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Encyclopedia > Bristol F.2 Fighter
Bristol F.2 Fighter
The Shuttleworth Collection's Bristol F.2B Fighter.
Type Biplane fighter aircraft
Manufacturer British and Colonial Aeroplane Company
Designed by Frank Barnwell
Maiden flight 9 September 1916
Retired 1930s
Status 1 preserved in the Shuttleworth Collection
Primary user Royal Flying Corps
Produced 1916-1927 (?)
Number built 5,329

The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I flown by the Royal Flying Corps. It is often simply called the Bristol Fighter or popularly the "Brisfit" or "Biff". Despite being a two-seater, the F.2B proved an agile aircraft that was able to hold its own against single-seat scouts. Having overcome a disastrous start to its career, the F.2B's solid design ensured that it remained in military service into the 1930s and surplus aircraft were popular in civil aviation. ImageMetadata File history File links Bristol_F2B_Fighter. ... Hs123 biplane. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Frank Barnwell (1880 - August 2, 1938) was an aeronautical engineer, who performed the first powered flight in Scotland and later went on to a career as an aircraft designer. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1916: Events January January 12 - German aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke, with 8 kills, are the first pilots awarded with Pour le Mérite (the Blue Max) January 29 - the second and last Zeppelin raid on Paris inflicts 54 casualties. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Hs123 biplane. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ...

Contents

Design and development

The Bristol fighter's basic design stemmed from design studies by Frank Barnwell in March 1916 for an aircraft in the same class as the R.E.8 and the F.K.8 - the Type 9 R.2A with the 160 hp Beardmore engine and the 9 R.2B, powered by the 150 hp Hispano Suiza. Before either type was actually built, the design was altered to take the new 190 hp (142 kW) Rolls-Royce Falcon I inline engine. This, the Type 12 F.2A was a more compact design, intended from the outset as a two-seater fighter. Unlike the earlier design studies it was actually built, and first flew on 9 September 1916. The F.2A was armed in what had by then become the standard manner for a British two-seater, with one synchronised forward-firing Vickers machine gun and one .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun mounted on a Scarff ring in the observer's rear cockpit. Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Frank Barnwell (1880 - August 2, 1938) was an aeronautical engineer, who performed the first powered flight in Scotland and later went on to a career as an aircraft designer. ... A Siddeley-Deasy-built R.E.8 The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 was a British two-seat biplane reconnaissance and bomber aircraft of the First World War. ... The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.8 was a British two-seat general purpose aircraft built by Armstrong Whitworth during the First World War. ... The Rolls-Royce Falcon was an aero-engine developed in 1915. ... An inline engine is an internal-combustion engine with cylinders aligned in one or several rows. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1916: Events January January 12 - German aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke, with 8 kills, are the first pilots awarded with Pour le Mérite (the Blue Max) January 29 - the second and last Zeppelin raid on Paris inflicts 54 casualties. ... Damaged propeller from a Sopwith Baby aircraft circa 1916/17 with evidence of bulletholes from a machine gun fired behind the propeller without an Interruptor. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ... A Scarff ring was a machine gun mount used on aircraft in the First World War. ...


Only 52 F.2As were produced before production switched to what became the definitive Bristol Fighter, the Bristol Type 14 F.2B which had first flown on 25 October 1916. The first 150 or so were powered by the Falcon I or Falcon II engine but the remainder were equipped with the 275 hp (205 kW) Falcon III engine and could reach a maximum speed of 123 mph (198 km/h). The F.2B was over 10 mph (16 km/h) faster than the F.2A and was 3 minutes faster to reach 10,000 ft (3,000 m). A second Lewis gun was often added to the rear cockpit. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Rolls Royce aero engines of all types were in chronic short supply in this period, and the Falcon was no exception. Plans to make the Bristol Fighter the standard British two-seater, replacing the R.E.8 and F.K.8, stalled against this barrier; there simply would not have been enough Falcons available. Efforts to find an available powerplant that was sufficiently powerful and reliable, ultimately failed. Rolls Royce produced a number of piston engines for aircraft use in the first half of the 20th Century. ...


The Type 15 was fitted with a 200 hp (149-kW) Sunbeam Arab piston engine. This motor suffered from chronic vibration and the "Arab Bristol" was never a viable combination, in spite of prolonged development. A few Arab engined Bristols were at the front very late in the war - but most British reconnaissance squadrons had to soldier on with the R.E.8 and F.K.8 until the end of hostilities. The Sunbeam Arab was a V8 aircraft engine of 11. ...


The Type 16 was fitted with a 200 hp (149-kW) Hispano-Suiza piston engine. This worked better than the Arab - but the Hispano-Suiza availabily was no better than for the Falcon, and the motors that were available were required for the S.E.5a and Sopwith Dolphin. The 300 hp version of the Hispano-Suiza, suggested for the Type 17 was not available in numbers before the end of the war. Hispano-Suiza is a French engineering firm best known for their engine and weapon designs in the pre-World War II period, work that developed out of their earliest work in luxury automobile design. ... The Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5 was a British biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ...


Other engines tried or suggested for the F.2B were the 200 hp RAF 4d, the 180 hp Wolseley Viper and the 230 hp Armstrong Siddeley Puma. This article needs cleanup. ... Wolseley Viper was a high-compression version of the Hispano Suiza HS-8 liquid-cooled V-8 engine, built under license in Britain by Wolseley Motor Company during the WW I. It powered the SE-5A, SPAD VII and other British or British-built aircraft. ... The Armstrong Siddeley Puma was an aero engine developed towards the end of the first world war. ...


The Type 22 F.2C was a proposed version adapted for a radial or rotary engine - either a 200 hp Salmson radial - a 300 hp (224-kW) ABC Dragonfly radial (Type 22A) - or a 230 hp (172-kW) Bentley B.R.2 rotary (Type 22B). The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ABC Motors Ltd (All British (Engine) Company) of Hersham, Surrey was a manufacturer of cars, aircraft, motor scooters, and engines for road and air. ... Bentleys winged B badge and hood ornament 1929 Blower Bentley from the Ralph Lauren collection. ... The Bentley BR.2 was a British rotary aircraft engine of the First World War. ...


Efforts to start production of the Bristol Fighter in the United States foundered against the mistaken decision to power the type with the Liberty 12 engine - a totally unsuitable engine for the Bristol, as it was far too heavy and bulky. Efforts to change the powerplant of American Bristol Fighters to the more suitable Liberty 8 or the 300 hp Hispano-Suiza came up against political as well as technical problems, and no American variant of the type ever entered service. General characteristics Layout V-12 Cooling water Cylinders 12 Valve type Displacement 27 litres Rotation rate 1700 rpm Power 400 hp Power (300 kW Weight 383kg The Liberty L-12 was a 27 litre water-cooled 45 degree V-12 aircraft engine of 400 horsepower (300 kW). ...


Post war developments of the F.2B included the Type 14 F.2B Mk II, a two-seat army co-operation biplane, fitted with desert equipment and a tropical cooling system, which first flew in December 1919. 435 were built. The Type 96 Fighter Mk III and Type 96A Fighter Mk VI were structurally strengthened aircraft, of which 50 were built in 1926-1927.


Operational history

When initially deployed, aircrews were instructed to maintain formation and use the crossfire of the observers' guns to meet any threat. This was standard procedure at the time, and worked well for such types as the F.E.2b. For the Bristol, these tactics were flawed and did not withstand the first contact with the enemy. The F.2A arrived on the Western Front in April 1917 as the British launched the Battle of Arras. The very first F.2A patrol of six aircraft from No. 48 Squadron RFC, led by Victoria Cross winner William Leefe Robinson, ran into five Albatros D.IIIs from Jasta 11 led by Manfred von Richthofen. Four out of six of the F.2As were shot down, including Robinson who was captured, and a fifth was badly damaged. A crossfire (also known as interlocking fire) is a military term for the siting of weapons (often automatic weapons such as machine guns) so that their arcs of fire overlap, yay. ... F.E.2b in profile. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Austria-Hungary Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties... The Battle of Arras took place from 9 April to 16 May 1917. ... No. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... William Leefe Robinsons grave at All Saints Church Cemetery William Leefe Robinson (1895–1918) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The Albatros D.III was a highly successful single seat, biplane fighter aircraft used by the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte) and the Austro-Hungarian Air Service (Luftfahrtruppen) during the First World War. ... The Jagd-Staffel 11 (Pursuit-Squadron 11), also known as the Richthofen Squadron was founded in September 1916 ,as part of the German Air forces expansion programme, forming permanent specialised air fighting squadrons or Jastas. Its first commander was Oberleutnant Rudolf Lang, although Jasta 11s first months of... “Red Baron” redirects here. ...


Tactics were then revised, from then on the aircraft being flown in the same manner as a single-seat fighter and using its fixed, forward-firing, Vickers machine gun as the primary weapon, which the aircraft's excellent speed and maneuverability allowed. The type proved a potent dogfighter and the rear-facing observer's weapon helped deter enemy planes from lingering on the plane's tail.


In September and October of 1917, orders for 1,600 F.2Bs were placed and by the end of the First World War, the Royal Air Force had 1,583 F.2Bs in operation. A total of 5,329 aircraft were eventually built, mostly by Bristol but also by the likes of Standard Motors, Armstrong Whitworth and even the Cunard Steamship Company. After the war, F.2Bs continued to operate in army cooperation and light bombing roles throughout the British Empire, in particular the Middle East, India and China. The F.2B also served with the New Zealand Permanent Air Force and RAAF as well as with the air forces of Belgium, Canada, Ireland, Greece, Mexico, Norway, Peru, Spain and Sweden. It was not until 1932 that the F.2B was finally withdrawn from RAF service; its last unit being No. 20 Squadron RAF stationed in India. The type lasted a further three years in New Zealand. “RAF” redirects here. ... The Standard Motor Company was founded in Coventry, England in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Formed after World War I, as a mostly part time organisation, manned by New Zealand pilots who had served in the war. ... The RAAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force, with the central circle replaced by a Kangaroo, a symbol of Australia. ... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... No. ...


Surplus F.2Bs were modified for civilian use. The Bristol Tourer was a F.2B fitted with an Armstrong Siddeley Puma engine in place of the Falcon and with the cockpits enclosed by canopies. The Tourer had a maximum speed of 128 mph (206 km/h). The Armstrong Siddeley Puma was an aero engine developed towards the end of the first world war. ...


The Bristol M.R.1 is often described as an "all-metal version of the F.2b". In fact it was a totally new design - although it shared the characteristic of having the fuselage positioned between the upper and lower wing. Two prototypes were built, the first flying on 23 October, 1917, but the M.R.1 never entered mass production. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1917: Events February No. ...


Survivors

There are three airworthy Bristol Fighters in 2007, (and several replicas). The Shuttleworth Collection contains one airworthy F.2B Fighter, identity D8096, that still flies during the English summer. The Canada Aviation Museum owns a second, D-7889, while the New Zealand film director Peter Jackson owns D-8040, which flys from the Omaka Aviation Heritage Centre, which also holds a second original fuselage.[1][2] Substantially original aircraft are on static display at theRAF Museum, Hendon, the Imperial War Museum, Duxford, the Museo del Aire, Madrid, Spain, the VAF, Old Kingsbury, Texas, and the Brussels Aviation Museum, Belgium. The Shuttleworth Collections Bristol F.2B Fighter The Shuttleworth Collection is an aeronautical and automotive museum located at the Old Warden airfield in Bedfordshire, England. ... The Canada Aviation Museum (French: Musée de laviation du Canada) is the national aviation history museum, located in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... For other places with the same name, see Hendon (disambiguation). ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... Duxford is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, some ten miles south of Cambridge. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Operators

Bristol F.2 Fighter operators
Bristol F.2 Fighter operators
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Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/png) World map of military operators of the Bristol Fighter File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/png) World map of military operators of the Bristol Fighter File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Afghanistan_flag_1919. ... The Afghan Air Force is the military branch in Afghanistan, which is responsible for air defense and air warfare. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The RAAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force, with the central circle replaced by a Kangaroo, a symbol of Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... The Air Component, formerly the Belgian Air Force, is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The Irish Air Corps (in Irish: Aer Chór na hÉireann) provides the air defence function of Oglaigh na hÉireann (the Irish Defence Forces), in support of the Army and Naval Service, together with such other roles as may be assigned by the Government (e. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Hellenic Air Force ensign The Hellenic Air Force (HAF) (Greek: (ΠΑ), Polemikí Aeroporía) is the air force of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Formed after World War I, as a mostly part time organisation, manned by New Zealand pilots who had served in the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Polish Air Force (Siły Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Siły Powietrzne RP). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Spanish Air Force (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, Army of the Air) is the air force of Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... “RAF” redirects here. ...

Specifications (F.2B)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2: pilot & observer/gunner
  • Length: 25 ft 10 in (7.87 m)
  • Wingspan: 39 ft 3 in (11.96 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 9 in (2.97 m)
  • Wing area: 405 ft² (37.62 m²)
  • Empty weight: 2,145 lb (975 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 3,243 lb (1,474 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1× Rolls-Royce Falcon III liquid-cooled V12 engine, 275 hp (205 kW)

Performance

Armament

  • Guns:
  • Bombs: 240 lb (110 kg)

The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The Rolls-Royce Falcon was an aero-engine developed in 1915. ... Colombo Type 125 Testa Rossa engine in a 1961 Ferrari 250TR Spyder V-12 engine simplified cross-section V12 redirects here. ... VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ...

References

  • Bruce, J.M. Warplanes of the First World War, Vol. 1. London: Macdonald, 1965.
  • Cheesman, E.F., ed. Fighter Aircraft of the 1914-1918 War. Letchworth, Harleyford, UK: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1960.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bristol F.2 Fighter

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Related content

Related development

  • Bristol R.2
  • Bristol M.R.1
  • Bristol Tourer

The Bristol Tourer was a civil utility biplane produced in the United Kingdom in the years following World War I, using as much as possible from the design of the Bristol Fighter. ...

Designation sequence

  • ← Type 7 - Type 10 - Type 11 - Type 12 - Type 13 - Types 14 to 17 - Type 18 - Type 20 - Type 21 - Type 22 - Type 23 - Type 24 - Type 25
  • ← Type 92 - Type 93 - Type 95 - Type 96 - Type 99 - Type 101 - Type 105

The Bristol M.1 Bullet was a British monoplane fighter aircraft of the First World War. ... The Bristol Braemar was a heavy bomber developed at the end of the First World War for the Royal Air Force but never entering service. ... The Bristol Braemar was a heavy bomber developed at the end of the First World War for the Royal Air Force but never entering service. ... The Bristol Boarhound was a British army co-operation and liaison aircraft of the 1920s. ... General History The Bristol Bulldog was a Royal Air Force (RAF) single-seat biplane fighter designed during the 1920s by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, with over three hundred Bulldogs produced, that arguably became the most famous aircraft during the RAFs inter-war period. ...


 
 

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