FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Brine
Brine pump of 1848 in Bad Kissingen (Germany)
Brine pump of 1848 in Bad Kissingen (Germany)
Brine pump of 1848 in Bad Kissingen (Germany)
Brine pump of 1848 in Bad Kissingen (Germany)

Brine is water saturated or nearly saturated with salt (NaCl). It is used (now less popular than historically) to preserve vegetables, fish, and meat. Brine is also commonly used to age Feta cheese. Although brine is used in preservation much like sugar or vinegar, it can be used to great effect in transportation. Brine is a common fluid used in the transport of heat from place to place. It is used because the addition of salt to water lowers the freezing temperature of the solution and a relatively great efficiency in the transport can be obtained for the low cost of the material. At a concentration of 23.3%, the freezing point of the solution is lowered to -21°C (-6°F), this is called the eutectic point. Brine, Corp. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1844 × 1303 pixel, file size: 812 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (1844 × 1303 pixel, file size: 812 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 657 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1984 × 1488 pixel, file size: 657 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Feta (Greek φέτα, feminine gender) is a classic curd cheese in brine whose tradition dates back to Greece thousands of years ago. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more phases at a composition that has the lowest melting point, and where the phases simultaneously crystallise from molten solution at this temperature. ...


At 60 °F (15.5 °C) saturated brine is 26.4% salt by weight (100 degree SAL). At 0 °C (32 °F) brine can only hold 23.3% salt.

Water salinity based on dissolved salts in parts per thousand (ppt)
Fresh water Brackish water Saline water Brine
< 0.5 0.5 - 35 35 - 50 > 50

For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Brackish water (less commonly brack water) is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as seawater. ...

Uses

Road treatment

Brine is also used to pre-treat roads for winter storms. The solution is poured onto the roadways along with actual salt pellets to create a safer roadway when winter weather is in the forecast.

Heat exchange

Brine is also used in removing heat from ice surfaces such as hockey or figure skating rinks. The brine is cycled through the refrigeration plant and returned under the slab of ice at a colder temperature. Brine is used in cruise vessels' cooling systems.

Medicinal purposes

In Europe there are many brine baths that are used for medicinal purposes for curing a variety of ailments from skin conditions to bladder trouble.

Oil extraction

Brines are also used in the offshore oil and gas industry where a pipeline prior to commissioning is flooded with a meg/brine mix to prevent the formation of hydrates on production start up. This is dependent on the well properties. It is useful to refrigeration and heating.

Chemical industry

Brine is electrolyzed in the chloralkali process to make sodium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen, as well as the hypochlorite and chlorate salts on an industrial scale. In this case, the chloride ions are oxidized to chlorine, while water is reduced to hydrogen gas and hydroxide anions, which, together with the sodium ions already present, give sodium hydroxide on evaporation. The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... Definition The chlorate ion ClO3-. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


By adjusting the conditions, the chlorine gas produced also reacts with the hydroxide anions to give hypochlorite and chlorate anions as well.


It is also used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate, and in the solution mining of salt from underground deposits. Brines are also used in the pharmaceutical industry. Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... This is a list of pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are major manufacturers on global or national markets : Abbott Laboratories Able Laboratories Akzo Nobel Allergan Almirall Prodesfarma Alphapharm Altana (previously Byk Gulden) ALZA, part of Johnson & Johnson Amgen AstraZeneca, formed from the merger of Astra AB and Zeneca Group PLC...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brining - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (321 words)
In cooking, brining is a process similar to marination in which meat is soaked in a salt solution (the brine) before cooking.
Brining makes cooked meat moister by hydrating the cells of its muscle tissue before cooking, via the process of osmosis, and by allowing the cells to hold on to the water while they are cooked, via the process of denaturation.
The brine surrounding the cells has a higher concentration of salt than the fluid within the cells, but the cell fluid has a higher concentration of other solutes.
Cooking Light - Brining with Bruce Aidells (794 words)
Brining is simply a matter of soaking meat in a saltwater solution, but it will ensure that you will never cook another dried-out pork chop or chicken breast.
The concentration of water and salt is greater in the brine than it is in the meat; the meat absorbs the brine until the concentration of water and salt is equal in the brine and in the meat.
Brining is such an effective flavor enhancer that many producers of pork and poultry use some form of it to improve their products.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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