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Encyclopedia > Bristol Blenheim
Blenheim (Types 142M, 149, 160)

Work takes place on a Blenheim Mk. IV

Type Light bomber/fighter
Manufacturer Bristol Aeroplane Company
Designed by Frank Barnwell
Maiden flight 12 April 1935
Introduction 1937
Retired 1944 (United Kingdom)
1956 (Finland)
Primary users Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Finland
Yugoslavia
Number built 4,422

The Bristol Blenheim was a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company that was used extensively in the early days of the Second World War. It was later adapted into a successful long-range fighter and night fighter. A Canadian-made variant named the Bolingbroke was used as an anti-submarine and training aircraft. It was one of the first British aircraft to have all-metal stressed skin construction, to utilise retractable landing gear, flaps, powered gun turret and variable-pitch propellers. A light bomber is a military bomber aircraft which, when compared to other bombers, is relatively small and fast; such aircraft will probably not carry more than one ton of ordnance. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Frank Barnwell (1880 - August 2, 1938) was an aeronautical engineer, who performed the first powered flight in Scotland and later went on to a career as an aircraft designer. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1935: Events January January 11-12 – Amelia Earhart makes the first solo flight across the Pacific from Honolulu, Hawaii to Oakland, California. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1937: Events March March 5 - Imperial Airways opens a new flying boat base at Hythe, Hampshire. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1944: Events January January 11 - in one of the largest air raids to date, 570 USAAF bombers strike Brunswick, Halberstadt, and Oschersleben. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ... RAF redirects here. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... The Bristol Type 603 is a car which was launched in 1976, by British manufacturer Bristol Cars to replace the 411. ... A light bomber is a military bomber aircraft which, when compared to other bombers, is relatively small and fast; such aircraft will probably not carry more than one ton of ordnance. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A heavy fighter is a fighter aircraft designed to be used in the long-range role, or while carrying heavier weapons loads. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... “A/S” redirects here. ... A trainer is a training aircraft used to develop piloting, navigational or weapon-aiming skills in flight crew. ... Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, increase the lift (and drag) of a wing by changing the camber of the airfoil. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Design and development

Blenheim Mk. IV cockpit. Note the asymmetry of the instrument console, indicating the position of the scooped out area of the nose in front of the pilot. The ring and bead gunsight for the forward firing guns is visible.
Blenheim Mk. IV cockpit. Note the asymmetry of the instrument console, indicating the position of the scooped out area of the nose in front of the pilot. The ring and bead gunsight for the forward firing guns is visible.

In 1934 Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail, issued a challenge to the British aviation industry to build a high-speed aircraft capable of carrying six passengers and two crew members. At the time German firms were producing a variety of high-speed designs that were breaking records, and Rothermere wanted to recapture the title of fastest civilian aircraft in Europe. Bristol had been working on a suitable design as the Type 135 since July 1933, and further adapted it to produce the Type 142 to meet Rothermere's requirements. Lord Rothermere Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere (26 April 1868 – 26 November 1940) was a highly successful British newspaper proprietor, owner of Associated Newspapers. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper, currently published in a tabloid format. ...


When it first flew as Britain First at Filton on 12 April 1935[1] , it proved to be faster than any fighter in service with the Royal Air Force at the time.[1] The Air Ministry was obviously interested in such an aircraft and quickly sent out Specification B.28/35 for prototypes of a bomber version; the Type 142M (M for military). The main changes were to move the wing from a low-wing to a mid-wing position, allowing room under the main spar for a bomb bay. The aircraft was all-metal with two Bristol Mercury VIII air-cooled radial engines, each of 860 hp (640 kW). It carried a crew of three – pilot, navigator/bombardier and telegraphist / air gunner. Armament comprised a single forward-firing 0.303 inch (7.7 mm) Browning gun outboard of the port engine and a 0.303 inch Lewis gun in a semi-retracting Bristol Type B Mk.I dorsal turret firing to the rear. From 1939 onwards, the Lewis gun was replaced by the more modern Vickers VGO of the same calibre. A 1,000 lb (454 kg) bomb load could be carried in the internal bay. Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... RAF redirects here. ... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ... This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry specifications for aircraft. ... In an aircraft, the spar is the main structural member of the wing, running lengthways across the span of the wing, at right angles (or thereabouts) to the fuselage. ... Bristol Mercury engine Mercury built by NOHAB Bristol Mercury engine The Bristol Mercury was a 9-cylinder one-row piston radial engine used on British aircraft in the 1930s and 1940s. ... Radial engine of a biplane. ... .303 British is a the commercial name of the . ... The Browning M1919 was a . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ... The Vickers K gun known as the Vickers Gas Operated (VGO) in British service, was a rapid firing machine gun developed for use by observers in aircraft. ...


To achieve its relatively high speed, the Blenheim had a very small fuselage cross-section. Pilot's quarters on the left side of the nose were so cramped that the control yoke obscured all flight instruments while engine instruments eliminated the forward view on landings. Most secondary instruments were arranged along the left side of the cockpit with essential items like propeller pitch control actually placed behind the pilot where they had to be operated by feel alone. Like most contemporary British aircraft, the bomb bay doors were kept closed with bungee cords and opened under the weight of the released bombs. Because there was no way to predict how long it would take for the bombs to force the doors open, bombing accuracy was consequently poor.[2] Bungee cord is an elastic cord composed of one or more elastic strands forming a core, covered in a woven sheath usually of nylon or cotton. ...


The aircraft was ordered directly from the drawing board with the first production model, known at the time as the Bolingbroke (pronounced Bolling-brook), serving as the first and only prototype[3]. The name then became Blenheim Mk.I with subsequent deliveries started in March 1937, with 114 Squadron being the first squadron to receive the Blenheim.[3] The aircraft would prove to be so successful that it was licensed by a number of countries, including Finland and Yugoslavia. Other countries bought it outright, including Romania, Greece and Turkey. Total production of the Blenheim in England amounted to 1,351 Mk Is. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


Variants

Bolingbroke Mk.IV at the British Columbia Museum of Flight, Victoria, British Columbia
Bolingbroke Mk.IV at the British Columbia Museum of Flight, Victoria, British Columbia
A Bristol Blenheim bomber at the RAF Museum, London
A Bristol Blenheim bomber at the RAF Museum, London

Work on an extended range reconnaissance version started as the Blenheim Mk.II, which increased tankage from 278 to 468 gallons, but only one was completed. Another modification resulted in the Blenheim Mk.III, which lengthened the nose to provide more room for the bombardier. This required the nose to be "scooped out" in front of the pilot to maintain visibility during takeoff and landing. However both of these modifications were instead combined, along with a newer version of the Mercury engine with 905 hp (675 kW) and the turret acquired a pair of Brownings instead of the Vickers K; creating the Blenheim Mk.IV. In total, 3,307 would eventually be produced. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ...


Another modification led to a long range fighter version; the Blenheim Mk.IF. For this role, about 200 Blenheims were fitted with a gun-pack under the fuselage for four 0.303 in Brownings. Later, the Airborne Intercept (AI) Mk III or IV radar would be fitted to some aircraft in use as night fighters, becoming the first British fighters equipped with radar. Their performance was marginal as a fighter, but sufficient for the task in hand and they served before the advent of more sophisticated machines. About 60 of Mk IVs were also equipped with the gun pack as the Mk.IVF and were used by Coastal Command to protect convoys from German long-range bombers. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


The last bomber variant was conceived as an armoured ground attack aircraft, with a solid nose containing four more Browning machine guns. Originally known as the Bisley, the production aircraft were renamed Blenheim Mk.V and featured a strengthened structure, pilot armour, interchangeable nose gun pack or bombardier position and, yet another Mercury variant, this time with 950 hp (710 kW). The Mk.V was ordered for conventional bombing operations, with the removal of armour and most of the glazed nose section. The Mk V or Type 160, was used primarily in the Middle East and Far East. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Blenheim would serve as the basis for the Beaufort torpedo bomber, which itself led to the Beaufighter; the lineage performing two complete circles of bomber to fighter. The Bristol Type 152 Beaufort was a large torpedo bomber designed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and developed from the earlier Blenheim light bomber. ... The Bristol Beaufighter is also the name of a car produced by Bristol Cars in the 1980s. ...


Bolingbroke

The longer range also fulfilled a Canadian requirement for a maritime patrol aircraft. Consequently, Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. (Canada) of Quebec started production of the Blenheim Mk.IV as the Bolingbroke, nicknamed the "Bolly". After a small run of aircraft constructed to British specifications, as the Bolingbroke Mk.I, Fairchild switched production to the Bolingbroke Mk IV with American instruments and equipment. These versions also included anti-icing boots and a dinghy. Some of these aircraft served as bombers during the Aleutians campaign, but most of the 150 served in the intended role as patrol bombers on the Atlantic coast. Another 450 were completed as the Bolingbroke Mk IVT as trainers and saw extensive use in the Commonwealth Air Training Plan. One of the final variants was the Bolingbroke Mk IVW which was powered by two 634 kW (850-hp) Pratt & Whitney SB4G Twin Wasp Junior engines. A total of 676 Bolingbrokes was produced. The Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. ... Dinghy of the schooner Adventuress A dinghy is a small utility boat attached to a larger boat. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... A trainer is a training aircraft used to develop piloting, navigational or weapon-aiming skills in flight crew. ... External links The Canadian Contribution (includes newspaper archives) World War II Newspaper Archives — The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. ...


Operational history

Circa 8 February 1941. Blenheim Mark Is of No. 62 Squadron RAF lined up at RAF Tengah, Singapore, before flying north to their new base at Alor Star, in northern Malaya.
Circa 8 February 1941. Blenheim Mark Is of No. 62 Squadron RAF lined up at RAF Tengah, Singapore, before flying north to their new base at Alor Star, in northern Malaya.
Bristol Blenheim Mark IV bombers at RAF Tengah, Singapore, June 1941.
Bristol Blenheim Mark IV bombers at RAF Tengah, Singapore, June 1941.

The Blenheim was regarded as a pleasant aircraft to fly, although it did have some characteristics which could catch even experienced pilots by surprise. Unfortunately, with the rapid advances in technology which had taken place in the late 1930s by the start of the Second World War the Blenheim had become obsolescent. The aircraft had become heavier as extra service equipment was installed; much of this was found to be needed through operational experience. This, coupled with the rapid performance increases of fighters, had eclipsed the Blenheim's speed advantage. [4] is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Singapores F-16DJ based in Tengah Tengah Airbase was an RAF airfield prior to Singapores independence. ... Website: http://www. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ...


Although the rear gunner was housed in a turret, the turret could only traverse a total of 180 degrees, leaving the forward arc open to attack. The light armament of one .303 calibre Vickers VGO in the turret and one .303 Browning machine gun in the port wing was seldom able to deter fighter opposition. Squadrons were forced to use several different improvisations in an attempt to provide better defensive armament, until officially sanctioned modifications were able to be introduced in early 1940. The Blenheim also proved to be vulnerable to flak, especially around the rear fuselage. Flexible, self-sealing liners had been fitted to the fuel tanks but they were still not fully protected against the 20 mm MG/FF cannon carried by the Luftwaffe's Bf 109s and Bf 110s.[5] The Vickers K gun known as the Vickers Gas Operated (VGO) in British service, was a rapid firing machine gun developed for use by observers in aircraft. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ... “Flak” redirects here. ... The MG FF was a drum-fed 20 mm aircraft cannon developed in 1936 by Oerlikon and license-produced in Germany. ... German Airfield, France, 1941 propaganda photo of the Luftwaffe, Bf 109 fighters on the tarmac The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt in the early 1930s. ... The Messerschmitt Bf 110 (called an M.E. One-Ten by American pilots) was a twin-engine heavy fighter (Zerstörer - German for Destroyer) in the service of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Later in the war it was changed to fighter-bomber (JagdBomber-Jabo) and night fighter operations...


After France fell to Germany in June 1940, the Free French Air Force was formed at RAF Odiham in the form of Groupe Mixte de Combat (GMC) 1, consisting of a mixed bag of Blenheims and Westland Lysander liaison/observation aircraft, which eventually went to North Africa and saw action against the Italians and Germans. Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Free French Air Forces Logo The Free French Air Force (French: ) were the air arm of Free French Forces during the Second World War. ... RAF Odiham crest RAF Odiham is a Royal Air Force station situated a little to the south of the historic small town of Odiham in Hampshire, England. ... Westland Lysander III (SD). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The Battle of Britain

The Blenheim units operated throughout the battle, often taking heavy casualties, although they were never accorded the publicity of the fighter squadrons.


The Blenheim units raided German occupied airfields throughout July to December 1940, both during daylight hours and at night. Although most of these raids were unproductive there were some successes; on 1 August five out of 12 Blenheims sent to attack Haamsted and Evere (Brussels) were able to bomb, destroying or heavily damaging three Bf 109s of II./JG 27 and apparently killing a Staffelkapitan identified as a Hauptmann Albrecht von Ankum-Frank. Two other 109s were claimed by Blenheim gunners.[6][f]Another successful raid on Haamstede was made by a single Blenheim on 7 August which destroyed one 109 of 4./JG 54, heavily damaged another and caused lighter damage to four more.[7] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Evere within the Brussels-Capital Region Evere is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Hauptmann (German: ) is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officers rank in the German Army. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


There were also some missions which produced an almost 100% casualty rate amongst the Blenheims; one such operation was mounted on 13 August 1940 against a Luftwaffe airfield near Aalborg in north-eastern Denmark by 12 aircraft of 82 Squadron. One Blenheim returned early (the pilot was later charged and due to appear before a Court Martial but was killed on another operation), the other 11, which reached Denmark, were shot down, five by flak and six by Bf 109s.[8] It is a testament to the courage of the men in these units that they continued to operate throughout these months with little respite and with little of the publicity accorded to Fighter Command. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of Aalborg railroad station from J.F. Kennedys Square, 2004 Aalborg (help· info) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in North Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. ...


As well as the bombing operations Blenheim equipped units had been formed to carry out long-range strategic reconnaissance missions over Germany and German occupied territories. In this role the Blenheims once again proved to be too slow and vulnerable against Luftwaffe fighters and they took constant casualties.[9]


Long-range fighter

The Bristol Blenheim was used by both Bomber and Fighter Commands. Some 200 Mk.I bombers were modified into Mk.IF long-range fighters with 600 (Auxiliary Air Force) Squadron based at Hendon, the first squadron to take delivery of these variants in September 1938. By 1939, at least seven squadrons were operating these twin engined fighters and within a few months some 60 squadrons had experience of the type. The Mk.IF proved to be slower and less nimble than expected and by June 1940, daylight Blenheim losses was to cause concern for Fighter Command. It was then decided that the IF would be relegated mainly to night fighter duties where No. 23 Squadron RAF who had already operated the type under night time conditions had better success. Fighter Command was one of three functional commands that dominated the public perception of the RAF for much of the mid-20th century. ... Hendon Aerodrome was an aerodrome in north London, England and between 1908 and 1968 was an important centre for aviation. ... A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night, or in other times of bad visibility. ... No. ...


Night fighter

In the German night bombing raid on London, 18 June 1940, Blenheims accounted for five German bombers thus proving they were better suited in the nocturnal role. In July, No. 600 Squadron, by then based at RAF Manston, had some of its IFs equipped with AI Mk.III radar. With this radar equipment, a Blenheim from FIU at RAF Ford achieved the first success on the night of 2/3 July 1940, accounting for a Dornier Do 17 bomber. More successes came and, before long, the Blenheim was to prove invaluable in the night fighter role. Gradually, with the introduction of the Bristol Beaufighter in 1940-1941, its role was supplanted by its faster, better armed progeny. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF Manston was a Royal Air Force station, now known as Kent International Airport. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift (flying pencil), was a light bomber produced by Dornier. ... The Bristol Beaufighter is also the name of a car produced by Bristol Cars in the 1980s. ...


Eastern service

Blenheims continued to operate widely in many combat roles until about 1943, equipping RAF squadrons in the UK and in British bases in Egypt, Iraq, Aden, India, Malaya, Singapore and Dutch East Indies. Many Blenheims were lost to Japanese fighters during the Malayan campaign and battles for Singapore and Sumatra. By that point, most fighters could carry similar bombloads at much higher speeds and the surviving examples were relegated to training duties. Bristol's intended successor to the Blenheim, the Buckingham, was considered inferior to the Mosquito, and did not see combat. Port of Aden (around 1910). ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Belligerents Malaya Command: III Corps 8th Division 18th Division Malay Regiment Straits Settlements Volunteer Force Twenty-Fifth Army Imperial Guards 5th Division 18th Division 3rd Air Division Imperial Navy Commanders Arthur Percival # Gordon Bennett Lewis Heath # M. Beckwith-Smith # Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties and losses 2... Combatants Britain Netherlands Australia New Zealand United States Empire of Japan Commanders Air Cdre H. J. F. Hunter (bombers) Air Cdre S. F. Vincent (fighters) Lt. ... The Bristol Buckingham was a World War II design for a medium day bomber for the RAF. In 1940, the Bristol Centaurus were working on a project called the Bristol Beaumont, essentially a bomber variant of the Beaufighter. ... The de Havilland Mosquito[1] was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. ...


The final ground attack version - the Mk.V - first equipped 139 Squadron in June 1942. Eventually 13 squadrons - mainly in the Middle East and Far East - received this variant but operated them generally only for a few months. [10]

Bristol Blenheim BL-129 of Finnish Air Force LeLv 44
Bristol Blenheim BL-129 of Finnish Air Force LeLv 44

Finland

In 1936, the Finnish Air Force ordered 41 Mk.Is from Britain and two years later, they obtained a manufacturing license for the aircraft. Fifteen aircraft were constructed in Finland prior to the Winter War at the Valtion lentokonetehdas and a further 41 were constructed later on, bringing the total number up to 97 aircraft (75 Mk Is and 22 Mk IVs). The Finns obtained large supplies of ex-Yugoslavian spares from the Germans during the war. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... Patria is a Finnish company which produces a wide range of defence, aviation and aerospace technology. ...


The Finnish Blenheims flew 423 bombing missions during the Winter War, and some further 3,000 bombing missions during the Continuation War. Blenheim machine gunners also shot down five Soviet fighters. Half of the Blenheims were lost to all causes during the wars. Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured...


After the war, Finland was prohibited to fly bomber aircraft. However, some of the Finnish Blenheims continued in service as target tows until 1958.


Operators

Bolingbroke IVT in the Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum, Brandon, Manitoba
Bolingbroke IVT in the Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum, Brandon, Manitoba
Main article: List of Bristol Blenheim operators

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... The following are units which operated the Bristol Blenheim: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Kingdom_of_Yugoslavia. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ...

Survivors

Bolingbroke in a Manitoba junk yard, 2006
Bolingbroke in a Manitoba junk yard, 2006

There are currently no Blenheim or Bolingbroke aircraft that are airworthy. Two examples of the type are owned by the Aircraft Restoration Company in Duxford, Cambridgeshire. The first airworthy Blenheim had been rebuilt from a scrapped Bolingbroke over a 12-year period, only to be destroyed within a month of completion. A replacement Bolingbroke Mk.IVT was rebuilt to flying status in just five years and painted to represent a Blenheim Mk.IV in RAF wartime service. It began appearing at air shows and exhibitions in the UK, flying since May 1993 and was used in the 1995 film version of Shakespeare's Richard III. This aircraft crashed on landing 18 August 2004, and is presently undergoing an extensive repair. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Duxford is a village in Cambridgeshire, England, some ten miles south of Cambridge. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Richard III is a 1995 film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Richard III, starring Sir Ian McKellen, Annette Bening, Jim Broadbent, Robert Downey Jr. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Canada, a number of other Bolingbrokes survived the war but were summarily consigned to the scrap heap. Postwar, enterprising farmers often bought surplus aircraft such as these for the scrap metal content, tires for farm implements, and even for the fuel remaining in the tanks. Some surviving examples in Canada of the Bolingbroke can be traced back to this period. The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Hamilton, Ontario has been rebuilding a Bolingbroke to what is hoped to be airworthy status. The Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum in Brandon, Manitoba has restored the exterior of one Bolingbroke, painting it in the Air Training Plan yellow color. This particular aircraft is on display at a location (49°53′14.39″N 99°56′58.55″W / 49.8873306, -99.9495972) on the Trans-Canada Highway in Brandon. Museum building with a CF-104 Starfighter mounted as a monument The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is one of the major aviation museums in Canada. ... Hamilton may refer to: // Duke of Hamilton, Chief of the name of Hamilton, and Heir general of Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... // The use of Brandon as a given name is a transferred use from the English surname, which was derived from a place name meaning broom hill. In Ireland, Brandon has also sometimes been used as an alternative form for Brendan. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... For the Boards of Canada record, see Trans Canada Highway (EP). ...


In Finland, the sole surviving original Blenheim in the world, a Mk.IV registered as BL-200 of the Finnish Air Force, is stored for restoration in the Aviation Museum of Central Finland. A project is underway to build a room for a public exhibition for this aircraft.[11][12] The Aviation Museum of Central Finland is an aviation museum in Tikkakoski, Finland. ...


In Greece a Bristol Blenheim Mk.IVF was recovered from the sea and moved to the Hellenic Air Force Museum for restoration.


Specifications (Bristol Blenheim Mk I & IV)

Orthographic projection of the Blenheim Mk.I(F), with profiles showing the Mk.IV and Mk.V variants.
Orthographic projection of the Blenheim Mk.I(F), with profiles showing the Mk.IV and Mk.V variants.

Data from British Warplanes of World War II [13]


General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 42 ft 7 in (12.98 m)
  • Wingspan: 56 ft 4 in (17.17 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 10 in (3.0 m)
  • Wing area: 469 ft² (43.6 m²)
  • Empty weight: 9,790 lb (4,450 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 14,400 lb (6,545 kg)
  • Powerplant:Bristol Mercury XV radial engine, 920 hp (690 kW) each
  • Propellers: Three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller

Performance The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... Bristol Mercury engine Mercury built by NOHAB Bristol Mercury engine The Bristol Mercury was a 9-cylinder one-row piston radial engine used on British aircraft in the 1930s and 1940s. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... Hamilton Standard, a famous aircraft propeller part supplier, was founded in 1910 by Thomas F. Hamilton. ...

  • Maximum speed: 266 mph (231 knots, 428 km/h)
  • Range: 1,460 mi (1,270 NM, 2,351 km)
  • Service ceiling 27,260 ft (8,310 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,500 ft/min[citation needed] (7.6 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 30.7 lb/ft² (150 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.13 hp/lb (0.21 kW/kg)

Armament V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...

  • Guns:
    • 1× .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine gun in port wing
    • 1 or 2× .303 in Browning guns in rear-firing under-nose blister or Nash & Thomson FN.54 turret
    • 2× .303 in Browning guns in dorsal turret
  • Bombs:
    • 4× 250 lb (110 kg) bombs or
    • 2× 500 lb (230 kg) bombs internally, and
    • 8× 40 lb (18 kg) bombs externally

The Browning M1919 was a . ... Nash & Thomson was a British engineering firm that specialised in the production of hydraulically-operated gun turrets for aircraft. ...

See also


Related development

Comparable aircraft The Bristol Type 152 Beaufort was a large torpedo bomber designed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and developed from the earlier Blenheim light bomber. ... The Bristol Beaufighter is also the name of a car produced by Bristol Cars in the 1980s. ...

Related lists The Douglas DB-7 was a family of attack, light bomber and night fighter aircraft of World War II, serving primarily with Soviet, US and British airforces. ... The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift (flying pencil), was a light bomber produced by Dornier. ... The Heinkel He 111 was the primary Luftwaffe medium bomber during the early stages of World War II, and is perhaps the most famous symbol of the German side of the Battle of Britain. ... Lioré-et-Olivier LeO 45 was a French medium bomber used during World War II. // LeO 451 was conceived as a second-generation strategic bomber for the new French Air Force. ... The Martin A-22 was a US-designed light bomber, first flying in 1939, that saw action in World War II in France and the United Kingdom. ... The Potez 630 and its derivatives were a family of multi-role twin-engined aircraft developed for the Armée de lAir in the late 1930s. ... The PZL-37 Los (in Polish: Łoś) was the Polish twin-engine medium bomber, used in the Polish September Campaign in 1939. ... The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name SB (Скоростной бомбардировщик - Skorostnoi Bombardirovschik - high speed bomber), and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934. ...

Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. ... // 1914-1918 France Breguet 14 Germany Albatros C.III Rumpler Taube Gotha G AEG G.I AEG G.II AEG G.III AEG G.IV AEG G.V AEG N.I AEG R.I Italy Caproni Ca. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Barnes 1964
  2. ^ Gunston, Bill. Classic World War II Aircraft Cutaways. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-526-8.
  3. ^ a b Mason 1994
  4. ^ Warner, 2005 p.158
  5. ^ Warner, 2005 pp.155-158
  6. ^ Ramsay, 1989 p 552.
  7. ^ Ramsay 1989, p. 555.
  8. ^ Warner, 2005 p. 255
  9. ^ Warner, 2005.
  10. ^ Jefford 2001
  11. ^ Keskinen 2004
  12. ^ Marttila 1989
  13. ^ March 1998, p. 43.

Bibliography

  • Air Ministry Pilot's Notes: Blenheim. London: OHMS/Air Data Publications, 1939.
  • Air Ministry Pilot's Notes: Blenheim V. London: OHMS/Air Data Publications, 1942.
  • Barnes, C.H. Bristol Aircraft Since 1910. London: Putnam, 1970. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
  • Boiten, T. Bristol Blenheim. London: The Crowood Press, 1998. ISBN 1-86126-115-2.
  • Bowyer, C. Bristol Blenheim. London: Ian Allen, 1984. ISBN 0-7110-1351-9.
  • Keskinen, Kalevi et all. Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 10, Bristol Blenheim. Loviisa: Painoyhtymä Oy, 2004. ISBN 952-99432-1-0.
  • Jefford, C.G., RAF Squadrons. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2nd edition, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2
  • Lake, J. Blenheim Squadrons of World War II. London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-723-6.
  • Mackay, Ron. Bristol Blenheim in Action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-89747-209-8.
  • March, Daniel J., ed. British Warplanes of World War II. London: Aerospace, 1998. ISBN 1-874023-92-1.
  • Marttila, Jukka. Bristol Blenheim - Taitoa ja tekniikkaa. Vantaa, Finland: Blenimi-Publishing, 1989. ISBN 952-90017-0-3.
  • Mason, Francis K. The British Bomber Since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1994. ISBN 0-85177-861-5.
  • Thomas, A. Bristol Blenheim (Warpaint No. 26). London: Hall Park Books, 2000. ISBN 1-84176-289-X.
  • Warner, G. The Bristol Blenheim: A Complete History (2nd edition). London: Crécy Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-85979-101-7.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Bristol Blenheim
  • RAF Bristol Blenheim history
  • A history of No. 211 Squadron RAF in two world wars
  • Blenheim Society
  • Finnish Mk IV Blenheim restoration (more than 600 pictures linked)

Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... These are the records set for going the highest in the atmosphere from the age of ballooning onward. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... RAF redirects here. ... Bomber Command badge RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAFs bomber forces. ... The Area bombing directive was an Air Ministry directive issued to Air Marshal Arthur Harris comander of RAF Bomber Command on 14 February 1942. ... On on 30 March 1942 Lord Cherwell, the British governments leading scientific adviser, sent to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill a memorandum which after it had become accepted by the Cabinet became known as the dehousing cabinet paper. ... ... Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso KT CMG PC (October 22, 1890 – June 15, 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair from 1912 until 1952, was a Scottish politician and leader of the British Liberal Party. ... RAF Air Chief Marshal Charles Portal (left) and Polish Commander in Chief Władysław Sikorski (right) visit an airbase of the 300th Polish Bomber Squadron in England. ... 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