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Encyclopedia > Brigade

In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. (Such supporting units normally include at least an artillery battery and additional logistic support). A typical traditional brigade's commanding officer was a brigadier general; a modern brigade is usually commanded by a brigadier or a (full) colonel, or occasionally by a brigadier general. Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... In military science, a battery is a unit of artillery guns or rockets, so grouped in order to facilitate battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Brigadier is a rank which is used in different ways by different countries. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ...

Contents

Origin

The brigade was invented as a tactical unit, by the Swedish king and conqueror Gustavus Adolphus. It was introduced during the Thirty Years' War to overcome the normal army structure, consisting of regiments. The term derives from Italian brigata or Old French brigare, meaning "company", which in turn derives from a Celtic root briga, which means "strife". Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Combatants Anti-Imperialists (Protestants): Sweden Bohemia Denmark Dutch Republic France Scotland England and smaller German states Imperialists (Catholics): Catholic League Holy Roman Empire Spain Austria Bavaria, and smaller German states Commanders Frederick V Gustav II Adolf † Cardinal Richelieu Christian IV of Denmark Johann Georg I of Saxony Johann Tzerclaes, count... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300 A.D. It was known at the time as the langue doïl to distinguish it from the langue... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ...


The so-called "brigada" was a mixed unit, comprising infantry, cavalry and normally artillery too, designated for a special task. The size of such "brigada" was a reinforced company up to two regiments. The "brigada" was the ancient form of the nowadays "task force". This was copied in France by general Turenne, who made it a permanent unit, requiring the creation in 1667 of a permanent rank of brigadier des armées du roi, who took over the brigade command from the Colonel or the Mestre du camp, under the command of the Maréchal de camp (the original Field Marshal), who would in time be rebaptised Général de brigade. A task force or task group is a temporary organization formed to work on a single defined task or activity. ... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... In the French army of the Ancien Régime, the normal brigade command rank in French army was Field Marshal (Maréchal de camp). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ...


Other armies

In the British Army, the brigade has been the smallest tactical formation for more than two centuries, since regiments are either administrative groupings of battalions (in the infantry) or battalion-sized units (in the cavalry). The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ...


In the United States Army, a brigade is smaller than a division and roughly equal to or a little larger than a regiment. Strength typically ranges from 1,500 to 3,500 personnel. Army brigades formerly contained two or more regiments, particularly during the American Civil War, but this structure is now considered obsolete. The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action...


In the United States Marine Corps, brigades are only formed for certain missions. Unlike the United States Army, the Marines have intact regimental structures. A Marine brigade is formed only for special expeditionary duty, for which it is outfitted like a smaller Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF). For example, TF TARAWA (2d MEB) during the Operation Iraqi Freedom campaign. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... The Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range of military operations. ... A task force or task group is a temporary organization formed to work on a single defined task or activity. ... It has been suggested that 2003 invasion of Iraq be merged into this article or section. ...


In the armies of colonial powers, such as the British Empire, brigades frequently garrisoned isolated colonial posts, and their commanders had substantial discretion and local authority. In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The brigade is traditionally the smallest formation able to operate independently on a battlefield without external logistical tactical support. Also called in modern times a Task Force in the US Army or Battle Group in the British Army, although either of these terms can be applied to larger units. A task force or task group is a temporary organization formed to work on a single defined task or activity. ... The battlegroup is the basic building block of an armys fighting formation. ...


Sources and references

  • Nouveau Larousse illustré (undated, early 20th century; in French)

See also


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