under his predecessor John Major) and for the fact that the total salary cost of special advisers across all government departments had reached £4 million.[7] In 2001, Stephen Byers, then Secretary of State for Transport, was forced to resign because of the actions of his special adviser Jo Moore, who instructed a departmental civil servant, Martin Sixsmith, that September 11th 2001 would be "a good day to bury bad news"; this was seen as inappropriate political manipulation of the Civil Service.[8] In particular, under the administration of Tony Blair, the influence of two Downing Street special advisers, Jonathan Powell and Alistair Campbell, both of whom were given formal power over Downing Street civil servants, provoked widespread criticism.[9] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The symbol £ represents the pound currency which Britain uses. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Right Honourable Stephen John Byers (born April 13, 1953) is a British Labour Party politician and former cabinet minister. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Jo Moore (born 1963) served as a British political advisor and press officer, and was embroiled in scandal while working as advisor to the Transport, Local Government and Regions Secretary Stephen Byers. ... The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of... Jonathan Powell (born 1947) is a British television producer and executive. ... Alistair Campbell may refer to: The former Zimbabwean cricket captain The poet from the Cook Islands The former director of Communications and Strategy for 10 Downing Street This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Civil service code

A new civil service code was launched on 6 June 2006 to outline the core values and standards expected of civil servants. The core values are defined as integrity, honesty, objectivity, and impartiality. A key change from previous values is the removal of anonymity within the core values.


Heads of the Civil Service

Sir (Norman Fenwick) Warren Fisher 1879 - 1948 British Civil Servant, born in Croydon, London on the 22nd September 1879. ... Sir Horace John Wilson (1882-1972) was a British government official who had a key role in the appeasement-oriented government of Neville Chamberlain just prior to World War II. Wilson is a key character in Michael Dobbs novel Winstons War. ... Robert Armstrong is a character in James Clavells novel Noble House. ... Frederick Edward Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, KG, GCB, CVO, PC (born 3 January 1938) is a retired British civil servant, now sitting in the House of Lords as a life peer. ... Richard Thomas James Wilson, Baron Wilson of Dinton KCB (born 11 October 1942) is a cross bench member of the House of Lords. ... Andrew Turnbull is the name of several notable people: Dr. Andrew Turnbull (1718–1792), early colonizer of Florida Andrew Turnbull, Baron Turnbull (born 1945), was the head of the British Civil Service and Cabinet Secretary (2002–2005) Andymt, AKA Andrew Turnbull , notorius public schoolboy rapper. ... Sir Augustine Thomas ODonnell, KCB (born 1955) is the highest ranking British civil servant, in the British Civil Service. ...

Miscellaneous

Whitehall is the central London street on which many ministries sit. Whitehall is therefore often used as a by-name to refer to the executive branch of Government, and particularly the civil service (somewhat as in earlier days European foreign ministries were referred to by their addresses as "the Quai d'Orsay", "Wilhelmstraße" or "the Sublime Porte"). This contrasts with Westminster, which is used similarly to refer to the Houses of Parliament, and "Downing Street" or simply "No. 10" which is used for the Prime Minister's office. Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Quai dOrsay is a Parisian quay situated on the Ile de la Cité. Its name is commonly associated with the French Ministry of External Affairs, whose building is situated on the quay. ... Wilhelmstraße (William street) in Berlin became during the 19th century the governmental neighbourhood of Prussia. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of...


The BBC television series Yes Minister and Yes, Prime Minister are a parody of the Civil Service and its relationship with government ministers. The portrayal is a caricature, but many insiders[specify] recognise a considerable element of truth in it, and though the Civil Service reforms since the 1980s have made the portrayal of powerful civil servants like Nigel Hawthorne's Sir Humphrey Appleby increasingly out-of date, the programme continues to have many legions of loyal fans, including ex-Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Yes Minister is a satirical British sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn that was first transmitted by BBC television and radio between 1980 and 1984, split over three seven-episode series. ... Sir Nigel Hawthorne, CBE (5 April 1929 – 26 December 2001) was a renowned English actor. ... Sir Humphrey Appleby, on the left, giving directions to the Minister as usual Sir Humphrey Appleby, GCB (April 5, 1929 – December 26, 2001)[1] is one of the three main characters of the 1980s British sitcom Yes, Minister and its sequel, Yes, Prime Minister. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Bradley and Ewing, p.272
  2. ^ Sampson, p.174-5
  3. ^ Sampson, p.171
  4. ^ a b Bradley and Ewing, p.279-80
  5. ^ Bradley and Ewing, p.280
  6. ^ [Chapter 7: Lobbying and All-Party Groups], Sixth Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life
  7. ^ The advisers: Modernisation or politicisation?, BBC News, 12 January 2000
  8. ^ Spin doctor role under spotlight, BBC News, 5 January 2004
  9. ^ Uncivil to the servants, The Scotsman, 26 February 2002

The Committee on Standards in Public Life is a Standing Committee of the British House of Commons. ...

References

  • Bradley, A.W. and Ewing, K.D., Constitutional and Administrative Law (Pearson, 2003), ISBN 0-582-43807-1
  • Sampson, Anthony, The Changing Anatomy of Britain (Hodder and Stoughton, 1982)
  • Bodde, D., Chinese Ideas in the West [1]
  • Jonathan Tonge, The New Civil Service, Baseline, Tisbury 1999
  • Christopher Foster, British Government in Crisis, Hart 2005
  • House of Commons Public Administration Committee, "These Unfortunate Events": Lessons of Recent Events at the Former DTLR, HMSO 2002 [2]

See also

Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-Secretary of State (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis. ... See Private Secretary to the Sovereign. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (685 words)
In the British Civil Service, civil servants are career employees recruited and promoted on the basis of their administrative skill and technical expertise, and as such do not include, nor are appointed by, elected officials or their political advisors.
The British civil service was at its largest in 1976 with approximately three-quarters of a million servants employed.
The Chinese civil service became known to Europe in the mid-18th century and it is believed to have influenced the creation of civil services in Europe.
Civil service - definition of Civil service in Encyclopedia (473 words)
In the British system of Civil Service, civil servants are career employees recruited and promoted on the basis of their administrative skill and technical expertise, and as such do not include, nor are appointed by, elected officials or their political advisors.
In contrast, the civil service of the United States in the early 19th Century was based on the so-called spoils system, in which all bureaucrats were dependent on elected politicians.
One of the oldest examples of a civil service is the Chinese bureaucracy which during the Tang dynasty relied decreasingly on aristocratic recommendations and more and more upon promotion based on written examinations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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