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Encyclopedia > British Board of Film Classification
British Board of Film Classification logo

The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for film and some video game classification and censorship within the United Kingdom. Image File history File links British Board of Film Classification logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ...

Contents

Responsibility and power

The BBFC rates theatrically-released films, videos and some video games. Legally local authorities have the power to decide under what circumstances films are shown in cinemas, but they nearly always choose to follow the advice of the BBFC. This article is about computer and video games. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...


Under the Video Recordings Act, all video releases not exempt under the Act must be classified by the BBFC, it being illegal to supply any recording that has not been specifically certified, even if the underlying content has been. For example, supply of non-UK version of a DVD is illegal, even if its contents are identical to the BBFC-certified UK release. The Video Recordings Act is a UK Act of Parliament that was passed into law in 1984. ...


Video games with specific themes or content must also be submitted to the BBFC to receive a legally-binding rating (contrast advisory PEGI ratings) in the same way as videos. Other video games may be submitted at the publisher's discretion. PEGIs logo Pan European Game Information, or more commonly PEGI, is a European system for rating the content of computer and video games, and other entertainment software. ...


All videos and games rated by the BBFC receive a certificate, along with "consumer advice" detailing references to sex, violence and coarse language. If a certificate specifies that a film or video game is only suitable for someone over a certain age, then only those over that age may buy it. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


The BBFC can also advise cuts for a less-restrictive rating. This generally occurs in borderline cases where distributors have requested a certificate and the BBFC has rated the work at a more-restrictive level. The final certificate then depends on the distributor's decision on whether or not to make the suggested cuts.


Current certificates

The BBFC currently issues the following certificates:

Symbol Name Definition
Uc Universal Children Suitable for all, but especially suitable for young children to watch on their own (home media only)
Universal Suitable for all
Parental Guidance All ages admitted, but parents are advised that certain scenes may be unsuitable for children
12 Accompanied/Advisory Suitable for those aged 12 and over (cinema only); those aged under 12 are only admitted if accompanied by an adult
12 Suitable for those aged 12 and over (VHS, DVDs and games only). Nobody under 12 may buy or rent a 12 rated DVD, VHS or game.
15 Suitable for those aged 15 and over.

Nobody younger than 15 may see a 15 film in a cinema. No-one younger than 15 may rent or buy a 15 rated VHS, DVD or game. Image File history File links The BBFCs Uc symbol from 2002 onwards. ... Image File history File links The BBFCs U symbol from 2002 onwards. ... Image File history File links The BBFCs PG symbol from 2002 onwards. ... Image File history File links The BBFCs 12A symbol. ... Image File history File links The BBFCs 12 symbol from 2002 onwards. ... Image File history File links The BBFCs 15 symbol from 2002 onwards. ...

18 Suitable for those aged 18 and over.

Nobody younger than 18 may see an 18 film in a cinema. Nobody younger than 18 may rent or buy an 18 rated VHS, DVD or game. Image File history File links The BBFCs 18 symbol from 2002 onwards. ...

R18 Restricted 18 Suitable for those aged 18 and over. May only be shown at licensed cinemas or sold at sex shops, and only to people aged 18 or over.
Examples of Exempt.


Material that is exempt from classification sometimes uses symbols similar to BBFC certificates, for example an E "certificate". There is no legal obligation, nor a particular scheme, for labeling material that is exempt from classification. See the article on the history of British film certificates for details of earlier ratings systems. On the BBFC's online classification database, material that has been refused a classification uses a red serif R in place of a rating symbol. Image File history File links The BBFCs R18 symbol from 2002 onwards. ... A sex shop is a shop that sells products such as sex toys, pornography, erotic lingerie, erotic books, and safer sex products such as condoms and dental dams. ... Image File history File links Exempt_uk. ... Image File history File links Exempt_uk. ... This article chronicles the history of British film certificates. ...


History and overview

Back when they were the "Film Censors"
Back when they were the "Film Censors"

The BBFC was established in 1912 as the British Board of Film Censors by the film industry (who would rather manage their own censorship than have national or local government do it for them). The legal basis on which it operated was the Cinematograph Act 1909, which required cinemas to be licensed by local authorities. The Act was introduced following safety concerns following a number of nitrate film fires in unsuitable venues (fairgrounds and shops which had been hastily converted into cinemas), but the following year a court ruling (LCC v. Bermondsey Bioscope Co.) determined that the criteria for granting or refusing a licence did not have to be restricted to issues of health and safety. Given that the law now allowed councils to grant or refuse licenses to cinemas according to the content of the films they showed, the 1909 Act therefore enabled the introduction of censorship. The film industry, fearing the economic consequences of a largely unregulated censorship infrastructure, therefore formed the BBFC in order to take the process 'in house' and establish its own system of self-regulation. Image File history File links BBFCCert. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Cinematograph Act 1909 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (9 Edw. ... Nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ...


Informal links, to varying degrees of closeness, have been maintained between the BBFC and the Government throughout the Board's existence. In the period before World War II, an extensive but unofficial system of political censorship was implemented by the BBFC at the Home Office's bequest. As the cinema became a culturally powerful mass-medium, governments feared the effect of its overt use for propaganda (as happened in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany), and discouraged any expression of controversial political views in British films. This trend reached its climax during the 1930s. Following protests from the German Embassy after the release of a film depicting the execution of Edith Cavell (Dawn, 1928, dir. Herbert Wilcox), intense political pressure was brought to bear on the BBFC by the Home Office. A system of script vetting was introduced, whereby British studios were invited to submit screenplays to the BBFC before shooting started. Interestingly, imported Hollywood films were not treated as strictly as British films, as the BBFC believed that audiences would recognise American cinema as representing a foreign culture, and therefore would not apply any political messages therein to their own lives. So while the Warners gangster films and other 1930s Hollywood films which explicitly dealt with crime and the effects of the Great Depression were released in the UK largely uncut, these subjects were strictly off-limits for British film-makers. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Edith Cavell Statue in memory of Edith Cavell, opposite the National Portrait Gallery, London A propaganda image of Edith Cavell Edith Louisa Cavell (December 4, 1865–October 12, 1915) is a World War I heroine. ... Herbert Sydney Wilcox (19 April 1892, – 15 May 1977), was a British film producer and director. ... Warner Bros. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ...


During World War II, the BBFC's political censorship function effectively passed to the Films Division of the Ministry of Information, and the BBFC never regained this to the same extent as before the war. The increasing climate of post-war liberalism ensured that from the 1950s onwards, controversies involving the BBFC centred more on depictions of sex and violence than on political expression. There were some notable exceptions: Yield to the Night (UK, 1956, dir. J. Lee Thompson), which opposed capital punishment; Room at the Top (UK, 1959, dir. Jack Clayton), which dealt with class divisions; Victim (UK, 1960, dir. Basil Dearden), which implicitly argued for the legalisation of homosexuality all involved the BBFC in controversy. The Minister of Information is a British government position that was created briefly during the First World War and again during the Second World War. ... The 1956 film Yield to the Night, stars Diana Dors as a doomed murderess. ... John Lee-Thompson, known as J. Lee Thompson (1 August 1914 - 30 August 2002) was a film director, active in both British films and Hollywood. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Room at the Top is a 1959 film which tells the story of a young man in a dreary English factory town who thinks that he might be able to move up the ladder if he marries the bosss daughter. ... Jack Clayton (March 1, 1921–February 26, 1995) was a British film director who specialised in bringing literary works to the screen. ... Victim is a 1961 British film directed by Basil Dearden, starring Dirk Bogarde and Sylvia Syms. ... Basil Dearden was an English film director, born Basil Dear in Westcliff-on-Sea, Essex, in 1911. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


In 1984 it changed to its current name to "reflect the fact that classification plays a far larger part in the Board's work than censorship" [1]. At that time it was given responsibility for classifying videos for hire or purchase to view in the home as well as films shown in cinemas. Home video and cinema versions of a film usually receive the same certificate, although occasionally a film may receive a more restrictive certificate for the home video market, as it is easier for children to watch a home video than to be admitted into a cinema. Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Board is an independent, non-governmental organisation. Its business affairs are controlled by a council of management selected from leading figures in the manufacturing and servicing sectors of the film industry. This council appoints the President, who has statutory responsibility for the classification of videos and the Director who has executive responsibility and formulates policy. The Board, which is based in Soho Square, Soho, London, is financed from the fees it charges for classifying films and videos and is run on a not-for-profit basis. Soho Square in 1816. ... Soho is an area of central Londons West End, in the borough of the City of Westminster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In the case of films shown in cinemas, local authorities have the final legal say about who can watch a particular film. The majority of the time, local authorities accept the Board's recommendation for a certificate for a film. There have been some notable exceptions - particularly in the 1970s when the Board allowed films such as Last Tango in Paris and The Exorcist to be released with an X certificate (essentially the same as today's "18") - but many local authorities chose to ban the films regardless. Last Tango in Paris (Italian: Ultimo tango a Parigi, French: Le Dernier Tango à Paris) is a 1972 film which tells the story of an American widower who is drawn into a sexual relationship with a soon-to-be-married Parisian woman. ... The Exorcist is an Academy Award-winning 1973 American horror and thriller film, adapted from the 1971 novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty, dealing with the demonic possession of a young girl, and her mother’s desperate attempts to win back her daughter through an Exorcisim conducted...


Conversely, in 2002, a few local authorities, apparently under pressure from distributors and cinema chains, ignored the BBFC's ruling that Spider-Man receive a 12 rating, and allowed children younger than 12 to see the film. However, the BBFC were already in the process of replacing the 12 rating with a new 12A which allowed under-12s to see the film, provided that they are accompanied by an adult, so shortly afterwards, Spider-Man was reclassified as 12A. A common misconception is that the rating was introduced as a direct result of Spider-Man. While it is true that the introduction was accelerated, plans to relegate "12" to an advisory rating for cinema were drawn up as early as 2000, and piloted in Norwich in 2001. The first 12A certificate awarded was for The Bourne Identity. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Tobey Maguire in Spider-Man Spider-Man is the name of an extremely successful movie (released on May 3, 2002) which stars Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst and Willem Dafoe and was directed by Sam Raimi. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norwich (IPA: //) is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1988 film starring Richard Chamberlain, see The Bourne Identity (1988 film). ...


Local authorities do not have such power for video recordings. Under the Video Recording Act 1984, all non-exempt recordings must be classified by an authority chosen by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. This classification is then legally binding, in that supply of material contrary to its certificate (selling recordings which have been refused a certificate, or supplying to someone younger than the certified age) is a criminal offence. However, possession is not an offence in itself, other than in the case of "possession with intent to supply". Since the introduction of the Act, the BBFC has been the chosen authority. In theory this authority could be revoked, but in practice such a revocation has never been suggested. The Video Recordings Act is a UK Act of Parliament that was passed into law in 1984. ... The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport is a UK cabinet position with responsibility for the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. ...


The BBFC rates some video games. Normally these are exempt from classification, unless they depict human sexual activity, human genital organs or gross acts of violence, in which case the publishers should submit the game for classification. A publisher may opt to submit a game for classication even if they are not obliged to. The first computer game to receive a 15 certificate from the BBFC was an illustrated text adventure called Dracula, based on the Bram Stoker novel, published in 1986 by CRL. The first computer game to receive an 18 certificate was another illustrated text adventure called Jack The Ripper, also by CRL, which was published in 1987 and dealt with the infamous real life murders in Victorian London. The horror in both games came through largely in their detailed prose. Had the game publishers reprinted the games' text in book form, it would not have carried a certificate, as the BBFC has no oversight over print media. Both games had numerous certificate stickers all over their covers to emphasise to parents and retailers that they were not intended for children, as computer games carrying BBFC certificates were previously unheard of. The first game to be refused classification by the BBFC was Carmageddon in 1997, however a modified version of the game was later awarded an 18 certificate. In June 2007, Manhunt 2 was refused classification in both its PlayStation 2 and Wii versions, effectively banning the game.[2] This article is about computer and video games. ... Zork, an early work of interactive fiction, running on a modern interpreter Interactive fiction, often abbreviated as IF, is a simulated environment in which players use text commands to control characters. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... CRL Group PLC is a defunct brittish video game company. ... Carmageddon is the first of a series of graphically violent driving-oriented video games produced by Stainless Games, published by Interplay and SCi. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manhunt 2 is a video game developed by Rockstar Games and the sequel to 2003s Manhunt. ... The PlayStation 2 , abbreviated PS2) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ...


Examiners are now hired on a five-year contract, as opposed to being permanent. They are required to watch 5 hours 20 mins of media per weekday. Turnover is low and vacancies, when available, appear at [3].


Attitudes to censorship

Historically the Board has faced strong criticism for an over-zealous attitude in censoring film. Prior to the liberalising decade of the 1960s, films were routinely and extensively censored as a means of social control. For example, Rebel Without a Cause was cut in order to reduce the "possibility of teenage rebellion". Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer Night was cut to remove "overtly sexual or provocative" language. Natalie Wood and James Dean in a screenshot from Rebel Without a Cause. ... Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ...


The BBFC's attitude moved extensively towards liberalisation during the 1960s - concentrating on censoring films featuring graphic sex and violence. However decisions which the Board reached repeatedly caused controversy in the 1970s when it banned a series of films that were released uncut and were popular in other countries (such as The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and Last House on the Left), or released others which proved controversial, such as Straw Dogs and A Clockwork Orange. However, under recent President Andreas Whittam Smith and current incumbent Sir Quentin Thomas, guidelines have been relaxed again, allowing the release, usually uncut, of these previously banned films on video and in cinemas. Some films from the 1970s remain unreleased (see this list for titles), but many of these titles remain banned primarily because their distributors have not chosen to re-submit the films to the BBFC, almost certainly for commercial reasons. If they were, they would be likely to receive a more sympathetic hearing than 30 years ago - only two films from the 1970s, Love Camp 7 (rejected in 2002) and Women in Cellblock 9 (rejected in 2004), both of which contain substantial scenes of sexual violence, have remained completely banned following a re-submission since 2000. The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (sometimes written as The Texas Chainsaw Massacre) is an independent low-budget influential horror film, known to be a true horror classic, that started off a new wave of horror films. ... The Last House on the Left is a 1972 horror film written and directed by Wes Craven. ... Straw Dogs is a 1971 film directed by Sam Peckinpah. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Andreas Whittam Smith CBE, (born 13 June 1937), British financial journalist, was one of the co-founders of The Independent newspaper in October 1986, and is a former president of the British Board of Film Classification. ... Quentin Thomas is a basketball player from Oakland, California. ... Love Camp 7 is a 1969 film directed by American director Lee Frost and written by Bob Cresse. ... Women in Cellblock 9 is a 1977 film directed by Spanish director Jesus Franco. ...


In general, attitudes to what material is suitable for viewing by minors have changed over the years, and this is reflected by the reclassification of older films being re-released on video. A 1913 film given the former A rating could very probably be rated U today. An extreme example of this is the rating of the horror film Revenge of the Zombies, with a U certificate upon its video release in the late 1990s, whereas, when it was first examined as a film in 1951, it was given one of the first X ratings. DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ...


Relaxation

The relaxation of guidelines has also made hardcore pornography widely available to adult audiences through the R18 rating. Films with this rating are only legally available from licensed sex shops, of which there are about 100 in the UK. They may also be seen in specially licensed cinemas. Violent films or films with mixed sexual and violent themes are more likely to be acceptable at an 18 rating than ever before. Pornographic movies Pornography (Porn) (from Greek πόρνη (porne) prostitute and γραφή (grafe) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... The R18 certificate represents a film or video classification given by the British Board of Film Classification. ...


Recent examples include the passing of Irreversible, "Romance", "Baise-Moi" and numerous other films uncut for cinema and video viewing. Despite this trend towards liberalisation, anti-censorship campaigners are still critical of the BBFC. A prominent online campaign group is the "Melon Farmers", which criticises both the laws that BBFC is required to uphold and the BBFC's interpretation of that law in specific cases. Conversely, BBFC has attracted more criticism from conservative press, in particular the Daily Mail, on the grounds that the release of sexually explicit and violent films was corrupting the nation. The newspaper's most famous clash with the BBFC came when the Board released Crash without cuts. The following day (19 March 1997) the Mail led with the banner headline "CENSOR'S YES TO DEPRAVED SEX FILM". Westminster City Council imposed its own ban on the film after the decision. Movie Poster for Irréversible Irréversible (2002, France) is a film written, directed, edited, and photographed by Gaspar Noé. It is considered to be one of the most controversial and disturbing films ever made, due to its explicit on-camera depiction of rape and a vengeful murder. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Daily Mail is a British tabloid newspaper first published in 1896. ... Crash is a 1996 film written and directed by David Cronenberg. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ...


Current concerns

The BBFC's current guidelines identify a number of specific areas of concern which are considered when awarding certificates or requiring cuts. These are theme, language (i.e. profanity), nudity, sex, violence, sexual violence, criminal or harmful actions that can easily be imitated (certain combat moves, suicidal techniques, and stunts considered criminal acts or likely to end up in injury or death fall under this category), horror, and drugs. The BBFC also continues to demand cuts of any material which it considers may breach the provisions of the Obscene Publications Act or any other legislation (most notably the Cinematograph Films (Animals) Act 1937 and the Protection of Children Act 1978). Between 2000 and 2006, about 2% of films have had material cut.[4] In literature (as well as many works of nonfiction), a theme is the main idea of the story, or the message the author is conveying. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Since 1857, a series of obscenity laws known as the Obscene Publications Acts have governed what can be published. ...


There is no theme or subject-matter that is considered inherently unsuitable for classification at any level, although more controversial topics might require a restricted certificate. This is in keeping with current practice in most liberal democracies, but in sharp contrast to the early days of the BBFC when such themes as prostitution, incest and the relations of capital and labour were unacceptable in any circumstances. Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Whore redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ...


'Bad' or 'strong' language can earn a film a more restrictive certificate, though BBFC policy states that there are no constraints on language use in films awarded an 18 certificate. It is difficult to compare the BBFC's policies in this area with those in other countries as there are different taboos regarding profanity in other languages and indeed in other English-speaking countries. For example, the use of 'strong' language has little effect on a film's classification in France. The BBFC's policy proved particularly controversial in the case of Ken Loach's Sweet Sixteen in 2002, which was passed uncut only at 18 certificate, even though its main characters were teenagers who frequently used profanities that the director argued were typical of the social group his film depicted. The film received similar certificates in Ireland (also an 18 certificate) and the United States, but in Australia it was awarded the less restrictive MA certificate. The 18 certificate is issued by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) to state that, in its opinion, a film or video recording should not be seen or purchased by a person under 18 years old. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... Sweet Sixteen was a 2002 film by director Ken Loach. ... Motion picture rating systems are issued to give moviegoers an idea of the suitability of a movie for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and bad language. ...


There are minimal restrictions of the depiction of non-sexual nudity, which may be allowed in even U and PG certificate films, but scenes of (simulated) sexual activity are limited to more restricted certificates. With regard to material that is intended primarily as pornographic the Board's policy, as stated on its website is "Material which appears to be simulated is generally passed ‘18’, while images of real sex are confined to the ‘R18’ category." However, for some years depictions of real sex have been allowed in 18 certificate videos which are intended to be educational, and in recent years a number of works such as Catherine Breillat's Romance, Patrice Chéreau's Intimacy and Michael Winterbottom's 9 Songs which feature apparently unsimulated sex have been passed uncut for theatrical release. Catherine Breillat (born July 13, 1948) is a filmmaker and director based in Paris. ... Romance (Romance X) is a 1999 French movie written and directed by Catherine Breillat. ... Patrice Chéreau (born November 2nd, 1944 in Lézigné, France) is a French director, film maker, actor, and producer. ... Intimacy is a 2001 France/United Kingdom/Germany/Spain drama film by Patrice Chéreau and written by Patrice Chéreau, Anne-Louise Trividic and Hanif Kureishi. ... Winterbottom at the Toronto International Film Festival. ... Film poster for 9 Songs 9 Songs is a 2004 British film, directed by Michael Winterbottom. ...


Violence remains one of the most problematic areas, especially where it is sexualised. The Board continues to cut films even at 18 certificate for "any detailed portrayal of violent or dangerous acts which is likely to promote the activity." This is particularly the case with so-called "imitable techniques". However, the Board takes into account issues of context and whether it considers scenes of sexual violence to "eroticise" or "endorse" sexual assault. In 2002, the board passed Gaspar Noé's Irréversible uncut, but less than a month later cut Takashi Miike's Ichi the Killer by three and a quarter minutes specifically for its alleged sexual violence. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Gaspar Noé (born on 27 December 1963 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentinan-born French filmmaker best known for shock-cinema works such as I Stand Alone and Irréversible. ... Irréversible (2002, France) is a film written, directed, edited, and photographed by Gaspar Noé. It is considered to be one of the most disturbing and controversial films of 2002, due to its explicit on-camera depiction of rape and murder. ... Takashi Miike ) (born August 24, 1960) is a highly prolific and controversial Japanese filmmaker. ... Ichi the Killer ) (2001) is a film directed by Takashi Miike and adapted from a manga by Hideo Yamamoto. ...


Crime techniques which may be imitated may be cut at any level of certification, as may depictions of drug use that might be imitated. Films which "promote or encourage the use of illegal drugs" may also be cut at any level. The issue of imitable techniques is one that does not seem to figure especially highly in the censorship systems of most other countries, but in the UK numerous minor cuts have been made, primarily to films whose distributors want a PG or 12A certificate, to supposedly imitable techniques. For example, in recent months issues involving hanging have become very problematic; Ren and Stimpy Series 1 (classified PG) was cut for a depiction of hanging which "is presented as comedic, fun and risk free, on the grounds of potential harm to the likely audience" [5] whilst Paranoia Agent Volume 3 (classified 18) was cut to remove the depiction of an attempted self-hanging by a child [6]. Ren and Stimpy are the eponymous characters of two cartoon television series created by Canadian animator John Kricfalusi. ... Paranoia Agent ) is a Japanese anime television miniseries about a social phenomenon in Musashino, Tokyo caused by a juvenile serial assailant named Shounen Bat (Bat Boy; called Lil Slugger in the English dub). ...


June 19, 2007, the BBFC has refused to certify the PlayStation 2 and Wii editions of Manhunt 2, meaning that it will not be legal to sell in the UK (however it will be legal to own), unless Rockstar makes extreme changes and resubmits it,[2] or appeals the ruling.[3] Manhunt 2 is a video game developed by Rockstar Games and the sequel to 2003s Manhunt. ...


Presidents of the BBFC

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Thomas Power OConnor (always known as T.P. OConnor or Tay Pay) (5 October 1848 - 18 November 1929) was a journalist and an Irish nationalist political figure. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Shortt KC (March 10, 1862 - November 10, 1935) was a British politician, who served as a member of David Lloyd Georges cabinet. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... William George Tyrrell, 1st Baron Tyrrell GCB, GCMG, KCVO (1866 - 1947) was a British diplomat. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Contents: Top - References - Explanation of Abbreviations A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z This is an attempt at a completely comprehensive list of all names of even minute characters in the... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Herbert Stanley Morrison, Baron Morrison of Lambeth (January 3, 1888 - March 6, 1965) was a British Labour Party politician and cabinet minister. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... William David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech (1918–1985) was a British Minister and politician. ... July 21 is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... George Henry Hubert Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood KBE (born 7 February 1923), styled The Hon. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andreas Whittam Smith CBE, (born 13 June 1937), British financial journalist, was one of the co-founders of The Independent newspaper in October 1986, and is a former president of the British Board of Film Classification. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Quentin Thomas is a basketball player from Oakland, California. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Chief executives of the BBFC

During James Ferman's time the title of the chief executive officer at the BBFC changed from "Secretary of the Board" to the current "Director". At the same time, the title card displaying a film's certificate which opens all theatrically-screened films in the United Kingdom stopped carrying the chief executive's signature; the President's signature is now used instead. In motion pictures, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of (i. ...

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Trevelyan (1903-1986) was Secretary of the Board of the British Board of Film Censors from 1958-1971. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Ferman (April 11, 1930–December 24, 2002) was an American television and theatre director. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Knowles, Dorothy, The Censor, the Drama and the Film, London, George Allen & Unwin (1934).
  • Hunnings, Neville March, Film Censors and the Law, London, Allen & Unwin (1967).
  • Mathews, Tom Dewe, Censored, London, Chatto & Windus (1994).
  • Richards, Jeffrey, 'The British Board of Film Censors and Content Control in the 1930s', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 1, no. 2 (1981), pp. 95-116 & vol. 2, no. 1 (1982), pp. 39-48.
  • Robertson, James C., 'British Film Censorship Goes to War', Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, vol. 2, no. 1 (1982), pp. 49-64.
  • Robertson, James C., The British Board of Film Censors: Film Censorship in Britain, 1896-1950, London, Croom Helm (1985).
  • Robertson, James C., The Hidden Cinema: British Film Censorship in Action, 1913-72, London, Routledge (1993).
  • Baron, Saskia (writer & director), Empire of the Censors - two-part TV documentary, pc. Barraclough Carey, prod. Paul Kerr, BBC2, tx. 28 & 29 May 1995.
  1. ^ BBFC website [1], April 2003.
  2. ^ Richardson, Ben. ""Unremitting bleakness" means Rockstar's game is rejected. However the BBFC in a statement said that they cannot see any way of censoring or cutting the game to make it less violent, as the very core of the game is violent murders.", Games Radar, 2007-06-19. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. “The British Board of Film Classification has rejected Manhunt 2 for its "unremitting bleakness" and "casual sadism".” 
  3. ^ "BBFC On Manhunt 2 Ban: Rockstar To Appeal?", Spong, 2007-06-19. Retrieved on 2007-06-19. “While we await official word from Rockstar and ELSPA on the matter, Mrs Clark informed us that Rockstar does have the right of appeal the BBFC’s decision within six weeks.” 

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The 18 certificate is issued by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) to state that, in its opinion, a film or video recording should not be seen or purchased by a person under 18 years old. ... The R18 certificate represents a film or video classification given by the British Board of Film Classification. ... Since 1857, a series of obscenity laws known as the Obscene Publications Acts have governed what can be published. ... Censorship in the United Kingdom has a long history with variously stringent and lax laws in place at different times. ... A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and profanity. ... This article chronicles the history of British film certificates. ...

External links

  • BBFC homepage
  • The Melon Farmers: a site critical of the BBFC
  • Talking Pictures website: Article by Nigel Watson about film censorship issues accompanied by classroom activities for students

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guardian Unlimited Film | Features | Explained: Film censorship in the UK (867 words)
The BBFC is keen to highlight the role that public consultation plays in its decision making, and organises "roadshows" to both canvas public opinion and to justify its decisions.
Films classified 18 are rarely cut, and generally only to avoid prosecution under the Obscene Publications Act.
Since the authority to classify films for video release is granted to the president of the BBFC as a person, the board's continued survival would be in doubt if it failed to appoint someone with Home Office approval.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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