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Encyclopedia > Bristol
Bristol
View from Cumberland Basin of the Clifton Suspension Bridge and the Avon Gorge
Official logo of Bristol
Coat of Arms of the City Council
Coordinates: 51°27′N 2°35′W / 51.45, -2.583
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South West England
Ceremonial county
Historic counties
Bristol
County corporate
(Gloucestershire
and Somerset)
Avon
Admin HQ Bristol
Royal Charter 1155
County status 1373
Government
 - Type Unitary authority, City
 - Governing body Bristol City Council
 - Leadership Leader & Cabinet
 - Executive Labour
 - MPs Roger Berry (L)

Kerry McCarthy (L)
Doug Naysmith (L)/(Co-op)
Dawn Primarolo (L) Bristol most commonly refers to the city of Bristol in England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge in Bristol. ... The Cumberland Basin is an area in the city of Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge (Grid reference ST560743) is a 2. ... Image File history File links EnglandBristol. ... // Constituent country is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a historical, currently non-legally officially recognised country makes up a part of a larger entity or grouping. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the region. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... The historic counties of England are ancient subdivisions of England. ... A county corporate or corporate county was a form of local government in England and Wales. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... The city of Bristol, England, is a unitary authority, represented by four Members of Parliament. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Dr Roger Leslie Berry (born July 4, 1948, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire) is a British politician, and Labour member of Parliament for Kingswood. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Kerry McCarthy (born 26 March 1965) is a British politician who was elected Labour Member of Parliament for Bristol East in the 2005 general election. ... John Douglas Naysmith (born April 1, 1941) is the Labour and Co-operative member of Parliament for Bristol North West. ... This article is about the British political party. ... The Right Honourable Dawn Primarolo (born May 2, 1954, London, Mrs Ian Ducat) is a British Member of Parliament for Bristol South. ...

Stephen Williams (LD)
Area
 - Unitary & City 42.5 sq mi (110 km²)
Elevation [1] 36 ft (11 m)
Population (2006 est.)
 - Unitary & City 410,500 (Ranked 43rd)
 - Density 9,425/sq mi (3,639/km²)
 - Urban 441,556
 - Metro 551,066
 - Ethnicity 89.3% White
3.9% S. Asian
2.8% Black
2.2% Mixed Race
1.8% E. Asian or Other
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
Postcode BS
Area code(s) 0117
ISO 3166-2 GB-BST
ONS code 00HB
OS grid reference ST5946972550
NUTS 3 UKK11
Website: www.bristol.gov.uk/

Bristol (pronunciation ; pronounced /ˈbrɪstəl/) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 105 miles (169 km) west of London, and 44 miles (71 km) east of Cardiff. Stephen Roy Williams (born 11 October 1966) is a British Liberal Democrat politician who was elected Member of Parliament for Bristol West in the 2005 election. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... This is a List of Ceremonial counties of England by Population - 2002 mid-year estimates from the Office for National Statistics, unrounded figures published by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in the Entitlement Notification Reports for Revenue Support Grants [1]. See also: List of Administrative shire counties of... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... // Greenwich Mean Time Western European Time Burkina Faso Bouvet Island Côte dIvoire The Gambia Ghana Greenland northeastern Danmarkshavn and surrounding area Guinea Guinea-Bissau Iceland Liberia Mali Mauritania Morocco Saint Helena (including Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha) São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... The ISO 3166-2 codes for the United Kingdom correspond to the nations administrative divisions. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... This article is about the region. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ...


With an approximate population of 410,950, and urban area of 550,200, it is England's sixth, and the United Kingdom's ninth most populous city, one of England's core cities and the most populous city in South West England. It received a royal charter in 1155 and was granted county status in 1373. For half a millennium it was the second or third largest English city, until the rapid rise of Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester in the Industrial Revolution in the later part of the 18th century. It borders on the Counties of Somerset, and Gloucestershire, between the cities of Bath, Gloucester and Newport, and has a short coastline on the estuary of the River Severn, which flows into the Bristol Channel. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The English Core Cities Group is an association of eight large regional cities in England: Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham and Sheffield. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to administrative counties of England. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Newport in Wales. ... Severn redirects here. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North...


Bristol is one of the centres of culture, employment and education in the region. From its earliest days, its prosperity has been linked to that of the Port of Bristol, the commercial port, which was in the city centre but has now moved to the Severn estuary coast at Avonmouth and Portbury. In more recent years the economy has been built on the aerospace industry, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre of heritage and culture.[2] St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... Portbury is a village in North Somerset. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Boundaries

There are a number of different ways in which Bristol's boundaries are defined, depending on whether the boundaries attempt to define the city, the built-up area, or the wider "Greater Bristol". The narrowest definition of the city is the city council boundary; although this definition does include a large portion of the Severn Estuary, west as far as the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm.[3] A slightly less narrow definition is used by the Office for National Statistics; this includes built-up areas which adjoin Bristol but are not within the city council boundary, such as Whitchurch village, Filton, Patchway, Bradley Stoke, and excludes non-built-up areas within the city council boundary.[4] The ONS has also defined an area which it calls the "Bristol Urban Area" which includes Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford, Winterbourne, Frampton Cotterell, Almondsbury and Easton-in-Gordano.[5] The term "Greater Bristol" (used for example by the Government Office of the South West [6] is most usually used to refer to the area covered by the city and its three neighbouring local authorities Greater Bristol is the conurbation surrounding the city of Bristol in the South West of England. ... The city of Bristol, England, is a unitary authority, represented by four Members of Parliament. ... The location of the Bristol Channel The Severn Bridge and Bristol Channel, looking northwestward from England towards Wales The Bristol Channel coast at Ilfracombe, North Devon, looking west towards Lee Bay The Bristol Channel is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from South West... Steep Holm (grid reference ST228607) is a 48. ... Flat Holm (Welsh: Ynys Echni) is a Welsh island lying in the Bristol Channel approximately 3. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... Whitchurch is a suburb of south eastern Bristol, England, bounded by Hartcliffe to the west and Hengrove and Knowle to the north. ... Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway. ... Bradley Stoke is an extensive housing estate in South Gloucestershire, England. ... Kingswood is a town in South Gloucestershire, England; it is on the eastern outskirts of Bristol (see below). ... Rodway Hill, Mangotsfield. ... Stoke Gifford is a large village in South Gloucestershire, south of Bradley Stoke in the northern suburbs of Bristol. ... Winterbourne is a large village in South Gloucestershire on the outskirts of the English city of Bristol. ... Frampton Cotterell is a village in South Gloucestershire, England. ... Location within the British Isles Almondsbury is a large village near junction 16 of the M5 motorway, in South Gloucestershire, England. ... Easton-in-Gordano is an English parish in the hundred of Portbury, in the county of Somerset, seven miles northwest of Bristol. ...


History

Main article: History of Bristol

60,000-year-old archaeological finds at Shirehampton and St Annes provide evidence of settlement in the Bristol area from the palaeolithic era.[7] There are Iron Age hill forts near the city, at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down on the side of the Avon Gorge, and on Kingsweston Hill, near Henbury.[8]. During the Roman era there was a settlement, Abona, at what is now Sea Mills, connected to Bath by Roman road, and another settlement at what is now Inns Court. There were also isolated Roman villas and small Roman forts and settlements throughout the area.[9] The town of Bristol (Brycgstow, Old English, the place at the bridge) was in existence by the beginning of the 11th Century, and under Norman rule acquired one of the strongest castles in southern England. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Shirehampton is a village near Avonmouth, at the edge of Bristol, England. ... St Annes is a suburb in the City of Bristol, England. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... One of the quarries, seen from The Downs. ... Categories: Stub | Bristol ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge (Grid reference ST560743) is a 2. ... Kingsweston Hill (grid reference ST556781) is the site of an Iron Age hill fort near Henbury, Bristol. ... Henbury Church There is also a Henbury crater in Australia. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Sea Mills is a suburb of the English port city of Bristol. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... Not to be confused with Romans road. ... A Roman villa is a villa that was built or lived in during the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ...


The town of Brycgstow (Old English, "the place at the bridge"[10]) was in existence by the beginning of the 11th century, and under Norman rule acquired one of the strongest castles in southern England.[11] Old English redirects here. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Bristol Castle refers to the remains of an 11th or 12th century motte and bailey castle, with curtain walls and a great keep dating from 1140. ...

Bristol Bridge seen across the Harbour

The River Avon in the city centre has evolved into Bristol Harbour, and from the 12th century the harbour was an important port, handling much of England's trade with Ireland. In 1247 a new bridge was built, which was replaced by the current Bristol Bridge in the 1760s,[12] and the town was extended to incorporate neighbouring suburbs, becoming in 1373 a county in its own right.[13] During this period Bristol also became a centre of shipbuilding and manufacturing. Bristol was the starting point for many important voyages, notably John Cabot's 1497 voyage of exploration to North America. Bristol Bridge seen across the Harbour. ... Bristol Bridge seen across the Harbour. ... View of Bristol Bridge across the harbour from Welsh Back. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge The River Avon is a river in the south west of England. ... The central area of the city of Bristol, South West England, is the area south of the central ring road and north of the Floating Harbour, bordered north by St Pauls and Easton, east by Temple Meads and Redcliffe, and west by Clifton and Canons Marsh. ... St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... View of Bristol Bridge across the harbour from Welsh Back. ... A county corporate or corporate county was a form of local government in England and Wales. ... Giovanni Caboto (c. ... North American redirects here. ...

The west front of Bristol Cathedral
The west front of Bristol Cathedral

By the 14th century Bristol was England's third-largest medieval town (after London and York), with perhaps 15,000–20,000 inhabitants on the eve of the Black Death of 1348–49.[14] The Plague inflicted a prolonged pause in the growth of Bristol's population, with numbers remaining at 10,000–12,000 through most of the 15th and 16th centuries. The Diocese of Bristol was founded in 1542,[15] with the former Abbey of St. Augustine becoming Bristol Cathedral. Traditionally this is equivalent to the town being granted city status. During the 1640s Civil War the city was occupied by Royalist military, after they overran Royal Fort, the last Parliamentarian stronghold in the city.[16] Download high resolution version (1500x1036, 570 KB) Bristol Cathedral West Front. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1036, 570 KB) Bristol Cathedral West Front. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Diocese of Bristol is a Church of England diocese based in Bristol, also covering South Gloucestershire and parts of north Wiltshire to Swindon. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ... Augustine is the name of two important Saints: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- philosopher and theologian, author of The City of God, Confessions Augustine of Canterbury (d. ... The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity is the Anglican cathedral in the English city of Bristol and is commonly known as Bristol Cathedral. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Royal Fort (grid reference ST580734) is a historic house in Tyndalls Park, Bristol. ...


Renewed growth came with the 17th century rise of England's American colonies and the rapid 18th century expansion of England's part in the Atlantic trade in Africans taken for slavery in the Americas. Bristol, along with Liverpool, became a centre for the slave trade although few slaves were brought to Britain. During the height of the slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slaving ships were fitted out at Bristol, carrying a (conservatively) estimated half a million people from Africa to the Americas and slavery.[17] Still standing in Bristol is the Seven Stars pub, where abolitionist Thomas Clarkson collected information regarding the slave trade. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... Slave redirects here. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Thomas Clarkson by Carl Frederik von Breda Thomas Clarkson (28 March 1760 – 26 September 1846), abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, and became a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. ...

An 1873 engraving showing sights in and around Bristol
An 1873 engraving showing sights in and around Bristol

Fishermen who left Bristol were long part of the migratory fishery to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and began settling that island permanently in larger numbers around this time. Bristol's strong nautical ties meant that maritime safety was an important issue in the city, in the 19th century Samuel Plimsoll, "the sailor's friend", campaigned to make the seas safer. He was shocked by the overloaded cargoes and successfully fought for a compulsory load line on ships. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2922 × 4200 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2922 × 4200 pixel, file size: 2. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Memorial to Samuel Plimsoll on Victoria Embankment London Samuel Plimsoll (10 February 1824 – 3 June 1898) was a British politician and social reformer, now best remembered for having devised the Plimsoll line. ... Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which ship or boat floats in the water. ...


Competition from Liverpool from c. 1760, the disruption of maritime commerce through wars with France (1793) and the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to the city's failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of the North of England and the West Midlands. The passage up the heavily tidal Avon Gorge, which had made the port highly secure during the Middle Ages, had become a liability which the construction of a new "Floating Harbour" (designed by William Jessop) in 1804–9 failed to overcome. Nevertheless, Bristol's population (66,000 in 1801) quintupled during the 19th century, supported by new industries and growing commerce.[18] It was particularly associated with the Victorian era engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who designed the Great Western Railway between Bristol and London Paddington, two pioneering Bristol-built ocean going steamships, the SS Great Britain and SS Great Western, and the Clifton Suspension Bridge. John Wesley founded the very first Methodist Chapel, called the New Room, in Bristol in 1739. Riots occurred in 1793 and 1831, the first beginning as a protest at renewal of an act levying tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the latter after the rejection of the second Reform Bill. For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... The North of England , also the North country or simply The North, is a term which strictly refers to any part of Northern England north of a line from the Humber to the Dee estuaries. ... The West Midlands is an official Region of England, covering the western half of the Midlands. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge (Grid reference ST560743) is a 2. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... William Jessop (23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English civil engineer, particularly famed for his work on canals, harbours and early railways in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... Paddington station or London Paddington is the name of a major railway station in the Paddington area of London, which is the London terminus for long distance trains to the West of England and South Wales and some West London commuter services. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... ss Great Britain was the first ocean-going ship to have an iron hull and a screw propeller and, when launched in 1843, was the largest vessel afloat. ... The Great Western in New York Harbor. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The New Room (grid reference ST592733) is a historic building in Broadmead, Bristol, England. ... There have been a number of significant riots in the city of Bristol in England. ... The word toll has several meanings. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...

A map of Bristol from 1946
A map of Bristol from 1946

Bristol's city centre suffered severe damage from Luftwaffe bombing during the Bristol Blitz of World War II. The original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, is now a park containing two bombed out churches and some tiny fragments of the castle. A third bombed church nearby, St Nicholas, has been restored and has been made into a museum which houses a triptych by William Hogarth, painted for the high altar of St Mary Redcliffe in 1756. The museum also contains statues moved from Arno's Court Triumphal Arch, of King Edward I and King Edward III taken from Lawfords' Gate of the city walls when they were demolished around 1760 and 13th century figures from Bristol's Newgate representing Robert, the builder of Bristol Castle, and Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances, builder of the fortified walls of the city.[19]   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Bristol was the fifth most heavily bombed city of World War II. // [edit] First Raid Hitler claimed that Bristol had been completely destroyed in a night raid on November 2, 1940 in which 5000 incendiary and 10. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... St Nicholas is a church in St Nicholas Street, Bristol, England. ... The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychÄ“ fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... St. ... Arnos Court Triumphal Arch (grid reference ST611717) is in Junction Rd, Brislington, Bristol, England. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Bristol Castle refers to the remains of an 11th or 12th century motte and bailey castle, with curtain walls and a great keep dating from 1140. ... Geoffrey de Montbray (d. ...


The rebuilding of Bristol city centre was characterised by large, cheap 1960s tower blocks, brutalist architecture and expansion of roads. Since the 1980s another trend has emerged with the closure of some main roads, the restoration of the Georgian period Queen Square and Portland Square, the demolition and rebuilding of the Broadmead Shopping Centre (at 2007 in progress) and the demolition of the city centre's tallest post-war blocks.[20] The central area of the city of Bristol, South West England, is the area south of the central ring road and north of the Floating Harbour, bordered north by St Pauls and Easton, east by Temple Meads and Redcliffe, and west by Clifton and Canons Marsh. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... A tower block, block of flats, or apartment block, is a multi-unit high-rise apartment building. ... Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. ... The Georgian era is a period of British history, normally defined as including the reigns of the kings George I, George II, George III and George IV, i. ... Queen Square is a public open space in the centre of the historic city of Bristol, England. ... Portland Square is in the St Pauls area of Bristol. ...


The removal of the docks to Avonmouth, 7 miles (11.3 km) downstream from the city centre has also allowed redevelopment of the old central dock area (the "Floating Harbour") in recent decades, although at one time the continued existence of the docks was in jeopardy as it was viewed as a derelict industrial site rather than an asset. However the holding, in 1996, of the first International Festival of the Sea in and around the docks, affirmed the dockside area in its new leisure role as a key feature of the city.[21] Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... The International Festival of the Sea, 1996 was a maritime festival, held in and around the Floating Harbour in the English port city of Bristol. ...


Economy and industry

The Nails in Corn Street, over which trading deals were made
The Nails in Corn Street, over which trading deals were made
The last ever flight of any Concorde, 26 November 2003. The aircraft is seen a few minutes before landing on the Filton runway from which it first flew in 1969
The last ever flight of any Concorde, 26 November 2003. The aircraft is seen a few minutes before landing on the Filton runway from which it first flew in 1969

As a major seaport, Bristol has a long history of trading commodities, particularly tobacco; deals were frequently struck on a personal basis in the former trading area around Corn Street, and in particular, over metal trading tables, known as "The Nails". This is the origin of the expression "cash on the nail", meaning immediate payment.[22] Bristol is a city in south west England. ... Image File history File links Concorde_on_Bristol. ... Image File history File links Concorde_on_Bristol. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


As well as Bristol's nautical connections, the city's economy is reliant on the aerospace industry, the media, information technology and financial services sectors and tourism.[23] In 2004 Bristol's GDP was £9.439 billion GBP, and the combined GDP of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire and North Somerset was £44.098 billion. The GDP per head was £23,962 (US$47,738, €35,124) making the city more affluent than the UK as a whole, at 40% above the national average. This makes it the third-highest per-capita GDP of any English city, after London and Nottingham, and the fifth highest GDP per capita of any city in the United Kingdom, behind London, Edinburgh, Belfast and Nottingham.[24] In December 2005, Bristol's unemployment rate was 5.2%, compared with 3.6% for the south west and 4.8% for the United Kingdom.[25] Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... GBP redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


While Bristol's economy is no longer reliant upon its port, the city is the largest importer of cars to the UK. Since the port was leased in 1991, £330 million has been invested and the annual tonnage throughput has increased from 4 million tonnes to 12 million tonnes.[26] The financial services sector employs 40,000 in the city, and the hi-tech sector is important, with 400 micro-electronics and silicon design companies, as well as the Hewlett-Packard national research laboratories. Bristol is the UK's seventh most popular destination for foreign tourists, and the city receives nine million visitors each year.[27] The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ...


In the 20th century, Bristol's manufacturing activities expanded to include aircraft production at Filton, by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, and aero-engine manufacture by Bristol Aero Engines (later Rolls-Royce) at Patchway. The aeroplane company became famous for the World War I Bristol Fighter, and Second World War Blenheim and Beaufighter aircraft. In the 1950s it became one of the country's major manufacturers of civil aircraft, with the Bristol Freighter and Britannia and the huge Brabazon airliner. The Bristol Aeroplane Company diversified into car manufacturing in the 1940s, producing hand-built luxury cars at their factory in Filton, under the name Bristol Cars, which became independent from the Bristol Aeroplane Company in 1960.[28] The city also gave its name to the Bristol make of buses, manufactured in the city from 1908 to 1983, first by the local bus operating company, Bristol Tramways, and from 1955 by Bristol Commercial Vehicles. Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) began building primitive Bristol Boxkites in a former tram shed and became famous for the production of the war-time Blenheim and Beaufighter, the Brabazon airliner prototype, the Britannia and Freighter and the Belvedere and Sycamore helicopters. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... The Mall, an out-of-town shopping centre at Patchway. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Bristol F.2 Fighter was a British two-seat biplane fighter and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I flown by the Royal Flying Corps. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ... The Beaufighter was a long-range heavy fighter modification of the Bristol Aeroplane Companys earlier Beaufort torpedo bomber design. ... The Bristol Type 170 Freighter was a twin-engined propeller cargo aircraft designed and built by Bristol Aeroplane Company as an air ferry to carry cars and their passengers over relatively short distances. ... Bristol Britannia was also a car produced by Bristol Cars from 1982 to 1993. ... The Bristol Type 167 Brabazon was a huge airliner designed by the Bristol Aeroplane Company to fly transatlantic routes from the UK to the United States. ... Bristol Aeroplane Company logo The Bristol Aeroplane Company (formerly British and Colonial Aeroplane Company) was a major British aircraft company which, in 1959, merged with several major British aircraft companies, to become the British Aircraft Corporation and later still part of British Aerospace, now BAE Systems. ... A luxury car is a relatively expensive car. ... Filton is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol, about 4. ... Bristol Cars is a manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars, based at Filton, near Bristol, England. ... Bristol Commercial Vehicles was a manufacturer of buses and trucks based in Bristol, England. ...


In the 1960s Filton played a key role in the Anglo-French Concorde supersonic airliner project. Concorde components were manufactured in British and French factories and shipped to the two final assembly plants, in Toulouse and Filton. The French manufactured the centre fuselage and centre wing and the British the nose, rear fuselage, fin and wingtips, while the Olympus 593 engine's manufacture was split between Rolls-Royce (Filton) and SNECMA (Paris). The British Concorde prototype made its maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford on 9 April 1969, five weeks after the French test flight. In 2003 British Airways and Air France decided to cease flying the aircraft and to retire them to locations (mostly museums) around the world. On 26 November 2003 Concorde 216 made the final Concorde flight, returning to Filton airfield to be kept there permanently as the centrepiece of a projected air museum. This museum will include the existing Bristol Aero Collection, which includes a Bristol Britannia aircraft. For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... Snecma was one of the worlds leading aerospace corporations which merged with SAGEM to form SAFRAN. Snecma is now a subsidiary of the SAFRAN Group and previous Snecma subsidiaries have been reorganised within the wider group. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... RAF Fairford is a Royal Air Force station in Gloucestershire, England, near to Fairford. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bristol Britannia was also a car produced by Bristol Cars from 1982 to 1993. ...


The aerospace industry remains a major segment of the local economy[29] The major aerospace companies in Bristol now are BAE Systems, Airbus and Rolls-Royce, all based at Filton, and aerospace engineering is a prominent research area at nearby UWE. Another important aviation company in the city is Cameron Balloons, a manufacturer of hot air balloons. Each August the city is host to the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, one of Europe's largest hot air balloon events.
, BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, England, UK, that has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ... UWE redirects here. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... A Cameron Z105 balloon. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... Early morning mass ascent The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta is held during August in Bristol, United Kingdom. ...

Panorama over Bristol

Download high resolution version (4370x598, 411 KB)Reupload to remove major vertical distortion, and size cut from 1. ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of Bristol

Bristol is a city in south west England. ...

Arts

The Coopers Hall, entrance to the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Royal complex
The Coopers Hall, entrance to the Bristol Old Vic Theatre Royal complex

The city is famous for its music and film industries, and was a finalist for the 2008 European Capital of Culture.[30] The Bristol Old Vic theatre complex in Bristol, England. ... The Bristol Old Vic theatre complex in Bristol, England. ... The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


The city's principal theatre company, the Bristol Old Vic, was founded in 1946 as an offshoot of the Old Vic company in London. Its premises on King Street consist of the 1766 Theatre Royal (400 seats), a modern studio theatre called the New Vic (150 seats), and foyer and bar areas in the adjacent Coopers' Hall (built 1743). The Theatre Royal is a grade I listed building and was the oldest continuously operating theatre in England. The Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, which had originated in King street is now a separate company. The Bristol Hippodrome is a larger theatre (1981 seats) which hosts national touring productions, while the 2000-seat Colston Hall, named after Edward Colston, is the city's main concert venue. Other theatres include the Tobacco Factory, QEH and Redgrave Theatre (at Clifton College). Bristol's theatre scene includes a large variety of theatre companies, an organisation called Theatre Bristol runs a website which aims to develop the theatre industry in Bristol, [31] this website lists 82 different theatre companies operating within the city.[32] There are also a number of organisation within the city which act to support theatre makers, for example Equity, the actors union, has a General Branch based in the city [33] and there is an organisation called Residence which provides office, social and rehearsal space for several Bristol based theatre and performance companies.[34] The Bristol Old Vic (located at , ) is a theatre complex and theatrical company in the centre of Bristol, England. ... The exterior of the Old Vic from the corner of Baylis Road and Waterloo Road. ... King Street is a 17th century street in the historic city centre of Bristol, England. ... The Bristol Old Vic (grid reference ST587727) is a theatre complex and theatrical company in the centre of Bristol, England. ... The Forth Bridge, designed by Sir Benjamin Baker and Sir John Fowler, opened in 1890, and now owned by Network Rail, is designated as a Category A listed building by Historic Scotland. ... The Coopers Hall (right) became the theatre foyer in the 1970s The Bristol Old Vic is a theatre complex and theatrical company in the centre of Bristol, England. ... The Bristol Hippodrome is a theatre in the city centre of Bristol with a capacity of nearly 2000. ... Colston Hall is a concert hall situated on Colston Street, Bristol. ... A controversial presence: the 1895 statue of Edward Colston Edward Colston (2 November 1636 – 11 October 1721) was a Bristol-born English merchant and philanthropist. ... The Tobacco Factory is the last remaining part of the Old Wills Tobacco site on Raleigh Road, Southville. ... Queen Elizabeths Hospital School Queen Elizabeths Hospital (more commonly known as QEH) is an independent school for boys in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... An 1898 etching of the College Close Clifton College (grid reference ST569737) is a coeducational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ...


Since the late 1970s, the city has been home to bands combining punk, funk, dub and political consciousness, the most celebrated being The Pop Group. Ten years later, Bristol was the birthplace of a type of English hip-hop music called trip hop or the "Bristol Sound", from artists such as Tricky, Portishead, Smith & Mighty and Massive Attack. It is also a stronghold of drum & bass with notable artists such as the Mercury Prize winning Roni Size/Reprazent as well as the pioneering DJ Krust and More Rockers. This music is part of the wider Bristol urban culture scene which received international media attention in the 1990s.[35] Bristol is home to many live music venues, including Fiddlers, Victoria Rooms, St George's and a range of pubs from the jazz orientated The Old Duke to rock at the Fleece and Firkin and indie bands at the Louisiana.[36] The Pop Group was a post-punk band from Bristol, England whose uncompromising, dissonant sound spanned punk, free jazz, funk and dub reggae. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Trip hop (also known as the Bristol sound) is a term coined by United Kingdom dance magazine Mixmag, to describe a musical trend in the mid-1990s; trip hop is downtempo electronic music that grew out of Englands hip hop and house scenes. ... For other uses, see Tricky (disambiguation). ... This article is about the musical group. ... Smith & Mighty are a Drum & Bass band from Bristol, consisting of Rob Smith and Ray Mighty. ... Massive Attack are an English trip hop band. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... The Mercury Prize, formerly the Mercury Music Prize and currently known as the Nationwide Mercury Prize for sponsorship reasons, is an annual music prize awarded for the best British or Irish album of the previous 12 months. ... Roni Size (b. ... Reprazent is a British drum and bass act formed by Roni Size. ... Krust (or DJ Krust) is part of the Bristol based Reprazent collective. ... Rob Smith is a DJ, musician and remixer from Bristol, UK. He is currently on the Grand Central Records independent record label, playing breakbeat hip-hop, dub and reggae-influenced music. ... The Victoria Rooms is the name given to the University of Bristols music department in Clifton, Bristol. ... The Old Duke is a famous Jazz and Blues venue and pub situated on King Street in the heart of Bristol, England. ...

The Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery houses a collection of natural history, archaeology, local glassware, Chinese ceramics and art. The Bristol Industrial Museum, featuring preserved dock machinery, closed in October 2006 for complete renovation and plans to reopen in 2009 as the Museum of Bristol[37] The City Museum also runs three preserved historic houses: the Tudor Red Lodge, the Georgian House, and Blaise Castle House. The Watershed Media Centre and Arnolfini gallery, both in disused dockside warehouses, exhibit contemporary art, photography and cinema, while the city's oldest gallery is at the Royal West of England Academy in Clifton. Image File history File linksMetadata Bristol_pw_from_ms. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bristol_pw_from_ms. ... Categories: United Kingdom-related stubs | Museum stubs | Bristol | Museums in the UK ... The museum building. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... , The Bristol Industrial Museum (grid reference ST585722) is a museum in Bristol, England. ... The Red Lodge Museum is a historic building in Bristol, England. ... The Georgian House is a historic building in Bristol, England. ... The mansion. ... Entrance to Watershed Media Centre in the Harbourside area The Watershed Media Centre opened in a disused warehouse in central Bristol in 1982, and claims to be the United Kingdoms first dedicated media centre. ... The Arnolfini is an art gallery in Bristol, England. ... The Royal West of England Academy (RWA), is an art gallery where Queens Road meets Whiteladies Road, in Bristol, England. ...


Stop frame animation films and commercials produced by Aardman Animations and television series focusing on the natural world have also brought fame and artistic credit to the city. The city is home to the regional headquarters of BBC West, and the BBC Natural History Unit. Locations in and around Bristol often feature in the BBC's natural history programmes, including the children's television programme Animal Magic, filmed at Bristol Zoo. Aardman Animations, Ltd. ... BBC West is the BBC English Region covering the local radio editorial areas of [[Bristol], Somerset, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire. ... The BBC Natural History Unit (NHU) is a department of the BBC dedicated to making TV and radio programmes with a natural history or wildlife theme, especially nature documentaries. ... Animal Magic was a BBC television show aimed at children. ... Bristol Zoo is a zoo in the city of Bristol in South West England. ...

The Llandoger Trow, an ancient public house in the heart of Bristol
The Llandoger Trow, an ancient public house in the heart of Bristol

In literature Bristol is noted as the birth place of the 18th century poet Thomas Chatterton, and the poets Robert Southey, who was born in Wine Street, Bristol in 1774, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge married the Bristol Fricker sisters; and William Wordsworth spent time in the city where Joseph Cottle first published Lyrical Ballads in 1798. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1570x1712, 502 KB) Llandoger Trow, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1570x1712, 502 KB) Llandoger Trow, Bristol, England. ... The Llandoger Trow is an historic public house in Bristol. ... Thomas Chatterton Thomas Chatterton (November 20, 1752 – August 24, 1770) was an English poet and forger of pseudo-medieval poetry. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Joseph Cottle (1770-1853) was a publisher and author. ... Lyrical Ballads, 1798, was the flame that lit the English Romantic movement, its spark being that of the somewhat earlier William Blake. ...


The 18th and 19th century portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence and 19th century architect Francis Greenway, designer of many of Sydney's first buildings, came from the city, and more recently the graffiti artist Banksy. Some famous comedians are locals, including Justin Lee Collins, Lee Evans, and writer/comedian Stephen Merchant. Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... Francis Greenway Hyde Park Barracks, designed by Francis Greenway; Old Colonial Georgian architectural style; drawing by Hardy Wilson in 1914 Francis Howard Greenway (20 November 1777 – September 1837) was an iconic Australian colonial architect. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... Banksy is a well-known pseudo-anonymous[1] English graffiti artist. ... Justin Lee Collins (born 28 July 1974) is an English comedian, television presenter and radio presenter from Bristol, often known as JLC. His distinctive West Country accent and cave man image are amongst his trademarks. ... Lee Evans (born 25 February 1964) is an English stand-up comedian and actor. ... Stephen Merchant (born 24 November 1974 in Bristol) is an English Emmy, Golden Globe, British Comedy Award and BAFTA-award winning writer, director, and comedic actor. ...


Bristol University graduates include English magician, psychological illusionist, Derren Brown; the satirist Chris Morris, Simon Pegg and Nick Frost of Spaced, Shaun of the Dead and Hot Fuzz, and Matt Lucas and David Walliams of Little Britain fame. Hollywood actor Cary Grant was born in the city, Patrick Stewart, Jane Lapotaire, Pete Postlethwaite, Jeremy Irons, Greta Scacchi, Miranda Richardson, Helen Baxendale, Daniel Day-Lewis and Gene Wilder are amongst the many actors who learnt their craft at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, opened by Sir Laurence Olivier in 1946; Hugo Weaving (Agent Smith, The Matrix) studied at Queen Elizabeth's Hospital School and Dave Prowse (Darth Vader, Star Wars) attended Bristol Grammar School. The University of Bristol was founded in 1876 as the University College, Bristol. ... Not to be confused with Darren Brown. ... Christopher Morris (born September 5, 1965 in Bristol, England) is an English satirical comedian, writer, director, producer, actor and radio DJ. Morris began his career in radio before moving into television. ... Simon John Pegg (born 14 February 1970) is an English comedian, writer and film and television actor. ... Nicholas John Frost (born March 28, 1972 in Romford, London) is an English actor and comedian famous for his work with Simon Pegg. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see Pisces Iscariot. ... Shaun of the Dead is a zombie-themed romantic comedy (or rom zom com as it dubs itself) or zombie comedy released in 2004. ... Not to be confused with Hot Fuss. ... Matthew Richard Lucas (born March 5, 1974) is an English comedy actor. ... For other persons named David Williams, see David Williams (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British TV show Little Britain. ... For the vocal coach, see Carrie Grant. ... This article is about the actor. ... Jane Lapotaire (born 26 December 1944) is a British actress born in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. ... Peter William Postlethwaite OBE (born February 7, 1945)[1] is an English actor. ... Jeremy John Irons (born September 19, 1948) is an Academy Award, Tony Award, Screen Actors Guild, two-time Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning English film, television and stage actor. ... Greta Scacchi (born February 18, 1960 in Milan, Italy) is an Emmy Award-winning film actress. ... Miranda Jane Richardson (born 3 March 1958) is an Academy Award nominated English actress. ... Helen Baxendale (born 1969 in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England) is a British TV, film and stage actress. ... Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is an Academy-Award winning and Golden Globe-award nominated actor. ... Gene Wilder (born Jerome Silberman on June 11, 1933) is an American actor who is best known for his role as Willy Wonka, his collaborations with Mel Brooks in Blazing Saddles, The Producers, and Young Frankenstein, and his four movies with Richard Pryor: Silver Streak, Stir Crazy, See No Evil... The Coopers Hall (right) became the theatre foyer in the 1970s The Bristol Old Vic is a theatre complex and theatrical company in the centre of Bristol, England. ... Laurence Olivier, as photographed in 1939 by Carl Van Vechten Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (May 22, 1907 – July 11, 1989) was an English actor and director, esteemed by many as the greatest actor of the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Movie poster for The Matrix Revolutions, featuring the various copies of Agent Smith. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... Queen Elizabeths Hospital School Queen Elizabeths Hospital (more commonly known as QEH) is an independent school for boys in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... David Prowse, MBE (birth July 1, 1935 in Bristol, England) is a body-builder and weightlifter from the United Kingdom. ... For information on this characters appearance in the Star Wars prequel trilogy, see Anakin Skywalker. ... This article is about the series. ... Bristol Grammar School is a co-educational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ...


Sport and leisure

The city has two League football clubs: Bristol City and Bristol Rovers, as well as a number of non-league clubs, most notably Bristol Manor Farm. Bristol City are the more successful football team in the city, having been promoted to the second tier of English football in 2007. City are close to the top of the second tier, the Championship. In early 2008, City announced plans for a new 30,000 all seater stadium to replace their home, Ashton Gate. Bristol Rovers, are the oldest professional football team in Bristol, formed in 1883. Rovers are just below mid-table in League One, and reached the Quarter-Final stage of the FA Cup. During their history, Rovers have been Champions of the (old) division Three (1952/53, 1989/90), Watney Cup Winners (1972, 2006/07), and runners-up in the Johnstone's Paint Trophy. The Club have planning permission to re-develop the Memorial Stadium into an 18,500 All-seater Stadium to be completed by December 2010. The Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Bristol City Football Club is one of two football league clubs in Bristol, England, (the other being rivals Bristol Rovers). ... Bristol Rovers Football Club is an English professional football team, based in Bristol. ... Bristol is the biggest city in the south-west of England, and is home to a number of football teams. ... Bristol Manor Farm F.C. is an English football (soccer) team who play in the Toolstation Premier Division. ... Bristol Rovers Football Club is an English professional football team, based in Bristol. ... This article is about the English FA Cup. ... Football League One (often referred to as League One for short or Coca-Cola Football League 1 for sponsorship reasons) is the second-highest division of The Football League and third-highest division overall in the English football league system. ... The Watney Mann Invitation Cup (normally referred to as simply the Watney Cup) was a short-lived English football tournament held in the early 1970s. ... The Football League Trophy is the generic name of an English football competition for clubs in the two lower divisions of The Football League and, in some seasons, the leading sides in the Conference National. ... Sports ground in Bristol, dedicated to the memory of the rugby players of the city killed during the Great War. ...

The County Ground, Ashley Down
The County Ground, Ashley Down

The city is also home to Bristol Rugby rugby union club, a first-class cricket side, Gloucestershire C.C.C. and a Rugby League Conference side, the Bristol Sonics. The city also stages an annual half marathon, and in 2001 played host to the World Half Marathon Championships. There are several athletics clubs in Bristol, including Bristol and West AC, Bitton Road Runners and Westbury Harriers. Speedway racing was staged, with breaks, at the Knowle Stadium from 1928 to 1960, when it was closed and the site redeveloped. The sport briefly returned to the City in the 1970s when the Bulldogs raced at Eastville Stadium. Ashley Down is a small area of Bristol sandwiched between Bishopston, Horfield and St Werburghs. ... Bristol Rugby are the first class rugby club in Bristol, England. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A first-class cricket match is one of three or more days duration between two sides of eleven players officially adjudged first-class. ... This article is about the sport. ... Gloucestershire County Cricket Club is a county cricket club based at County Cricket Ground, Nevil Road, Bristol BS7 9EJ. Some home games are also played at Gloucester and Cheltenham College. ... The Rugby League Conference (RLC) (also known as the Co-operative Rugby League Conference as a result of sponsorship from United Co-operatives is a series of regionally based divisions of amateur rugby league teams spread throughout England, Scotland and Wales. ... Bristol Sonics are a rugby league club based in Bristol in the South West of England. ... The Bristol Half Marathon is an annual road running event held on the streets of Bristol, UK. Fun runners taking part in the 2006 Bristol Half Marathon. ... The 10th IAAF World Half Marathon Championships was held on 7th October 2001 in the city of Bristol, UK, and was run simultaneously with that years Bristol Half Marathon. ... Eastville Stadium was a stadium in Eastville, a northern suburb of the English city of Bristol. ...


In summer the grounds of Ashton Court to the west of the city play host to the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, a major event for hot-air ballooning in the UK. The Fiesta draws a substantial crowd even for the early morning lift that typically begins at about 6.30 am. Events and a fairground entertain the crowds during the day. A second mass ascent is then made in the early evening, again taking advantage of lower wind speeds. Ashton Court also plays host to the Ashton Court festival each summer, an outdoors music festival which used to be known as the Bristol Community Festival. Ashton Court is a mansion house and estate to the west of Bristol in England. ... Early morning mass ascent The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta is held during August in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... The Ashton Court festival is an outdoors music festival held annually in the grounds of Ashton Court, just outside Bristol, in mid July. ...


Media

Bristol has a daily morning newspaper, the Western Daily Press; an evening paper, the Evening Post; a weekly free newspaper, the Bristol Observer; and a Bristol edition of the free Metro newspaper. The local weekly listings magazine, Venue, covers the city's music, theatre and arts scenes. All of these papers are owned by the Northcliffe Group. The city has several local radio stations, including BBC Radio Bristol, GWR FM (previously known as Radio West), Classic Gold 1260, Kiss 101, Star 107.2, BCfm (a community radio station launched March 2007), Original 106 (starting summer 2007)[38] and The Hub (a student radio station). Download high resolution version (2816x2120, 1501 KB)Morning shot of mass balloon ascent at Bristol Balloon Fiesta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (2816x2120, 1501 KB)Morning shot of mass balloon ascent at Bristol Balloon Fiesta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Early morning mass ascent The Bristol International Balloon Fiesta is held during August in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... The Western Daily Press is a regional newspaper covering South West England, and is published Monday to Saturday in Bristol, UK. The majority of its readers are in rural areas, small towns and villages throughout the region and the papers coverage of rural, agricultural and countryside issues is particularly... The Bristol Evening post is published Monday-Saturday and is centered around the city of Bristol, however numerous other editions exist, and the paper includes stories from the whole of Greater Bristol Category: ... The Bristol Observer started out as a Kingswood and Keynsham Observer, a weekly paper, but at this time it was a paid for publication. ... Metro is the trading name of a free daily newspaper, published by Associated Newspapers (part of Daily Mail and General Trust) in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ... A listings magazine is a magazine which contains information about the upcoming weeks events such as TV Listings, Music, Clubs, Theatre and Film information, examples include Time Out magazine in the UK. These are normally published either with a Saturday or Sunday newspaper or are published weekly to give information... Venue is the whats on magazine for the Bristol and Bath areas of the UK. It was founded in 1982 by journalists who had been working for another Bristol magazine, Out West, which had been consciously modelled on Londons Time Out magazine. ... Daily Mail and General Trust plc (DMGT) is one of the UKs largest media companies and has interests in national and regional newspapers, television and radio. ... BBC Radio Bristol is the BBC Local Radio service for the English city of Bristol and the surrounding former Avon area. ... GWR FM is a stations serving the former county of Avon. ... Classic Gold Logo in Bristol and Bath Classic Gold Logo in Swindon and West Wiltshire For the local Swindon radio station of a similar name see Brunel FM Classic Gold is the regional Classic Gold station in the west of England. ... Kiss 101 is a radio station in Bristol broadcasting out to South Wales and South West England playing dance music and RnB. It is part of a network of stations called the Kiss Network, which also includes Kiss 105-108 (East Anglia) and Kiss 100 (London) and is... Star 107. ... Original 106fm is a radio station broadcasting to the Solent region of southern England, centred on the towns and cities of Portsmouth, Southampton and Bournemouth. ...

Cabot Tower viewed from Brandon Hill park
Cabot Tower viewed from Brandon Hill park

Download high resolution version (600x925, 61 KB)The Cabot Tower, celebrating John Cabot, in Bristol. ... Download high resolution version (600x925, 61 KB)The Cabot Tower, celebrating John Cabot, in Bristol. ... The tower, viewed from Brandon Hill park. ...

Dialect

A dialect of English is spoken by some Bristol inhabitants, known colloquially as Bristolian. Bristol is the only large English city with a rhotic accent, in which the r in words like car is pronounced. The unusual feature of this dialect, unique to Bristol, is the Bristol L (or terminal L), in which an L sound is appended to words that end in an 'a' or 'o'.[39] Thus "area" becomes "areal", etc. This is believed to be how the city's name evolved from Brycgstow to have a final 'L' sound: Bristol. Further Bristolian linguistic features are the addition of a superfluous "to" in questions relating to direction or orientation (a feature also common to the coastal towns of South Wales), or using "to" instead of "at"; and using male pronouns "he", "him" instead of "it". For example, "Where's that?" would be phrased as "Where's he to?", a structure exported to Newfoundland English.[40] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Approximate extent of South East Wales. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that usually takes the place of a noun or noun phrase that was previously mentioned (such as she, it) or that refers to something or someone (I, me, you). Pronouns are often one of the basic parts of speech of the... Dictionary of Newfoundland English Newfoundland English is a name for several dialects of English found in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, often regarded as the most distinctive dialect of English in Canada. ...


Stanley Ellis, a dialect researcher, found that many of the dialect words in the Filton area were linked to work in the aerospace industry. He described this as "a cranky, crazy, crab-apple tree of language and with the sharpest, juiciest flavour that I've heard for a long time".[41]


A (slightly tongue in cheek) guide to Bristol's dialect is at [1] Look up Tongue-in-cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Politics and government

Main article: Politics of Bristol
The Council House, the seat of local government
The Council House, the seat of local government
St Mary Redcliffe church and the Floating Harbour, Bristol
St Mary Redcliffe church and the Floating Harbour, Bristol

Bristol City Council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards. They are elected in thirds with two councillors per ward, each serving a four-year term. Wards never have both councillors up for election at the same time, so effectively two-thirds of the wards are up each election.[42] The Council has long been dominated by the Labour Party, but recently the Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and as the largest party took minority control of the Council at the 2005 election. They are no longer in control following Labour and the Conservatives vetoing the Liberal Democrats' preferred candidate, Steve Comer, in 2007. As a result, Labour rule the council under a minority administration, and the council leader is Helen Holland.[43] The Lord Mayor is Labour Councillor Royston Griffey.[44] The city of Bristol, England, is a unitary authority, represented by four Members of Parliament. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Council House. ... St. ... St Augustines Reach and Peros Bridge, during the 2004 Harbour Festival. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long...


Bristol's constituencies in the House of Commons cross the borders with neighbouring authorities, and the city is divided into Bristol West, East, South and North-west and Kingswood. Northavon also covers some of the suburbs, but none of the administrative county. At the next General Election, the boundaries will be changed to coincide with the county boundary. Kingswood will no longer cover any of the county, and a new Filton and Bradley Stoke constituency will include the suburbs in South Gloucestershire. There are four Labour and one Liberal Democrat Members of Parliament.[45] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Bristol West is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Bristol East is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Bristol South is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Stone is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Kingswood is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Northavon is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Filton and Bradley Stoke will be a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...


Bristol has a tradition of local political activism, and has been home to many important political figures. Tony Benn, a veteran left-wing politician, was Member of Parliament (MP) for Bristol South East from 1950 to 1983. Edmund Burke, MP for the Bristol constituency for six years from 1774, famously insisted that he was a Member of Parliament first, rather than a representative of his constituents' interests. In 1963, there was a boycott of the city's buses after the Bristol Omnibus Co. refused to employ black drivers and conductors. The boycott is known to have influenced the creation of the UK's Race Relations Act in 1965.[46] The women's rights campaigner Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in Bristol. The city was the scene of the first of the 1980s riots or uprisings. In St. Paul's, a number of largely African-Caribbean people rose up against racism, police harassment and mounting disatifisfaction with their social and economic circumstances before similar disturbances followed across the UK. Local support of fair trade issues was recognised in 2005 when Bristol was granted Fairtrade City status.[47] Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... Bristol South East was a parliamentary constituency in the city of Bristol. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Bristol was a former two member constituency, used to elect members to the House of Commons in the Parliaments of England (to 1707), Great Britain (1707-1800) and the United Kingdom (from 1801). ... Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867-1954) was born Emmeline Pethick in Bristol. ... For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ... Fairtrade Town is a status awarded by the Fairtrade Foundation in the United Kingdom and Channel Islands, describing an area which is committed to the promotion of Fairtrade-labelled goods. ...


Bristol is unusual in having been a city with county status since medieval times. The county was expanded to include suburbs such as Clifton in 1835, and it was named a county borough in 1889, when the term was first introduced.[13] However, on 1 April 1974, it became a local government district of the short-lived county of Avon. On 1 April 1996, it once again regained its independence and county status, when the county of Avon was abolished and Bristol became a Unitary Authority.   , Clifton is the name of both one of the thirty-five council wards in the city of Bristol in the United Kingdom, and of a suburb of the city that lies mostly within that ward. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...


Demographics

Looking across the Broadmead Shopping Centre from a balloon at 500 feet (150 m)
Looking across the Broadmead Shopping Centre from a balloon at 500 feet (150 m)

In 2005 the Office for National Statistics estimated Bristol's population at 398,300, making it the 47th-largest ceremonial county in England.[48] Using Census 2001 data the ONS estimated the population of the contiguous built-up area to be 441,556,[49] and that of the metropolitan area to be 551,066.[50] This makes the city England's sixth most populous city, and ninth most populous metropolitan area.[50] At 3,599 inhabitants per square kilometre (9,321 /sq mi) it has the seventh-highest population density of any English district.[51] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1672x2208, 622 KB) Looking across the Broadmead shopping centre, from a static balloon at 500 feet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1672x2208, 622 KB) Looking across the Broadmead shopping centre, from a static balloon at 500 feet. ... Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... This is a List of Ceremonial counties of England by Population - 2002 mid-year estimates from the Office for National Statistics, unrounded figures published by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in the Entitlement Notification Reports for Revenue Support Grants [1]. See also: List of Administrative shire counties of... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


According to 2005 estimates, 89.3% of the population were described as white, 3.9% as Asian or Asian British, 2.8% as black or black British, 2.2% as mixed race, 1.2% as Chinese and 0.6% other. National averages for England were 89.1%, 5.3%, 2.7%, 1.6%, 0.7% and 0.6% for the same groups.[52] 60% of Bristol's population registered their religion as Christianity, and 25% as not religious in the 2001 census, compared with 72% and 15% nationally. 2% of the population follow Islam (3% nationally), with no other religion above one percent.[53] Bristol had the ninth highest proportion of people refer to their religion in the last census as 'Jedi'.[54] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Jedi census phenomenon is a grassroots movement that was created in 2001 for citizens in a few English-speaking countries to record their religion as Jedi or Jedi Knight (after the fictitious quasi-religious order of Force-attuned knights in the Star Wars universe) on the national census. ...


Physical geography

The Avon Gorge, home to several unique plant species.
The Avon Gorge, home to several unique plant species.

Bristol is in a limestone area, which runs from the Mendip Hills to the south and the Cotswolds to the north east.[55] The rivers Avon and Frome cut through this limestone to the underlying clays, creating Bristol's characteristic hilly landscape. The Avon flows from Bath in the east, through flood plains and areas which were marshy before the growth of the city. To the west the Avon has cut through the limestone to form the Avon Gorge, partly aided by glacial meltwater after the last ice age. The gorge aided in the protection of Bristol Harbour, and has been quarried for stone to build the city. The land surrounding the gorge has been protected from development, as The Downs and Leigh Woods. The gorge and estuary of the Avon form the county's boundary with North Somerset, and the river flows into the Bristol Channel at Avonmouth at the mouth of the River Severn. There is another gorge in the city, in the Blaise Castle estate to the north. The Avon Gorge and River Avon, Bristol, taken from Clifton down. ... The Avon Gorge and River Avon, Bristol, taken from Clifton down. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge (Grid reference ST560743) is a 2. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... The Mendip Hills (commonly called The Mendips) are a range of limestone hills (karst) situated to the south of Bristol and Bath in north Somerset, England. ... The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge The River Avon is a river in the south west of England. ... The River Frome is a river in the south west of England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Floodplain. ... The Avon Gorge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, looking south from the Downs The Avon Gorge (Grid reference ST560743) is a 2. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Categories: Stub | Bristol ... One of the quarries, seen from The Downs. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... Categories: Stub | Bristol | Ports and harbours of the UK ... Severn redirects here. ... The mansion. ...


Situated in the south of the country, Bristol is one of the warmest cities in the UK, with a mean annual temperature of 10.2-12 °C (50-54°F).[56] It is also amongst the sunniest, with 1541-1885 hours sunshine per year.[57] The city is partially sheltered by Exmoor and the Mendip Hills, but exposed from the Bristol Channel, and annual rainfall is similar to the national average, at 741-1,060 mm (29.2–41.7 in).[58] For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Dunkery Beacon, with heather in bloom Exmoor National Park is a national park situated on the Bristol Channel coast of Devon and Somerset in South West England. ... The Mendip Hills (commonly called The Mendips) are a range of limestone hills (karst) situated to the south of Bristol and Bath in north Somerset, England. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

Weather averages for Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8 (46) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 17 (62) 19 (66) 22 (71) 21 (69) 18 (65) 14 (57) 11 (51) 8 (47) 14 (57)
Average low °C (°F) 3 (38) 3 (37) 5 (41) 6 (42) 9 (48) 12 (54) 14 (58) 14 (57) 12 (53) 9 (48) 6 (43) 4 (40) 8 (47)
Precipitation mm (inches) 142.3 (5.6) 127.6 (5) 133.6 (5.3) 104.3 (4.1) 76.9 (3) 57.2 (2.3) 48.9 (1.9) 37.6 (1.5) 82.5 (3.2) 123.7 (4.9) 154.8 (6.1) 147.3 (5.8) 1,236.7 (48.7)
Source: Weatherbase [1] 2007-08-03
Source #2: Met Office- Yeovilton [59] 2007-08-03

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Education, science and technology

Main article: Education in Bristol
The Victoria Rooms, owned by the University
The Victoria Rooms, owned by the University
The University of Bristol's Wills Memorial Building - a familiar landmark at the top of Park Street
The University of Bristol's Wills Memorial Building - a familiar landmark at the top of Park Street

Bristol is home to two major institutions of higher education: the University of Bristol, a "redbrick" chartered in 1909, and the University of the West of England, formerly Bristol Polytechnic, which gained university status in 1992. The city also has two dedicated further education institutions, City of Bristol College and Filton College, and three theological colleges, Trinity College, Bristol, Wesley College, Bristol & Bristol Baptist College. The city has 129 infant, junior and primary schools,[60] 17 secondary schools,[61] and three city learning centres. It has the country's second highest concentration of independent school places, after an exclusive corner of north London.[62] The independent schools in the city include Colston's School, Clifton College, Clifton High School, Badminton School, Bristol Cathedral School, Bristol Grammar School, Redland High School, Queen Elizabeth's Hospital (the only all-boys school) and Red Maids' School, which is the oldest girls' school in England and was founded in 1634 by John Whitson. Bristol has some of the most under performing schools in the England, but also some of the highest performing schools in the country. ... The Victoria Rooms in Bristol, built in 1842, and now part of the University of Bristol. ... The Victoria Rooms in Bristol, built in 1842, and now part of the University of Bristol. ... The Victoria Rooms now house the Universitys Department of Music. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... Download high resolution version (600x1028, 113 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (600x1028, 113 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Wills Memorial Building[1] also known as the Wills Memorial Tower[2][3] or simply the Wills Tower[4] is a Gothic building situated near the top of Park Street on Queens Road in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... Red Brick is a name given originally to the six civic British universities that were founded in the industrial cities of England in the Victorian era and achieved university status before World War II. The civic university movement started in 1851 with Owens College, Manchester (now the University of Manchester... UWE redirects here. ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... Overview City of Bristol College is a large general further education college based in the English city of Bristol. ... The main Filton College building Filton College is an educational institute in Filton, a town of southwest England. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Trinity College, Bristol is a theological training college affiliated to the Anglican Church in Stoke Bishop, a prosperous suburb in Bristol, next to the University of Bristols residential halls. ... Wesley College, Bristol is a theological college in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... Colstons School is an independent co-educational school in Bristol, England. ... An 1898 etching of the College Close Clifton College (grid reference ST569737) is a coeducational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... Badminton School is an independent girls school situated in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... Bristol Cathedral School Bristol Cathedral School (grid reference ST582726) is a public school in Bristol, England. ... Bristol Grammar School is a co-educational public school in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... Redland High School for Girls is a selective and independent, non-denominationnal girls school in the suburb of Redland, Bristol, United Kingdom. ... Queen Elizabeths Hospital School Queen Elizabeths Hospital (more commonly known as QEH) is an independent school for boys in Clifton, Bristol, England. ... The Red Maids School is an Independent school in Bristol. ...


In 2005, the then Chancellor of the Exchequer recognised Bristol's ties to science and technology by naming it one of three "science cities", and promising funding for further development of science in the city,[63] with a £300 million "Science Park" planned at Emerson's Green.[64] As well as research at the two universities and Southmead Hospital, science education is important in the city, with At-Bristol, Bristol Zoo, Bristol Festival of Nature and the Create Centre being prominent local institutions involved in science communication. The city has a history of scientific achievement, including Sir Humphry Davy, the 19th century scientist who worked in Hotwells and discovered laughing gas. Bishopston has given the world two Nobel Prize winning physicists: Paul Dirac for crucial contributions to quantum mechanics in 1933, and Cecil Frank Powell, for a photographic method of studying nuclear processes and associated discoveries in 1950. The city was birth place of Colin Pillinger, planetary scientist behind the Beagle 2 Mars lander project, and is home to Adam Hart-Davis, presenter of various science related television programmes, and the psychologists Susan Blackmore and Richard Gregory. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Emersons Green is a residential area on the northern outskirts of Bristol, England. ... Southmead Hospital is a large hospital, situated in the northern suburbs of Bristol, England. ... At-Bristol (grid reference ST585726) is a pioneering public science and technology exploration and education centre in Bristol, England. ... Bristol Zoo is a zoo in the city of Bristol in South West England. ... The Bristol Festival of Nature is a three week long event in Bristol, England, featuring hundreds of events, including lectures, tours and film screenings on subjects of science, natural history and the environment. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Hotwells is a district of Bristol, England located in the lee of high ground that Clifton occupies and directly to the north of the City Docks. ... Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. ... Map sources for Bishopston at grid reference ST586755 Bishopston is an inner-suburb in north Bristol, England, situated on the Gloucester Road, the main northern arterial road in the city. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Cecil Frank Powell (December 5, 1903 - August 9, 1969) was a British physicist, awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1950 for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion (pi-meson), a heavy subatomic particle. ... Colin Pillinger (born May 9, 1943) is a planetary scientist at the Open University in the UK. He graduated with a BSc and a Ph. ... Beagle 2 was an unsuccessful British landing spacecraft that formed part of the European Space Agencys 2003 Mars Express mission. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Dr. Adam John Hart-Davis (born July 4, 1943) is a British author, photographer, and broadcaster, well-known in the UK for presenting the television series Local Heroes and What the Romans Did for Us, the latter spawning several spin-off series involving the Victorians, the Tudors, and the Stuarts. ... Susan Jane Blackmore (born July 29, 1951) is a British freelance writer, lecturer, and broadcaster, perhaps best known for her book The Meme Machine. ... Richard Langton Gregory (born 1923-07-24) is a British psychologist and Emeritus Professor of Neuropsychology at the University of Bristol. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in Bristol

There are two principal railway stations in Bristol. Bristol Parkway is located to the north of the city and Bristol Temple Meads located in the centre. Both stations offer direct services to many UK destinations. Principal operators are First Great Western and CrossCountry. There is also a limited service to London Waterloo from Bristol Temple Meads, operated by South West Trains. The main service to London is by First Great Western to Paddington station. The passenger terminal at Bristol International Airport, Lulsgate Bristol is a city in south west England, situated near the Bristol Channel coast, approximately 115 miles (185 km) west of London. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bristol International Airport (IATA: BRS, ICAO: EGGD) is the commercial airport serving the city of Bristol and the south west of England. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... Bristol Parkway railway station is a railway station on the northern edge of Bristol (England), at Stoke Gifford in South Gloucestershire. ... Bristol Temple Meads railway station is a major rail transport hub in Bristol, England. ... First Great Western is the operating name of First Greater Western Ltd,[1] a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup, which operates services in the west and south west of England and South Wales. ... This article is about CrossCountry trains. ... For other uses, see Waterloo station (disambiguation). ... South West Trains (SWT) is a train operating company operating in the United Kingdom, providing train services to the south-west of London, chiefly in Greater London and the counties of Surrey, Hampshire, Dorset, Devon, Somerset, Berkshire and Wiltshire (the area largely covered before 1923 by the London and South... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ...


There are scheduled coach links to most major UK cities. The city is connected by road on an east–west axis from London to Wales by the M4 motorway, and on a north–southwest axis from Birmingham to Exeter by the M5 motorway. Also within the county is the M49 motorway, a shortcut between the M5 in the south and M4 Severn Crossing in the west. The M32 motorway is a spur from the M4 to the city centre. The city is also served by its own airport, Bristol International (BRS), at Lulsgate, which has seen substantial investments in its runway, terminal and other facilities since 2001. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... The M4 motorway is a motorway in Great Britain linking London with Wales. ... This article is about the British city. ... A number of other places have taken their names from Exeter The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at 50° 43 25 N, 3° 31 39 W. In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... The M5 near J28, Devon This article concerns the M5 motorway in England. ... The M49 motorway is a small motorway west of Bristol, England, that forms a shortcut between the M5 motorway and the Second Severn Bridge on the M4 motorway. ... For the Ontario community, see Severn Bridge, Ontario. ... The motorway runs through a green corridor between Junctions 1 and 2. ... Bristol International Airport (IATA: BRS, ICAO: EGGD) is the commercial airport serving the city of Bristol and the south west of England. ... Lulsgate Plateau is the name given to the Carboniferous limestone hills which form a northern outlier of the Mendips, southwest of Bristol. ...


Public transport in the city consists largely of its bus network, provided by First Group, formerly the Bristol Omnibus Company. Buses in the city have been widely criticised for being unreliable and expensive, and in 2005 First was fined for delays and safety violations.[65][66] Use of private cars in Bristol is high, and the city suffers from congestion, which costs an estimated £350 million per year.[67] Bristol is a motorcycle friendly city. The city recognises that motorcycle use eases congestion and encourages this allow motorcycles to use most of the city's bus lanes, as well as providing secure free parking.[68] Since 2000 the city council has included a light rail system in its Local Transport Plan, but has so far been unable to fund the project. The city was offered European Union funding for the system, but the Department for Transport did not provide the required additional funding.[69] As well as support for public transport, there are several road building schemes supported by the local council, including re-routing and improving the South Bristol Ring Road.[70] There are also three park and ride sites serving the city, supported by the local council.[71] The central part of the city has water-based transport, operated as the Bristol Ferry Boat, which provides both leisure and commuter services on the harbour. First Group PLC (LSE: FGP) is a British transport company operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and North America, with headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Local Transport Plans (LTPs) are an important part of Transportation Planning within the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... The A4174 is a major road in England. ... a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ... A ferry boat passes the Welsh Back landing stage, with Bristol Bridge in the background The Bristol Ferry Boat operates passenger ferry boat services on Bristol Harbour in the centre of the English city of Bristol. ...


Bristol was never well served by suburban railways, though the Severn Beach Line to Avonmouth and Severn Beach survived the Beeching Axe and is still in operation. The Portishead Railway was closed to passengers under the Beeching Axe, but was relaid in 2000-2002 as far as the Royal Portbury Dock with a Strategic Rail Authority rail-freight grant. Plans to relay a further three miles of track to Portishead, a largely dormitory town with only one connecting road, have been discussed but there is insufficient funding to rebuild stations.[72] The Severn Beach Line is a local railway in Bristol, UK, running from Narroways Junction to Severn Beach. ... Severn Beach is a small town on the mouth of the river Severn in South Gloucestershire in England. ... Many railway lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe The Beeching Axe is an informal name for the British Governments attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running the British railway system. ... Tunnel in the Avon Gorge. ... The Royal Portbury Dock The Royal Portbury Dock is part of the Port of Bristol, in England. ... Categories: Stub ... , Portishead (IPA: ) is a coastal town in North Somerset, England, with a population of 21,000 (Local council update 24/07/07). ... This article or section should be merged with Bedroom community A dormitory town is generally a rural town where a large proportion of its population commute to nearby cities. ...


Despite being hilly, Bristol is one of the prominent cycling cities of England, and is home to the national cycle campaigning group Sustrans. It has a number of urban cycle routes, as well as links to National Cycle Network routes to Bath and London, to Gloucester and Wales, and to the south-western peninsula of England. Cycling has grown rapidly in the city, with a 21% increase in journeys between 2001 and 2005.[67] Canal boat decked in Sustrans logo Sustrans is a British charity which promotes sustainable transport. ... The first section of the NCN to be built was the Bristol and Bath Railway Path, opened in 1984. ...


Twin cities

The Avon Estuary
The Avon Estuary

Bristol was amongst the first cities to adopt the idea of town twinning. In 1947 it was twinned with Bordeaux and Hannover, the first post-war twinning of British and German cities. It is twinned with:[73] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Oporto redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Puerto Morazán is a municipality in the Chinandega department of Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mozambique. ... Beira is the second largest city in Mozambique. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a communist state, comprising most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ...

See also

Bristol Portal

This is a list of settlements, tourist attractions and other places of interest in the English city of Bristol. ... W.D. & H.O. Wills was a British Tobacco importer and cigarette manufacturer formed in Bristol, England. ... The Bristol Reservoirs are six reservoirs or sets of reservoirs in the area south of Bristol. ... The Observatory on Clifton Down. ... Clifton Suspension Bridge. ... The Maltese Cross or Jerusalem Cross (Lychnis chalcedonica) is a perennial native to Russia, noted for its clusters of scarlet flowers. ... A county flower is a flowering plant chosen to symbolise a county. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Historical Weather for Bristol, England, United Kingdom.
  2. ^ Bristol: seemingly unstoppable growth. The Guardian (30 October 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  3. ^ NOMIS (www.nomisweb.co.uk) area boundary for the Bristol unitary authority
  4. ^ NOMIS (www.nomisweb.co.uk) area boundary for the Bristol urban area (definition used by the Office for National Statistics)
  5. ^ KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas (a page at the Office for National Statistics website, accessed on 16 July 2007)
  6. ^ Atkins, 2005. "Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study."
  7. ^ The Palaeolithic in Bristol. Bristol City Council (24 April 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  8. ^ Bristol in the Iron Age. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  9. ^ Bristol in the Roman Period. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  10. ^ Little, Bryan (1967). The City and County of Bristol. Wakefield: S. R. Publishers. ISBN 0854095128. 
  11. ^ The Impregnable City. Bristol Past. Retrieved on 2007-10-07.
  12. ^ Bristol Bridge. Images of England. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  13. ^ a b Rayfield, Jack (1985). Somerset & Avon. London: Cadogan. ISBN 0947754091. 
  14. ^ Largest towns in England in 1334. Love my town. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.,
  15. ^ Pictorial Record of Bristol's History. History of Bristol Companies. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  16. ^ Bristol. Fortified Places. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  17. ^ Lottery Fund rejects Bristol application in support of a major exhibition to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (PDF). British Empire & Commonwealth Museum. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.,
  18. ^ A vision of Bristol UA/City. A Vision of Britain. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  19. ^ Four figures on Arno's Gateway. Public Monument and Sculpture Association National Recording Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  20. ^ Demolition of city tower begins. BBC News (13 January 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  21. ^ (1997) Bristol's Harbourside: A Guide to the City Docks. Bristol: Hotwell Press. ISBN 0-9530270-0-7. 
  22. ^ Cash on the nail
  23. ^ Bristol Economy Key Sectors. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10..
  24. ^ Sub-regional: Gross value added1 (GVA) at current basic price..
  25. ^ Nomis (2005). Bristol labour market (PDF). Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10..
  26. ^ Key Facts & Figures. BANES Economic Development Unit. Retrieved on 2007-03-10..
  27. ^ Bristol Today - an overview of the city. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-03-10..
  28. ^ A brief history of the Bristol Marque. Bristol Owners Club. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  29. ^ Bristol Economy Key Sectors. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-12-18..
  30. ^ Six Cities Make Short List For European Capital Of Culture 2008. Department for Culture, Media and Sport (October 2002). Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  31. ^ About Us. Theatre Bristol. Retrieved on 2008-05-08.
  32. ^ Theatre Companies. Theatre Bristol. Retrieved on 2008-05-08.
  33. ^ Bristol and West General Branch. Equity. Retrieved on 2008-05-08.
  34. ^ About. Residence. Retrieved on 2008-05-08.
  35. ^ Blagging and Boasting. Metroactive Music. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  36. ^ Bristol Music. Jezza's Guide. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  37. ^ http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/museum_gfx_en/SW000009.html The Bristol Industrial museum's page on "24hour museum" museum guide
  38. ^ Original 106fm Bristol. Original 106fm. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  39. ^ Stoke, Harry; Vinny Green (2003). A Dictionary of Bristle. Bristol: Broadcast Books. ISBN 1874092656. 
  40. ^ An Introduction to Newfoundland Vernacular English. Language Variation in Canada. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  41. ^ Simon Elmes, "Talking for Britain", p.39
  42. ^ Wards up for future elections. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  43. ^ Council leader battle resolved. BBC News (2007-05-27). Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  44. ^ Royston Is The New Lord Mayor. Bristol Evening Post (16 May 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-17.
  45. ^ Bristol's Members of Parliament and Members of the European Parliament. Bristol City Council (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  46. ^ Alan Rusbridger (10 November 2005). In praise of... the Race Relations Acts. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  47. ^ Bristol is a Fairtrade City. Press Release. Bristol City Council (4 March 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  48. ^ ONS 2005 Mid-Year Estimates. Office of National Statistics (20 December 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  49. ^ Usual resident population. Office for National Statistics, Census 2001 (5 August 2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  50. ^ a b The UKs major urban areas (PDF). Office for National Statistics, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  51. ^ ONS 2005 Mid-Year Estimates. Office of National Statistics (10 October 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  52. ^ Resident Population Estimates by Ethnic Group. Office for National Statistics, 2006 (2006). Retrieved on 2008-02-22.
  53. ^ Key Statistics 07: Religion. Office for National Statistics, Census 2001 (13 February 2003). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  54. ^ Ethnicity and Religion: 'Jedi'. Office for National Statistics, Census 2001. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  55. ^ Cotswold Hills Geopark. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  56. ^ Average annual temperature. Met Office (2000). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  57. ^ Average annual sunshine. Met Office (2000). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  58. ^ Average annual rainfall. Met Office (2000). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  59. ^ Yeovilton 1971-2000 averages.
  60. ^ List of primary schools in Bristol. Bristol LEA. Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  61. ^ List of secondary schools in Bristol. Bristol LEA. Retrieved on 2006-04-13.
  62. ^ Polly, Curtis. "To have and have not", The Guardian, 2008-01-29. Retrieved on 2008-01-29. 
  63. ^ Vice-Chancellor's speeches and articles. University of Bristol (11 November 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  64. ^ City science park partner named. BBC News Online (20 April 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  65. ^ Kerry McCarthy, et al (17 January 2006). Oral Answers to Questions — Transport. British House of Commons. Hansard. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  66. ^ Bus firm must reduce city fleet. BBC News Online (25 July 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  67. ^ a b Joint Local Transport Plan Chapter 1 (PDF). B&NES, Bristol City, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire councils (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  68. ^ Motorcycles. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  69. ^ Memorandum on Government Discrimination against Innovative Low-cost Light Rail in favour of Urban Diesel Buses (PDF). Sustraco / H.M. Treasury (March 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  70. ^ Atkins (2005). Greater Bristol Strategic Transport Study Chapter 6. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  71. ^ Park and Ride. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  72. ^ Bristol-Portishead Rail Link. House of Commons Debate. Hansard (24 January 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  73. ^ Town twinning. Bristol City Council. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bristol (England).

is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan Rusbridger (born December 29, 1953) has been editor of The Guardian since 1995. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Bristol
  • Brycgstow: The Place at the Bridge vote, leave comments, read articles, view pictures and much more!
  • Visit Bristol
  • Bristol travel guide from Wikitravel
  • About Bristol Pictorial tour of Bristol
  • BBC Bristol; Local news, webcams
  • Bristol City Council
  • Dictionary of local dialect words
  • Bristol Council information on Bristol Wards
  • Bristol at the Open Directory Project
  • Bristol's Theatres and their History
  • Where in Bristol Website providing information about Bristol, What's on. Where to go etc.

Coordinates: 51°27′N 2°35′W / 51.45, -2.583 Severn redirects here. ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... Minsterworth is a village in Gloucestershire, UK. It lies in the north-east corner of the Royal Forest of Dean, on the north bank of the River Severn (effectively on the western side of the river) and on the A48 road between Gloucester and Chepstow, at grid reference SO774170. ... Newnham on Severn is a village in Gloucestershire, England. ... Frampton-on-Severn is a village in Gloucestershire, England. ... This article refers to the English port of Sharpness. ... Lydney is a small town and civil parish in the English county of Gloucestershire. ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... Shepperdine is a hamlet tucked away in the north edge of South Gloucestershire, England. ... Oldbury-on-Severn is a small village near the mouth of the River Severn in South Gloucestershire. ... , Chepstow (Welsh: Cas-gwent) is a border town straddling the Wales—England (Monmouthshire—Gloucestershire) border, situated at the confluence of the River Wye and River Severn on the Severns west bank. ... Beachley is a village in Gloucestershire, near the border of Wales. ... The concrete path, with the Severn Bridge in the background. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Features - Bristol Indymedia (1200 words)
Bristol Stop the War write; Rather than be invited to Bristol as a respectable speaker on issues like the United Nations he should be on his way to the International Criminal Court as a war criminal.
Bristol Stop The War Coalition is organising a protest outside the meeting – meet at the Watershed, 7pm, Thursday 29th May (Protest Flyer from swindonstopwar.org.uk)...In addition to the protest on 29th May we are encouraging all our supporters to contact the organisers and sponsors of the festival to object to Bolton being invited to speak.
Opinions are those of the contributors and are not necessarily endorsed by Bristol Indymedia.
Bristol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4458 words)
Bristol is one of the main centres of culture, employment and education in the region.
Bristol is in a limestone area, which forms to the Mendip Hills to the south and the Cotswolds to the north east.
Bristol is home to two major institutions of higher education: the University of Bristol, a "redbrick" chartered in 1909, and the University of the West of England, formerly Bristol Polytechnic, which gained university status in 1992.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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