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Encyclopedia > British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation logo. The logo was adopted by British Aerospace, the successor to BAC.
Fate Merged with Hawker Siddeley and Scottish Aviation
Successor British Aerospace
Founded 1960
Defunct 29 April 1977
Location

The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the merger (under government pressure) of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrong (Aircraft), the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960. Bristol, English Electric and Vickers became "parents" of BAC with shareholdings of 40%, 40% and 20% respectively. BAC in turn acquired the share capital of their aviation interests and 70% of Hunting several months later. [1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer, England, 2003. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... English Electric logo English Electric was a 20th-century British industrial manufacturer, initially of electric motors, and expanding to include railway locomotives and aviation, before becoming part of GEC. // 1917: Dick, Kerr & Co. ... The Vickers corporation, founded as the Vickers company in 1828, was a British manufacturer, primarily of military equipment. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, primarily producing light training aircraft. ...

Contents

History

BAC was formed following a warning from government that it expected consolidation in the aircraft industry (as well as the guided weapons and engine industries). However the government also promised incentives for such a move, including the supersonic strike aircraft (TSR-2) contract, maintenance of government research & development spending and the guarantee of launch aid for "promising new types of civil aircraft". [2] The British Aircraft Corporations TSR-2 was an ill-fated cold war project in the early 1960s to create what would, at that time, have been one of the most advanced aircraft in the world. ...


Most of the BAC designs were taken over from the individual companies that formed it. BAC did not apply its new identity retrospectively, hence the VC10 remained the Vickers VC10. Instead the company applied its name to marketing initiatives, the VC10 advertising carried the name "Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Limited, a member company of the British Aircraft Corporation". The first model to bear the BAC name was the BAC One-Eleven (which was a Hunting Aircraft study) in 1961, after the merger. Bristol had eschewed the subsonic airliner market and was working on the Bristol 223 supersonic transport, which was eventually merged with similar efforts at Sud Aviation to create the Anglo-French Concorde venture, the first contracts for which were signed with Air France and BOAC in September 1972. The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers in the 1960s. ... The BAC One-Eleven was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s. ... In the late 1950s and early 1960s the Bristol Aeroplane Company studied a number of supersonic transport models as part of a large British inter-company effort funded by the government. ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... Sud Aviation was a French state-owned aircraft manufacturer, originating from the merger of SNCASE (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Est) and SNCASO (Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Ouest) on March 1, 1957. ... British Airways Concorde G-BOAB. Concorde G-BOAD on a barge beneath Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City in November 2003, bound for the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum. ... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is a subsidiary of Air France-KLM. Before its merger with KLM, it was the national airline of France, employing 71,654 people (as of March 2004). ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ...


In 1963 BAC acquired the previously autonomous guided weapons divisions of English Electric and Bristol to form a new subsidiary, British Aircraft Corporation (Guided Weapons). The company had some considerable success, including development of the Rapier, Sea Skua and Seawolf missiles. BAC eventually expanded this division to include electronics and space systems and in 1966 started what was to become a particularly fruitful relationship with Hughes Aircraft. Hughes awarded major contracts to BAC including sub-systems for Intelsat satellites. [3] Rapier Type surface to air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform vehicle Target aircraft History Builder British Aerospace Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Sea Skua Type air-to-surface Nationality United Kingdom Era 1980-Present Launch platform Helicopted launched Target shipping History Builder British Aerospace Dynamics (now MBDA) Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Brazil, Germany, Malaysia Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type anti-shipping Diameter 0. ... The Sea Wolf is a naval missile, MBDA is the prime contractor. ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ...


The cancellation of the TSR-2 in April 1965 was a major blow to the new company. After successfully flying prototype aircraft, political pressure forced development to cease and the remaining airframes and most supporting equipment and documentation be destroyed. The BAC 1-11, launched as a private venture, probably saved the company given the numerous government contract cancellations of the 1960s. [4]


In May 1966 BAC and Breguet formed SEPECAT, a joint company, to manage the Jaguar programme. The first of 8 prototypes flew on September 8 1968 and service entry was achieved with the French Air Force in 1973, by which time Breguet had merged into Dassault. The Société des Ateliers dAviation Louis Bréguet, a former French aircraft manufacturer, was set up in 1911 by aviation pioneer Louis Charles Breguet. ... The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French ground attack aircraft in service with the Armée de lAir, the Royal Air Force and several export customers, notably India. ... The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French ground attack aircraft in service with the Royal Air Force and several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force. ... Dassault Aviation is a French aircraft manufacturer of military, regional and business jets. ...


In 1966 Rolls-Royce acquired Bristol Aeroplane for its Bristol Siddeley aero engine business, but declared it had no interest in the BAC shareholding. Despite this Rolls-Royce still hadn't disposed of the BAC share by 1971 when the company was declared bankrupt. The 20% share was eventually acquired from receivership by Vickers and GEC (previously English Electric, GEC acquired the company in 1968). Bristol Siddeley was a UK aero-engine manufacturer formed in 1959 from the merger of Bristol Aero Engines and Armstrong-Siddeley. ... Rolls-Royce plc is a British aircraft engine maker; the second-largest in the world, behind General Electric Aviation. ... The General Electric Company plc or GEC was a major UK company involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications and engineering. ...


In 1967 the British, French and German governments agreed to start development of the 300 seat Airbus A300. BAC argued against the proposal in favour of their BAC Three-Eleven project. It was intended to be a large, wide-bodied airliner, like the Airbus A300, Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed TriStar. It would have had two Rolls-Royce turbofan engines, mounted near the tail, like the One-Eleven. The British national Airline BEA wanted to order the type, but government intervention prevented them from buying them, favouring the development of the Airbus. BAC was refused development funds and Hawker Siddeley was awarded the wing contract. The Airbus A300 is a short to medium range widebody aircraft. ... The BAC Two-Eleven and BAC Three-Eleven were British airliner studies proposed by the British Aircraft Corporation in the late 1960s. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ... For other uses of BEA see Bea British European Airways, or BEA, was formed in 1946 by an Act of Parliament. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ...


Saudi Arabia

In the early 1960s Saudi Arabia announced its intention to launch a massive defence acquisition programme involving the replacement of the country's fighter aircraft and the establishment of an advanced air defence and communications network. American companies seemed guaranteed to win the contract however due to the efforts of BAC the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) increasingly looked towards British aircraft and equipment to fulfill their needs. RSAF Tornado during Gulf War Boeing F-15S Eagle, the multirole backbone fighter of the RSAF RSAF Lockheed C-130H Hercules RSAF Boeing E-3A Sentry RSAF BAe Hawk The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: , ), is the air force of Saudi Arabia. ...


By 1964 BAC conducted demonstration flights of their Lightning in Riyadh and in 1965 Saudi Arabia signed a letter of intent for the supply of Lightning and Strikemaster aircraft as well as Thunderbird surface to air missiles. The main contract was signed in 1966 for 40 Lightnings and 25 Strikemasters (eventually raised to 40). In 1973 the Saudi government signed an agreement with the British government which specified BAC as the contractor for all parts of the defence system (AEI was previously contracted to supply the radar equipment and Airwork Services provided servicing and training). Overall spending by the RSAF was over £1 billion GBP. [5] The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic British fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed, and its natural metal exterior that was used throughout much of its service life with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ‎ ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in Ar Riyad Province in the Najd region. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Thunderbird in displayed in Finnish Anti-aircraft museum (Ilmatorjuntamuseo) in Tuusula. ... Associated Electrical Industries (AEI) was a British engineering company formed in 1959 by the merger of the British Thomson-Houston Company (BTH) and Metropolitan Vickers. ... Airwork Limited, also referred during its history as Airwork Services Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary company of VT Group plc. ...


It is interesting to note that BAC (with the Lightning/Strikemaster contract), British Aerospace (with the Al Yamamah contracts) and most recently BAE Systems (with the order for Typhoon multi-role fighters) have all benefited from massive arms contracts with Saudi Arabia. RSAF Tornado IDS Al Yamamah (The Dove) is the name of a series of massive arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which have been paid for by the delivery of up to 600,000 barrels of oil per day to the UK government. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds fourth largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Official Eurofighter logo. ...


Merger speculation

For most of its history, BAC was the subject of rumour and speculation that it was to merge with Hawker Siddeley Aviation (HSA). In September 1966, Anthony Wedgwood Benn, the Minister of Aviation, announced in the House of Commons that: Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), known as Tony Benn, formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... The Ministry of Aviation was a department of the United Kingdom government, established in 1959. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

"the government had come to the conclusion that the national interest would best be served by a merger of the airframe interests of BAC and Hawker Siddeley into a single company."

The government envisaged acquiring the capital of BAC and merging it with Hawker Siddeley. The ownership of BAC would thus give the government a minority stake in the new company. The BAC parent companies were prepared to sell their shares for a reasonable price, however the government proposal, in their view, undervalued the group. By August 1967 the success of the BAC 1-11 and defence sales to Saudi Arabia made the prospect of the parent companies selling their shares less likely. By December Benn, while reiterating his desire to see a merged BAC and HSA, admitted it would not be possible. [6]


Tornado

In June 1967 the Anglo French Variable Geometry (AFVG), a proposed swing-wing strike aircraft, was cancelled due to the withdrawal of French participation. Britain then turned to a national project, the UKVG. BAC Warton was given a design contract by the Ministry of Technology. These studies eventually became known as the BAC Advanced Combat Aircraft. In 1968 Britain was invited to join Canada and the F-104 Consortium (a grouping of Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands) all of whom wished to replace their current aircraft with a common design, soon described as the Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA). Warton Aerodrome (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGNO) is located near to Warton village on the Fylde peninsula in Lancashire, England. ... The Minister of Technology was a position in the government of the United Kingdom, sometimes abbreviated as MinTech. The Ministry of Technology was established by the incoming government of Harold Wilson in October 1964 as part of Wilsons ambition to modernise the state for what he perceived to be...


On March 26 1969 Panavia Aircraft GmbH was formed by BAC, MBB, Fiat and Fokker. In May a 'project definition phase' was commenced which concluded in early 1970. Two aircraft designs resulted, the single seat Panavia 100, and the twin seat Panavia 200. Initially favouring the Panavia 100, Germany eventually chose the Panavia 200, the favoured aircraft of the Royal Air Force (RAF). March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF Panavia Tornado GR4 Panavia Aircraft is a multinational company established by the three partner nations of the Tornado Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) project, Germany, Italy and the UK. The company is based and registered in Germany. ... Messerschmitt is a famous German aircraft manufacturer, known primarily for their World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262. ... Fiat Group, or Fiat S.p. ... Fokkers first airplane, the Spin (1910) Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


In September 1971 the governments of Britain, Italy and Germany signed an Intention to Proceed (ITP) with the Panavia Tornado. On October 30 1974 the first British prototype (and second to fly) took off from the BAC airfield at Warton. On July 29 1976 the three governments signed the contract for the Batch 1 aircraft. BAC and later BAe would deliver 228 Tornado GR1s and 152 Tornado F3s to the RAF. The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 12 Sqn Tornado GR1 The RAF Tornado GR1 was the first generation version of the Panavia Tornado strike aircraft of the Royal Air Force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Panavia Tornado. ...


Nationalisation

The Hawker Siddeley Group was expanded through a similar merger, while engine design and manufacturing was concentrated at Rolls-Royce and the newly formed Bristol-Siddeley Engines, and helicopters at Westland Helicopters. Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Rolls-Royce plc is a British aircraft engine maker; the second-largest in the world, behind General Electric Aviation. ... Bristol Siddeley was a British aero-engine manufacturer formed in 1959 from the merger of Bristol Aero Engines and Armstrong Siddeley Motors. ... Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil in Somerset, formed just before the start of World War II. During the war the company produced a number of generally unsuccessful designs, but their Lysander would serve as an important liaison aircraft with the RAF. After the war the...


On 29 April 1977 The British Aircraft Corporation, the Hawker Siddeley Group and Scottish Aviation were nationalised and merged under the provisions of Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act. This new group was established as a statutory corporation, British Aerospace (BAe). April 29 is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer, England, 2003. ... The Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977 nationalised large parts of the UK aerospace and shipbuilding industries and established two corporations, British Aerospace and British Shipbuilders. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ...

Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company now based in Belfast. ... Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company now based in Belfast. ... logo Bombardier Inc. ... The Handley Page Aircraft Company was founded by Frederick Handley Page in 1909. ... Miles Aircraft was a British manufacturer of light civil and military aircraft. ... Beagle Pup, England, 2003. ... Auster Autocrat from 1952 For the Roman god of the south wind, see Notus. ... Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer, England, 2003. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds fourth largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Hawker-Ciggerley was a group of UK aircraft manufacturing companies formed as a result of the merger of Hawker Aircraft with Armstrong Siddeley. ... Blackburn Beverley photographed in 1964. ... Avro 504K. Avro was a British aircraft manufacturer, well known for planes such as the Avro Lancaster which served in World War II. One of the worlds first aircraft builders, A.V.Roe and Company was established at Brownsfield Mills, Manchester, England by Alliot Verdon Roe and his brother... For other uses, see De Havilland (disambiguation). ... Folland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturing company. ... Vickers-Armstrongs, Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in 1927. ... English Electric logo English Electric was a 20th-century British industrial manufacturer, initially of electric motors, and expanding to include railway locomotives and aviation, before becoming part of GEC. // 1917: Dick, Kerr & Co. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Hunting Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer, primarily producing light training aircraft. ... The General Electric Company plc or GEC was a major UK company involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications and engineering. ... The Marconi Company Ltd. ... Marconi Electronic Systems (MES), or GEC-Marconi as it was until 1998, was the defence arm of The General Electric Company (GEC). ... English Electric logo English Electric was a 20th-century British industrial manufacturer, initially of electric motors, and expanding to include railway locomotives and aviation, before becoming part of GEC. // 1917: Dick, Kerr & Co. ... The Marconi Corporation plc is a radio, telecommunication, and internet equipment manufacturing company, formerly known as The General Electric Company and Marconi plc Marconi Corporation should not be confused with the Marconi Company founded by Guglielmo Marconi. ... Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. ... The Gloster Aircraft Company was formed at Hucclecote ( Gloucester ) in 1915 as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... logo Bombardier Inc. ...

Products

Products usually known under the BAC name include;

The BAC One-Eleven was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s. ... The BAC Two-Eleven and BAC Three-Eleven were British airliner studies proposed by the British Aircraft Corporation in the late 1960s. ... The Fairey Delta 2 or FD2 was a British supersonic research aircraft produced in response to a specification from the Ministry of Supply for investigation into flight and control at transonic and supersonic speeds. ... The BAC 167 Strikemaster was a jet-powered training and light attack aircraft. ... British Airways Concorde G-BOAB. Concorde G-BOAD on a barge beneath Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City in November 2003, bound for the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum. ... The BAC TSR-2 was an ill-fated cold war project developed by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) in the early 1960s. ... The English Electric Canberra was a first-generation jet bomber manufactured in large numbers through the 1950s. ... The English Electric Lightning (later the BAC Lightning) was a supersonic British fighter aircraft of the Cold War era, particularly remembered for its great speed, and its natural metal exterior that was used throughout much of its service life with the Royal Air Force and the Royal Saudi Air Force. ... Hunting H126 at the RAF Museum Cosford The H.126 was an experimental aircraft designed and built by Hunting Aircraft in order to test the concept of blown flaps, or as they were known in Britain, jet flaps. Only one aircraft was built, being flown in a series of one... The Hunting Percival (later BAC) Jet Provost was a jet-powered training aircraft used by the RAF from 1955 to 1993. ... The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers in the 1960s. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French ground attack aircraft in service with the Royal Air Force and several export customers, notably the Indian Air Force. ...

Missiles

Rapier Type surface to air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform vehicle Target aircraft History Builder British Aerospace Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Sea Skua Type air-to-surface Nationality United Kingdom Era 1980-Present Launch platform Helicopted launched Target shipping History Builder British Aerospace Dynamics (now MBDA) Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Brazil, Germany, Malaysia Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type anti-shipping Diameter 0. ... Type surface-to-air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform ship Target missile, aircraft History Builder BAe, MDBA Date of design Production period Service duration 1979 - Operators UK, Brazil and Chile Variants Electronics; GWS-25, GWS-26, GWS-27 Vertical Launch Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Swingfire Type Anti-tank Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Vehicle Target Vehicle History Builder Date of design Production period Service duration Operators UK, Belgium, Kenya Variants none Number built Specifications Type Diameter 0. ... Bloodhound Mk 2 Type SAM Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform Fixed installation Target High altitude bomber History Builder Bristol Aeroplane Co. ... Thunderbird in displayed in Finnish Anti-aircraft museum (Ilmatorjuntamuseo) in Tuusula. ...

References

  • Charles Gardner (1981) British Aircraft Corporation. A history by Charles Gardner B.T. Batsford Ltd ISBN 0-7134-3815-0
  1. ^ Ibid, p.38
  2. ^ Ibid, p.37
  3. ^ Ibid, p.189
  4. ^ Ibid, p.67
  5. ^ Ibid, pp.244-249
  6. ^ Ibid, pp.156-160

  Results from FactBites:
 
British Aircraft Corporation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (247 words)
The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the forced merger of the Bristol Aeroplane Company, English Electric (aircraft), Vickers-Armstrong and Hunting Aircraft in 1959.
On April 29, 1977 The British Aircraft Corporation, the Hawker Siddeley Group and Scottish Aviation were nationalised and merged under the provisions of Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act.
This new group was established as a statutory corporation, British Aerospace (BAe).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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