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Encyclopedia > Brick
An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and stretchers.
An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and stretchers.

A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, laid using mortar. Look up brick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3665 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brick ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3665 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Brick ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ...

Contents

History

The Roman Constantine Basilica in Trier, Germany, built in the 4th century with fired bricks as audience hall for Constantine I
The Roman Constantine Basilica in Trier, Germany, built in the 4th century with fired bricks as audience hall for Constantine I

The oldest shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B.C.[citation needed] They have been found in Çayönü, a place located in the upper Tigris area, and in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir. Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 B.C., come from Jericho and Catal Hüyük. From archaeological evidence, the inven­tion of the fired brick (as opposed to the consid­erably earlier sun-dried mud brick) is believed to have arisen in about the third millennium BC in the Middle East. Being much more resistant to cold and moist weather conditions, brick enabled the construction of permanent buildings in regions where the harsher climate precluded the use of mud bricks. Bricks have the added warmth benefit of slowly storing heat energy from the sun during the day and continuing to release heat for several hours after sunset. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southern Turkey, forty kiloemtres north-west of Diyabarkir, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern...


The Ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization also used mudbrick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Buhen, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, for example. In the Indus Valley Civilization all bricks corresponded to sizes in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1.[citation needed] The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated below the Second Cataract. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... This article is about the mathematical concept. ...

The world's highest brick tower of St. Martin's Church (Landshut), completed in 1500
The world's highest brick tower of St. Martin's Church (Landshut), completed in 1500

In Sumerian times offerings of food and drink were presented to "the Bone god," who was "rep­resented in the ritual by the first brick." More recently, mortar for the foundations of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul was mixed with "a broth of barley and bark of elm" and sacred relics, accom­panied by prayers, placed between every 12 bricks. For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ...


The Romans made use of fired bricks, and the Roman legions, which operated mobile kilns, introduced bricks to many parts of the empire. Roman bricks are often stamped with the mark of the legion that supervised its production. The use of bricks in Southern and Western Germany, for example, can be traced back to traditions already described by the Roman architect Vitruvius. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Legion redirects here. ... This tomb on Appian Way in Rome features extensive Roman brickwork. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ...


In pre-modern China, brick-making was the job of a lowly and unskilled artisan, but a kilnmaster was respected as a step above the latter.[1] Early descriptions of the production process and glazing techniques used for bricks can be found in the Song Dynasty carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 by the government official Li Jie, who was put in charge of overseeing public works for the central government's construction agency. The historian Timothy Brook writes of the production process in Ming Dynasty China (aided with visual illustrations from the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedic text published in 1637): The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers, Yingzao Fashi The Yingzao Fashi (Chinese:營造法式; Treatise on Architectural Methods or State Building Standards) is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (1065–1110),[1] the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese:宋應星; Simplified Chinese:宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). ...

The brickwork of Shebeli Tower in Iran displays 12th century craftsmanship

...the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the color of molten gold or silver. He also had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous laborers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardized wooden frames (to produce a brick roughly 42 centimeters long, 20 centimeters wide, and 10 centimeters thick), smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel (likelier wood than coal), stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, and bundling them into pallets for transportation. It was hot, filthy work.[2] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 268 KB) Image taken by zereshk on a hot summers day (but well worth the trip). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 268 KB) Image taken by zereshk on a hot summers day (but well worth the trip). ... The exquisite brickwork reminds one of superb Seljuki craftsmanship. ...

The idea of signing one's name on one's work and signifying the place where the product was made—in this case, bricks—was nothing new to the Ming era and had little or nothing to do with vanity.[3] As far back as the Qin Dynasty (221 BC–206 BC), the government required blacksmiths and weapon-makers to engrave their names onto weapons in order to trace the weapon back to them, lest their weapons should prove to be of a lower quality than the standard required by the government.[4] Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ...


In the 12th century, bricks from Northern Italy were re-introduced to Northern Germany, where an independent tradition evolved. It culminated in the so-called brick Gothic, a reduced style of Gothic architecture that flourished in Northern Europe, especially in the regions around the Baltic Sea which are without natural rock resources. Brick Gothic buildings, which are built almost exclusively of bricks, are to be found in Denmark, Germany, Poland and Russia. Holstentor in Lübeck - background left , right St. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


During the Renaissance and the Baroque, visible brick walls were unpopular and the brickwork was often covered with plaster. It was only during the mid-18th century that visible brick walls regained some degree of popularity, as illustrated by the Dutch Quarter of Potsdam, for example. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Flemish bond. ... This article is about the building material. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ...

Chile house in Hamburg, Germany
Chile house in Hamburg, Germany

The transport in bulk of building materials such as paper over long distances was rare before the age of canals, railways, roads and heavy goods vehicles. Before this time bricks were generally made as close as possible to their point of intended use. It has been estimated that in England in the eighteenth century carrying bricks by horse and cart for ten miles (16 km) over the poor roads then existing could more than double their price. For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ...


Bricks were often used, even in areas where stone was available, for reasons of speed and economy. The buildings of the Industrial Revolution in Britain were largely constructed of brick and timber due to the unprecedented demand created. Again, during the building boom of the nineteenth century in the eastern seaboard cities of Boston and New York, for example, locally made bricks were often used in construction in preference to the brownstones of New Jersey and Connecticut for these reasons. Boston redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the building material and the dwelling. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


The trend of building upwards for offices that emerged towards the end of the 19th century displaced brick in favor of cast and wrought iron and later steel and concrete. Some early 'skyscrapers' were made in masonry, and demonstrated the limitations of the material - for example, the Monadnock Building in Chicago (opened in 1896) is masonry and just sixteen stories high, the ground walls are almost 1.8 meters thick, clearly building any higher would lead to excessive loss of internal floor space on the lower floors. Brick was revived for high structures in the 1950s following work by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the Building Research Establishment in Watford, UK. This method produced eighteen story structures with bearing walls no thicker than a single brick (150-225 mm). This potential has not been fully developed because of the ease and speed in building with other materials, in the late-20th century brick was confined to low- or medium-rise structures or as a thin decorative cladding over concrete-and-steel buildings or for internal non-loadbearing walls. This article is about the construction material. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest skyscraper by roof height on high rise. ... The Monadnock Building is a historic skyscraper in the Loop district of downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... The Building Research Establishment (BRE) is an organisation that carries out research, consultancy and testing for the construction and built environment sectors in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Watford (disambiguation). ...


Methods of manufacture

Brick making at the beginning of the 20th century.
Brick making at the beginning of the 20th century.

Bricks may be made from clay, shale, soft slate, calcium silicate, concrete, or shaped from quarried stone. Download high resolution version (558x724, 22 KB)Brick making around the turn of the century Source: [1] Copyright expired due to age of the photo This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Download high resolution version (558x724, 22 KB)Brick making around the turn of the century Source: [1] Copyright expired due to age of the photo This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ...


Clay is the most common material, with modern clay bricks formed in one of three processes - soft mud, dry press, or extruded.


In 2007 a new type of brick was invented, based on fly ash, a by-product of coal power plants. Fly ash (one of several coal combustion products, or CCPs) is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. ... A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that combusts fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ...


Mud bricks

The soft mud method is the most common, as it is the most economical. It starts with the raw clay, preferably in a mix with 25-30% sand to reduce shrinkage. The clay is first ground and mixed with water to the desired consistency. The clay is then pressed into steel moulds with a hydraulic press. The shaped clay is then fired ("burned") at 900-1000 °C to achieve strength. Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


Rail kilns

Xhosa brickmaker at kiln near Ngcobo in the former Transkei in the 21st century.
Xhosa brickmaker at kiln near Ngcobo in the former Transkei in the 21st century.

In modern brickworks, this is usually done in a continuously fired tunnel kiln, in which the bricks move slowly through the kiln on conveyors, rails, or kiln cars to achieve consistency for all bricks. The bricks often have added lime, ash, and organic matter to speed the burning. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 567 KB) Author: Gregorydavid 15:34, 10 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 567 KB) Author: Gregorydavid 15:34, 10 January 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... Ngcobo is the new name of a town in the Eastern Cape which was previously known as Engcobo town. ... Flag of Transkei bantustan Political Map of South Africa prior to 1994 Transkei, as of 1978 The Transkei — which means the area beyond the Kei River — is a region situated in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...


Bull's Trench Kilns

In Pakistan and India, brick making is typically a manual process. The most common type of brick kiln in use there are Bull's Trench Kiln (BTK), based on a design developed by British engineer W. Bull in the late 1800s.


An oval or circular trench, 6-9 meters wide, 2-2.5 meters deep, and 100-150 meters in circumference, is dug in a suitable location. A tall exhaust chimney is constructed in the center. Half or more of the trench is filled with "green" (unfired) bricks which are stacked in an open lattice pattern to allow airflow. The lattice is capped with a roofing layer of finished brick.


In operation, new green bricks, along with roofing bricks, are stacked at one end of the brick pile; cooled finished bricks are removed from the other end for transport. In the middle the brickworkers create a firing zone by dropping fuel (coal, wood, oil, debris, etc) through access holes in the roof above the trench.

West face of Roskilde Cathedral in Roskilde, Denmark.
West face of Roskilde Cathedral in Roskilde, Denmark.

The advantage of the BTK design is a much greater energy efficiency compared with clamp or scove kilns. Sheet metal or boards are used to route the airflow through the brick lattice so that fresh air flows first through the recently burned bricks, heating the air, then through the active burning zone. The air continues through the green brick zone (pre-heating and drying them), and finally out the chimney where the rising gases create suction which pulls air through the system. The reuse of heated air yields a considerable savings in fuel cost. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1356, 182 KB) Roskilde domkirke, west fassade, 2004-08-11. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1356, 182 KB) Roskilde domkirke, west fassade, 2004-08-11. ...


As with the rail process above, the BTK process is continuous. A half dozen laborers working around the clock can fire approximately 15,000-25,000 bricks a day. Unlike the rail process, in the BTK process the bricks do not move. Instead, the locations at which the bricks are loaded, fired, and unloaded gradually rotate through the trench.[5]


Dry pressed bricks

The dry press method is similar to mud brick but starts with a much thicker clay mix, so it forms more accurate, sharper-edged bricks. The greater force in pressing and the longer burn make this method more expensive.


Extruded bricks

In extruded bricks the clay mix is 20-25% water, this is forced through a die to create a long cable of material of the proper width and depth. This is then cut into bricks of the desired length by a wall of wires. Most structural bricks are made by this method, as hard dense bricks result, and holes or other perforations can be produced by the die. The introduction of holes reduces the needed volume of clay through the whole process, with the consequent reduction in cost. The bricks are lighter and easier to handle, and have thermal properties different from solid bricks. The cut bricks are hardened by drying for between 20 and 40 hours at 50-150 °C before being fired. The heat for drying is often waste heat from the kiln. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses of this term, see Die. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...


Calcium silicate bricks

The raw materials for calcium silicate bricks include lime mixed with quartz, crushed flint or crushed siliceous rock together with mineral colorants. The materials are mixed and left until the lime is completely hydrated, the mixture is then pressed into moulds and cured in an autoclave for two or three hours to speed the chemical hardening. The finished bricks are very accurate and uniform, although the sharp arrises need careful handling to avoid damage to brick (and brick-layer). The bricks can be made in a variety of colours, white is common but a wide range of "pastel" shades can be achieved.. Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ... Lime has several meanings: Look up Lime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Lime (mineral) - a group of calcium compounds and minerals in which they predominate, including: Limestone Agricultural lime - a mineral soil additive Calcium oxide (also quicklime) - a chemical compound Calcium hydroxide (also slaked lime) - a chemical compound Lime (fruit... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... A colourant is something added to something else to induce a change in colour. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... An arris is an architectural term that describes the intersection between two outside planes such as the corner of a masonry unit or the intersection of divergent architectural details. ...


Fly ash bricks

In May 2007, Haoxaing Fei, a retired civil engineer, announced that he had invented a new brick composed of fly ash and water compressed at 4,000 psi (27,939 kPa) for two weeks. Owing to the high concentration of calcium oxide in fly ash, the brick is considered "self-cementing". The brick is toughened using an air entrainment agent, which traps microscopic bubbles inside the brick so that it resists penetration by water, allowing it to withstand up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles. Since the manufacturing method uses a waste by-product rather than clay, and solidification takes place under pressure rather than heat, it has several important environmental benefits. It saves energy, reduces mercury pollution, alleviates the need for landfill disposal of fly ash, and costs 20% less than traditional clay brick manufacture. Liu intends to license his technology to manufacturers in 2008. [6][7] A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... Fly ash (one of several coal combustion products, or CCPs) is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: psi or lbf/in² or lbf/in²) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Air entrainment is the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete. ... This article is about the element. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Brick sculpturing on Thornbury Castle, Thornbury, near Bristol, England.The chimneys were erected in 1514.
Brick sculpturing on Thornbury Castle, Thornbury, near Bristol, England.
The chimneys were erected in 1514.

Thornbury Castle chimney detail, a remarkable piece of brickwork built in 1514, Thornbury, near Bristol, England. ... Thornbury Castle chimney detail, a remarkable piece of brickwork built in 1514, Thornbury, near Bristol, England. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Castles in England ... Map sources for Thornbury, South Gloucestershire at grid reference ST637900 Coat of arms of Thornbury Motto: Decus Sabrinae Vallis (Latin: You never expect the spanish inquisition) Thornbury is a historic market town in South Gloucestershire, England, approximately 11 miles (18km) north of the city of Bristol, with a population of... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Look up Chimney in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Influence on fired colour

The fired colour of clay bricks is significantly influenced by the chemical and mineral content of raw materials, the firing temperature and the atmosphere in the kiln. For example pink coloured bricks are the result of a high iron content, white or yellow bricks have a higher lime content. Most bricks burn to various red hues, if the temperature is increased the colour moves through dark red, purple and then to brown or grey at around 1300 °C. Calcium silicate bricks have a wider range of shades and colours, depending on the colorants used.


Bricks formed from concrete are usually termed blocks, and are typically pale grey in colour. They are made from a dry, small aggregate concrete which is formed in steel moulds by vibration and compaction in either an "egglayer" or static machine. The finished blocks are cured rather than fired using low-pressure steam. Concrete blocks are manufactured in a much wider range of shapes and sizes than clay bricks and are also available with a wider range of face treatments - a number of which are to simulate the appearance of clay bricks. This article is about the construction material. ...


An impervious and ornamental surface may be laid on brick either by salt glazing, in which salt is added during the burning process, or by the use of a "slip," which is a glaze material into which the bricks are dipped. Subsequent reheating in the kiln fuses the slip into a glazed surface integral with the brick base. Pottery referred to as salt glazed or salted is created by adding common salt, sodium chloride, into the chamber of a hot kiln. ...


Natural stone bricks are of limited modern utility, due to their enormous comparative mass, the consequent foundation needs, and the time-consuming and skilled labour needed in their construction and laying. They are very durable and considered more handsome than clay bricks. Only a few stones are suitable for bricks. Common materials are granite, limestone and sandstone. Other stones may be used (e.g. marble, slate, quartzite, etc.) but these tend to be limited to a particular locality. For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ...


Optimal dimensions, characteristics and strength

Loose bricks
Loose bricks

For efficient handling and laying bricks must be small enough and light enough to be picked up by the bricklayer using one hand (leaving the other hand free for the trowel). Bricks are usually laid flat and as a result the effective limit on the width of a brick is set by the distance which can conveniently be spanned between the thumb and fingers of one hand, normally about four inches (about 100 mm). In most cases, the length of a brick is about twice its width, about eight inches (about 200 mm) or slightly more. This allows bricks to be laid bonded in a structure to increase its stability and strength (for an example of this, see the illustration of bricks laid in English bond, at the head of this article. The wall is built using alternating courses of stretchers, bricks laid longways and headers, bricks laid crossways. The headers tie the wall together over its width. An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Flemish bond. ...


The correct brick for a job can be picked from a choice of color, surface texture, density, weight, absorption and pore structure, thermal characteristics, thermal and moisture movement, and fire resistance.

Face brick ("house brick") sizes[8], from small to large
Standard Imperial Metric
Flag of the United States United States 8 × 4 × 2¼ inches 203 × 102 × 57 mm
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 8½ × 4 × 2½ inches 215 × 102.5 × 65 mm
Flag of South Africa South Africa 8¾ × 4 × 3 inches 222 × 106 × 73 mm
Flag of Australia Australia 9 × 4⅓ × 3 inches 230 × 110 × 76 mm

In England, the length and the width of the common brick has remained fairly constant over the centuries, but the depth has varied from about two inches (about 51 mm) or smaller in earlier times to about two and a half inches (about 64 mm) more recently. In the United States, modern bricks are usually about 8 × 4 × 2.25 inches (203 × 102 × 57 mm). In the United Kingdom, the usual ("work") size of a modern brick is 215 × 102.5 × 65 mm (about 8.5 × 4 × 2.5 inches), which, with a nominal 10 mm mortar joint, forms a "coordinating" or fitted size of 225 × 112.5 × 75 mm, for a ratio of 6:3:2. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Some brickmakers create innovative sizes and shapes for bricks used for plastering (and therefore not visible) where their inherent mechanical properties are more important than the visual ones.[9] These bricks are usually slightly larger, but not as large as blocks and offer the following advantages:

  • A slightly larger brick requires less mortar and handling (fewer bricks) which reduces cost
  • Ribbed exterior aids plastering
  • More complex interior cavities allow improves insulation, while maintaining strength.

Blocks have a much greater range of sizes. Standard coordinating sizes in length and height (in mm) include 400×200, 450×150, 450×200, 450×225, 450×300, 600×150, 600×200, and 600×225; depths (work size, mm) include 60, 75, 90, 100, 115, 140, 150, 190, 200, 225, and 250. They are usable across this range as they are lighter than clay bricks. The density of solid clay bricks is around 2,000 kg/m³: this is reduced by frogging, hollow bricks, etc.; but aerated autoclaved concrete, even as a solid brick, can have densities in the range of 450–850 kg/m³.


Bricks may also be classified as solid (less than 25% perforations by volume, although the brick may be "frogged," having indentations on one of the longer faces), perforated (containing a pattern of small holes through the brick removing no more than 25% of the volume), cellular (containing a pattern of holes removing more than 20% of the volume, but closed on one face), or hollow (containing a pattern of large holes removing more than 25% of the brick's volume). Blocks may be solid, cellular or hollow


The term "frog" for the indentation on one bed of the brick is a word that often excites curiosity as to its origin. The most likely explanation is that brickmakers also call the block that is placed in the mould to form the indentation a frog. Modern brickmakers usually use plastic frogs but in the past they were made of wood. When these are wet and have clay on them they resemble the amphibious kind of frog and this is where they got their name. Over time this term also came to refer to the indentation left by them.[Matthews 2006]


The compressive strength of bricks produced in the United States ranges from about 1000 lbf/in² to 15,000 lbf/in² (7 to 105 MPa or N/mm² ), varying according to the use to which the brick are to be put. In England clay bricks can have strengths of up to 100 MPa, although a common house brick is likely to show a range of 20–40 MPa. MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association... MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association... MPA is a TLA (three-letter acronym) that may mean: Macedonian Press Agency Marine Protected Area Maritime Patrol Aircraft Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark MPA) Master of Public Administration Master of Public Affairs Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics Metropolitan Police Authority Mid-atlantic Pagan Alliance Motion Picture Association...


Use

A brick section of the old Dixie Highway East Florida Connector on the west side of Lake Lily in Maitland, Florida. It was built in 1915 or 1916, paved over at some point, and restored in 1999.
A brick section of the old Dixie Highway East Florida Connector on the west side of Lake Lily in Maitland, Florida. It was built in 1915 or 1916, paved over at some point, and restored in 1999.

In the early 1900s, most of the streets in the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan were paved with brick. Today, there are only about 20 blocks of brick paved streets remaining (totaling less than 0.5 percent of all the streets in the city limits).[10] Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 544 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 544 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Dixie Highway in St. ... Maitland is a city located in Orange County, Florida, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 12,019. ... Grand Rapids is the name of several places in the United States of America: Grand Rapids, Michigan Grand Rapids, Minnesota Grand Rapids, Ohio Grand Rapids, Wisconsin is the former name of Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Grand Rapids is also the name of a town in Canada: Grand Rapids, Manitoba. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Bricks are used for building and pavement. In the USA, brick pavement was found incapable of withstanding heavy traffic, but it is coming back into use as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts. For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents. ... Venice (J.H. Crawford) Auto-free zones are also known as car-free zones and pedestrianised zones. ...


Bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces. They have various uses, especially refractory bricks such as silica, magnesia, chamotte and neutral (chromomagnesite) refractory bricks. This type of brick must have good thermal shock resistance, refractoriness under load, high melting point, and satisfactory porosity. There is a large refractory brick industry, especially in the United Kingdom, Japan and the U.S.A.. Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... This article is about the material. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grog (also called firesand) is a type of pre-fired clay that has been ground and screened to a specific particle size. ... A Fire brick or refractory brick is a block of ceramic material used in lining furnaces and kilns. ... Thermal shock and thermal loading refer to the disfuntion (and perhaps, crack) of a material due to the heating, especially non-stationary and non-uniform. ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...


In the United Kingdom, bricks have been used in construction for centuries. Until recently, many houses were built almost entirely from red bricks. This use is particularly common in areas of northern England and some outskirts of London, where rows of terraced houses were rapidly and cheaply built to house local workers[citation needed]. These houses have survived to the present day. Although many houses in the UK are now built using a mixture of concrete blocks and other materials, many houses are skinned with a layer of bricks on the outside for aesthetic appeal. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A street of British Victorian/Edwardian terraced homes. ... A stack of rectangular cinder blocks A cinder block (also mistakenly called a concrete block), breeze block, or Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU), is a rectangular block or brick used in construction. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Brick in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flemish bond. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... A Fire brick or refractory brick is a block of ceramic material used in lining furnaces and kilns. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... A Millwall brick is an improvised weapon made of a manipulated newspaper. ... Mudbrick was used for the outer contruction of Sumerian ziggurats — some of the worlds largest and oldest constructions. ... This tomb on Appian Way in Rome features extensive Roman brickwork. ... Wienerberger AG is the world’s largest producer of bricks, based in Vienna, Austria. ...

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Brook, 19–20
  2. ^ Brook, 20–21.
  3. ^ Brook, 22.
  4. ^ Brook, 22–23.
  5. ^ Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Brick Kiln Units (PDF file)
  6. ^ Popular Science Magazine, INVENTION AWARDS : A Green Brick, May 2007
  7. ^ National Science Foundation, Press Release 07-058, "Follow the 'Green' Brick Road?", May 22, 2007
  8. ^ http://www.crammix.co.za/export_info.htm Crammix, Export Information - product options
  9. ^ Crammix Maxilite
  10. ^ http://ostpxweb.dot.gov/preserveamerica/stories/michigan/index.cfm

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

References

  • Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0
  • Campbell, James W. P., and Will Pryce. 2003. Brick : a world history. London ; New York: Thames & Hudson.
  • M.Kornmann and CTTB, Clay bricks and roof tiles, manufacturing and properties, Lasim (Paris) 2007 ISBN 2-9517765-6-X

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brick Marketing - Internet Web Site Marketing Solutions Company (532 words)
Brick Marketing's online marketing solutions will increase your online presence and help your enterprise achieve top search engine results which drives traffic and customers.
Brick Marketing will design, develop, implement and maintain a professional blog for your company, that will drive traffic and sales for your products and services.
Brick Marketing offers a full portfolio of marketing techniques, including SEO and beyond.
brick - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about brick (352 words)
Bricks are made by kneading a mixture of crushed clay and other materials into a stiff mud and extruding it into a ribbon.
Refractory bricks used to line furnaces are made from heat-resistant materials such as silica and dolomite.
It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood, it was a town of unnatural red and fl like the painted face of a savage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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