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Encyclopedia > Brian Mulroney
The Right Honourable
 Martin Brian Mulroney
 PC CC GOQ
Brian Mulroney

In office
September 17, 1984 – June 25, 1993
Monarch Elizabeth II
Preceded by John Turner
Succeeded by Kim Campbell

Member of Parliament
for Central Nova
In office
August 29, 1983 – 1984
Preceded by Elmer M. MacKay
Succeeded by Elmer M. MacKay

Member of Parliament
for Manicouagan
In office
1984 – 1988
Preceded by André Maltais
Succeeded by Charles Langlois

Member of Parliament
for Charlevoix
In office
1988 – September 8, 1993[1]
Preceded by Charles Hamelin
Succeeded by Gérard Asselin

Born March 20, 1939 (1939-03-20) (age 68)
Baie-Comeau, Quebec
Political party Progressive Conservative
Spouse Mila Mulroney
Children Ben Mulroney; two other sons; one daughter
Alma mater St. Francis Xavier University, Université Laval
Profession Lawyer, businessman
Religion Roman Catholic

Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. After retiring from politics, Mulroney resumed his earlier career as a lawyer and business consultant. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The National Order of Quebec (French: Ordre national du Québec) is an order of merit bestowed by the government of Quebec, Canada. ... Brian Mulroney File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... Central Nova in relation to the other Nova Scotia ridings Central Nova is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... Elmer MacIntosh MacKay, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (born August 5, 1936) is a retired Canadian politician. ... Elmer MacIntosh MacKay, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (born August 5, 1936) is a retired Canadian politician. ... Manicouagan in relation to the other Quebec ridings Manicouagan is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... André Maltais (born 17 May 1948 in La Malbaie, Quebec) was a Liberal party member of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Charles A. Langlois (born 22 March 1938 in Sainte-Marthe, Québec) was a member of the Canadian House of Commons from 1988 to 1993. ... Charlevoix is a Canadian federal electoral district (riding) in the eastern part of Quebec. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... Gérard Asselin (born April 19, 1950, in Ste-Flavie, Quebec) is a Canadian politician. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baie-Comeau, Québec (2006 City Population 22,554; UA population 10,178; CA population 29,808) is a town located approximately 420 kilometers north-east of Quebec City in the Côte-Nord region of the province of Québec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mila (left) and Brian (right) Mulroney greet Pierre Trudeau (Foreground). ... Benedict Ben Mulroney (born March 9, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian television host. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... St. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... The National Order of Quebec (French: Ordre national du Québec) is an order of merit bestowed by the government of Quebec, Canada. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ...

Contents

Background

Martin Brian Mulroney was born in Baie-Comeau, Quebec, an isolated lumber town in eastern Quebec. He is the son of Irish Canadian Catholic parents, Benedict and Irene (O'Shea) Mulroney. Benedict Mulroney was a paper mill electrician. The family had six children who survived infancy. Since there was no English Catholic high school in Baie-Comeau, Mulroney completed his high school education at a Roman Catholic boarding school in Chatham, New Brunswick operated by St. Thomas University (in 2001, St. Thomas University named its newest academic building in his honour). Money was very tight in the family. Ben Mulroney worked extra shifts and ran a repair business on the side to earn extra money to fund his children's educations. Ben Mulroney encouraged his oldest son to go to university (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Baie-Comeau, Québec (2006 City Population 22,554; UA population 10,178; CA population 29,808) is a town located approximately 420 kilometers north-east of Quebec City in the Côte-Nord region of the province of Québec, Canada. ... Irish Canadians are people of Irish descent living in Canada or born as native Canadians. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Chatham, New Brunswick, Canada, a former town on the south bank of the Miramichi River, was subsumed in 1995 into the new city of Miramichi. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Mulroney would frequently tell stories about newspaper publisher Robert R. McCormick, whose company had founded Baie Comeau. Mulroney would sing Irish songs for McCormick,[2] and the publisher would slip him $50[3] . He grew up speaking English and French fluently.[4] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Family

On May 26, 1973, he married Mila Pivnički, the daughter of a Bosnian doctor, Dimitrije Mita Pivnički, from Sarajevo [2]. The Mulroneys have four children: Caroline, Benedict (or Ben), Mark, and Nicolas. Ben is currently a CTV media personality and the host of Canadian Idol. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Mila (left) and Brian (right) Mulroney greet Pierre Trudeau (Foreground). ... rofl like, theres this n00b caleld necRo on bladefist eu WoW and he like bosnian and should die lol rofl ol ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Benedict Ben Mulroney (born March 9, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian television host. ... Canadian Idol is a reality television show on the Canadian television network CTV, based on the popular British show Pop Idol and its American counterpart American Idol. ...


In 1991, Frank magazine ran a satirical ad for a contest inviting young Tories to "deflower Caroline Mulroney", the then-Prime Minister's eldest child. The magazine took the position that they were simply commenting on Mulroney's perceived habit of using his daughter as a political prop. Many groups and commentators joined Mulroney in denouncing the ad as an incitement to rape, although it did not advocate using force to accomplish the act. Frank is a bi-weekly Canadian scandal or satirical magazine, inspired by and often compared to the British Private Eye. ...


On September 16, 2000, Caroline married Andrew Lapham, the son of Harper's editor Lewis H. Lapham. Among the 400 guests were many dignitaries and business leaders, including former US President George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush, Queen Noor of Jordan, Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia and his Greek-born wife Katherine, Dino Goulandris, Galen Weston and Ontario Lieutenant-Governor Hilary Weston, former talk show host Kathie Lee Gifford, and media magnate Ted Rogers. She is currently associate director of the Stern School of Business at New York University, having graduated there with a law degree.[3][4] An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly magazine of politics and culture. ... Lewis Lapham (pronounced ) (born January 8, 1935) was the editor of the American monthly Harpers Magazine until 2006. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... Her Majesty Queen Noor (born August 23, 1951) is the fourth wife and widow of the late King Hussein of Jordan (1935-1999). ... Crown Prince Alexander II (Alexander II Karageorgevich) (Serbian Cyrillic: Престолонаследник Александар II Карађорђевић), born July 17, 1945) is the claimant to the throne of Serbia. ... Willard Gordon Galen Weston, OC, OOnt, (born October 29, 1940) is a Canadian businessman and descendant of George Weston of the George Weston Bakeries Limited. ... The Honourable Hilary M. Weston, CM, OOnt (born Hilary Frayne, January 12, 1942, Dublin, Ireland) was the 26th Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, serving from 1997 to 2002. ... VHS box cover of Kathie Lees Rock n Tots Cafe: A Christmas Giff starring Kathie Lee Gifford, copyright 1995 Rock n Tots Joint Venture. ... Edward Samuel Ted Rogers, Jr. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ...


Mulroney is the grandfather of Lewis H. Lapham III, and twins Pierce Lapham and Elizabeth Theodora Lapham.


University

Mulroney had not been involved in politics at any level prior to entering St. Francis Xavier University in the fall of 1955 as a 16-year-old freshman. That changed when he was recruited to the campus Progressive Conservative group by Lowell Murray and others, early in his first year. Murray would become a close friend, mentor, and adviser who was appointed to the Canadian Senate in 1979. Other important, lasting friendships made there by Mulroney included Gerald Doucet, Fred Doucet, Sam Wakim, and Patrick MacAdam. Mulroney enthusiastically embraced political organization, and assisted the local PC candidate in his successful 1956 Nova Scotia provincial election campaign; the PCs, led provincially by Robert Stanfield, swept to a surprise victory (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). St. ... Progressive Conservative Party can refer to several political parties in Canada: National Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (defunct) Provincial British Columbia Progressive Conservative Party (renamed British Columbia Conservative Party in 1991) Alberta Progressive Conservative Party Progressive Conservative Party of Saskatchewan Manitoba Progressive Conservative Party Ontario Progressive Conservative Party New Brunswick... The Honourable Senator Lowell Murray, PC, MA, LLD (born 26 September 1936) is a Senator and long time activist with the Progressive Conservative party in Canada. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Mulroney became a youth delegate and attended the 1956 leadership convention in Ottawa. While initially undecided, Mulroney was captivated by John Diefenbaker's powerful oratory and easy approachability. Mulroney joined the "Youth for Diefenbaker" committee which was led by Ted Rogers, a future scion of Canadian business. Mulroney struck an early friendship with Diefenbaker, who won the leadership, and received telephone calls from Diefenbaker.[4] This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Edward Samuel Ted Rogers, Jr. ... This article is on the car division of Toyota. ...


Mulroney won several public speaking contests at St. Francis Xavier, was a star member of the school's debating team, and never lost an interuniversity debate. He was also very active in campus politics, serving with distinction in several Model Parliaments, and was campus prime minister in a grandiose Maritimes-wide Model Parliament in 1958 (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Debate is a formalized system of (usually) logical argument. ... The Model Parliament is the term used for the 1295 parliament of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Mulroney also assisted with the 1958 national election campaign at the local level in Nova Scotia; this led to the biggest majority in Canadian history (The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


After graduating from St. Francis Xavier in 1959, Mulroney at first pursued a law degree from Dalhousie University in Halifax; he had originally planned to attend Laval, but switched to be near his girlfriend Roseann Earl, who was also studying in Halifax. Their relationship broke up soon afterwards, hitting Mulroney hard. It was around this time that Mulroney also cultivated friendships with the Tory premier of Nova Scotia, Robert Stanfield, and his chief adviser Dalton Camp. Mulroney significantly assisted with Stanfield's successful 1960 re-election campaign, in the role of an advance man. Mulroney neglected his studies, then fell seriously ill during the winter term, was hospitalized, and, despite getting extensions for several courses because of his illness, flunked out of Dalhousie his first year (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). He then transferred to Université Laval in Quebec City, and restarted first-year law there the next year. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Dalhousie University is a university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Halifax can refer to any of several things: // Australia Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Halifax Regional Municipality City of Halifax (dissolved city) Halifax County, Nova Scotia (dissolved county) Halifax (electoral district) Halifax International Airport Namibia Halifax Island United Kingdom Halifax, West Yorkshire Halifax (UK Parliament constituency) Halifax bank (formerly building... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


In Quebec City, Mulroney befriended future Quebec Premier Daniel Johnson, Sr, and frequented the provincial legislature, making connections with politicians, aides, and journalists. At Laval, Mulroney built a network of friends that would play a prominent role in Canadian politics for years to come,[5] including Lucien Bouchard, Bernard Roy, Michel Cogger, Michael Meighen, Jean Bazin, and Peter White. During this time, Mulroney was still involved in the Conservative youth wing and was acquainted with the President of the Student Federation, Joe Clark. This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Honourable Francis Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... The Honourable Michael Arthur Meighen, BA, LLL (born in Montreal, March 25, 1939) is a Canadian senator, lawyer and cultural patron. ... The Honourable Jean Bazin (born January 31, 1940) is a Canadian lawyer and former senator. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


Mulroney secured a plum temporary appointment in Ottawa during the summer of 1962, as the executive assistant to Alvin Hamilton, minister of agriculture. Then a federal election was called, and Prime Minister Diefenbaker appointed Hamilton as the acting prime minister for the rest of the campaign. Hamilton took Mulroney with him on the campaign trail, where the young organizer gained valuable experience (The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991, pp. 129-135). The Rt. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Builds reputation, gains publicity

After graduating from Laval in 1964, Mulroney joined the Montreal law firm now known as Ogilvy Renault, which at the time was the largest law firm in the Commonwealth of Nations. Mulroney twice failed his bar exams, but the firm kept him due to his charming personality (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). After ultimately passing his bar exams, Mulroney was admitted to the Quebec bar in 1965, and became a labour lawyer, which was then a new and exciting field of law in Quebec. Mulroney's superb political skills of conciliation and negotiation, with opponents often polarized and at odds, proved ideal for this field. He was noted for ending several strikes along the Montreal waterfront where he met fellow lawyer W. David Angus, who would later become a valuable fundraiser for his campaigns. Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Ogilvy Renault LLP is one of Canadas leading law firms with offices in Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver, and London (UK). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... W. David Angus (born July 21, 1937 in Toronto) is a Canadian Senator. ...


It was in 1966 that Dalton Camp, who was by then President of the Progressive Conservative Party, ran for re-election in what was widely believed to be a referendum on Diefenbaker's leadership. Diefenbaker had reached his 70th birthday in 1965. Mulroney joined with most of his generation in supporting Camp and opposing Diefenbaker, but due to his past friendship with Diefenbaker, he attempted to stay out of the spotlight. With Camp's narrow victory, Diefenbaker called for a 1967 leadership convention in Toronto. Mulroney joined with Joe Clark and others in supporting former Justice minister E. Davie Fulton. Once Fulton dropped off the ballot, Mulroney helped in swinging most of his organization over to Robert Stanfield, who won. Mulroney, then 28, would soon become a chief adviser to the new leader in Quebec. The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The first Progressive Conservative Party of Canada leadership convention was held in 1927, when the party was called the Conservative Party. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Honourable Edmund Davie Fulton, PC , OC , QC (March 10, 1916- May 22, 2000) was a Canadian politician and judge. ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


Mulroney's professional reputation was further enhanced when he ended a strike that was considered impossible to resolve at the Montreal newspaper La Presse. In doing so, Mulroney became friends with the paper's owner, Canadian business mogul Paul Desmarais. After his initial difficulties, Mulroney's reputation in his firm steadily increased, and he was made a partner in 1971 (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). La Presse, founded in 1884, is a large-circulation French-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec. ... Paul Desmarais, Sr. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Mulroney's big break would come during the Cliche Commission in 1974,[6] which was set up by Quebec premier Robert Bourassa to investigate the situation at James Bay, Canada's largest hydroelectric project. Violence and dirty tactics had broken out as part of a union accreditation struggle. To ensure the commission was non-partisan, Bourassa, the Liberal premier, placed Robert Cliche, a former leader of the provincial New Democratic Party in charge. Cliche asked Mulroney, a Progressive Conservative and a former student of his, to join the commission. Mulroney would ask Lucien Bouchard to join as counsel. The committee's unravellings, which showed Mafia infiltration of the unions, made Mulroney well-known in Quebec, as the hearings were extensively covered in the media.[6] The Cliche Commission's report was largely adopted by the Bourassa government. A notable incident included the revelation that the controversy may have involved the office of the Premier of Quebec. Although Bouchard favoured calling in Robert Bourassa as a witness, Mulroney refused, deeming it a violation of 'executive privilege' (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Mulroney and Bourassa would later cultivate a friendship that would turn out to be extremely beneficial when Mulroney ran for re-election in 1988. A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ... James Bay in summer 2000 James Bay (French, Baie James) is a large body of water on the southern end of Hudson Bay in Canada. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Robert Cliche (1921 — 1978) was a Canadian politician, who served as the leader of the New Democratic Party of Quebec, as well as the Quebec lieutenant to federal New Democratic Party leader Tommy Douglas, from 1964 to 1968. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Loses first leadership race, 1975-76

Stanfield lost the 1974 election to Pierre Trudeau. Following his third consecutive loss, Stanfield decided to resign the leadership. Mulroney, despite never having run for elected office, was encouraged to run in the leadership race to replace Stanfield, and entered the contest. Mulroney and provincial rival Claude Wagner were both seen as potentially able to appeal to Quebec, which had supported the federal Liberals for decades. Ironically, it had been Mulroney who had played the lead role in recruiting Wagner to the PC party a few years earlier, and the two wound up as rivals for Quebec delegates, most of whom were snared by Wagner, who even blocked Mulroney from becoming a voting delegate (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). In the leadership race, Mulroney would spend an estimated $500,000, at that time an incredible sum, far more than the other candidates. He earned the nickname 'Cadillac candidate'. At the 1976 leadership convention, Mulroney placed second on the first ballot behind Wagner. However, his expensive campaign, slick image, lack of parliamentary experience, and vague policy positions did not endear him to many delegates, and he was unable to build upon his base support, being overtaken by eventual winner Joe Clark on the second ballot. Mulroney was the only one of the eleven leadership candidates who did not provide full financial disclosure on his campaign expenses, and his campaign finished deeply in debt (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Following the convention, Mulroney turned down the offer of a shadow cabinet portfolio in Clark's caucus. The House of Commons after the 1974 election The Canadian federal election of 1974 was held on July 8, 1974 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau PC, CC, CH, QC, MA, LL.D, FRSC known as Pierre Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000) was the fifteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968 to June 4, 1979, and from March 3, 1980 to June 30, 1984. ... Claude Wagner (April 4, 1925 - July 11, 1979) was a judge and politician in the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... The 1976 leadership convention of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was held in Ottawa on February 22, 1976, to elect a leader to replace Robert Stanfield, who had resigned after losing the 1968, 1972, and 1974 elections. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... The first Progressive Conservative Party of Canada leadership convention was held in 1927, when the party was called the Conservative Party. ...


Successful business executive

Mulroney took the job of Executive Vice President of the Iron Ore Company of Canada, a joint subsidiary of three major U.S. steel corporations. Mulroney earned a lucrative salary, well into the six-figure range. In 1977, he was appointed company President. He instituted improved labour relations, drawing upon his labour law experience, and, with commodity prices on the rise, company profits soared during the next several years. Mulroney in 1983 successfully negotiated the closing of the Schefferville mine, winning a generous settlement for the affected workers.[7] Under his leadership, the company was sold off to foreign interests. In the wake of his loss in the 1976 leadership race, Mulroney battled alcohol abuse and depression for several years; he credits his loyal wife Mila with helping him recover from that dark period. In 1979, he completely quit drinking. During his IOC term, he made liberal use of the company's executive jet, frequently flying business associates and friends on fishing trips (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Mulroney also maintained and expanded his extensive political networking among business leaders and conservatives across the country. As his business reputation grew, he was invited onto several corporate boards. He turned down an offer to run in a Quebec by-election as a federal Liberal. Founded in 1949 from a partnership of Canadian and American interest (Hollinger, M.A. Hanna, Labrador Mining, National Republic, Armco, Youngston and Wheeling-Pittsburg), it is now owned by a new consortium (Mitshbishi Corp. ... Schefferville is a town in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Party leader

By late 1982, Joe Clark's leadership of the Progressive Conservatives was being questioned in many party circles and among many Tory members of Parliament, despite his solid national lead over Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in opinion polls, which stretched to 19 per cent in summer 1982. Clark's reputation as a leader had taken a beating when, as Prime Minister, he carelessly lost a non-confidence motion over his minority government's budget in December 1979, leading to the fall of his government; the PCs subsequently lost the federal election held two months later when Trudeau rescinded his announced retirement, and returned to lead the Liberals to a majority. Many Tories were also annoyed with Clark over his slowness in dispensing patronage appointments after he became prime minister in June, 1979. “Trudeau” redirects here. ...


Mulroney, in spite of publicly endorsing Clark, organized behind the scenes to defeat Clark at the party's leadership review. Clark's key Quebec organizer Rodrigue Pageau was in fact a double agent, working for Mulroney, undermining Clark's support (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). When Clark received an endorsement by only 66.9 per cent of delegates at the party convention in January 1983 in Winnipeg, Clark resigned and ran to regain his post at the 1983 leadership convention. Mulroney, despite still not being a member of Parliament, ran against him again, and he campaigned more shrewdly than he had done seven years before. Mulroney had been criticized in 1976 for lacking policy depth and substance. He addressed that weakness by making several major speeches across the country in the early 1980s, and collected them into a book, Where I Stand, published in 1983 (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). Mulroney also avoided most of the flash of his earlier campaign, for which he had been criticized. Mulroney was elected party leader on June 11, 1983, beating Clark on the fourth ballot. He attracted broad support from the many factions of the party and especially from representatives of his native Quebec. Two months later, Mulroney entered Parliament as the MP for Central Nova in Nova Scotia, winning a by-election in what was then considered a safe Tory seat after Elmer MacKay stood down in his favour. This is standard practice in most parliamentary systems. John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... For other uses, see Winnipeg (disambiguation). ... The 1983 Progressive Conservative leadership convention was held on June 11, 1983 in Ottawa, Ontario to elect a leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Central Nova in relation to the other Nova Scotia ridings Central Nova is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Elmer MacIntosh MacKay, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (born August 5, 1936) is a retired Canadian politician. ...


Mulroney had realized from a young age that when Canadian federal elections were called, the Tories needed to perform much better in Quebec, in order to form a majority government. Throughout his political career, he worked steadily toward that goal; his fluent bilingualism in English and French, with Quebec roots in both cultures, gave him two trumps which eventually proved decisive (Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991). John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


Because of health problems shortly after becoming party leader, Mulroney quit smoking in 1983.


By the start of 1984, the Tories had taken a substantial lead in opinion polling, as Mulroney quickly learned the parliamentary ropes in the House of Commons. It was almost taken for granted that Trudeau would be heavily defeated by Mulroney in the general election due no later than 1985. Trudeau announced his retirement in February, and the Liberal Party chose John Turner, previously the Minister of Finance under Trudeau in the 1970s, as its new leader. The Liberals then surged in the polls, to take a lead, after trailing by more than 20 percentage points. Only four days after being sworn in as Prime Minister, Turner called a general election for September. In doing so, he had to postpone a planned Canadian summer visit by Queen Elizabeth II, who makes it her policy to not travel abroad during foreign election campaigns. But the Liberal election campaign machinery was in disarray, leading to a weak campaign (The Insiders: Government, Business, and the Lobbyists, by John Sawatsky, 1987). This article is about the year. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ...


The campaign is best remembered for Mulroney's attacks of a raft of Liberal patronage appointments. In his final days in office, Trudeau had controversially appointed a flurry of Senators, judges, and executives on various governmental and crown corporation boards, widely seen as a way to offer "plum jobs" to loyal members of the Liberal Party. Upon assuming office, Turner, who had been out of politics for nine years while he earned a lucrative salary as a Toronto lawyer, showed that his political instincts had diminished. Turner had been under pressure to cancel the appointments, but chose not to, and instead proceeded to appoint several more Liberals to prominent political offices, per a signed, legal agreement with Trudeau.[8] ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ...


Ironically, Turner had planned to attack Mulroney over the patronage machine that the latter had set up in anticipation of victory. In a televised leaders' debate, Turner launched what appeared to be the start of a blistering attack on Mulroney by comparing his patronage machine to that of the old Union Nationale in Quebec. However, Mulroney successfully turned the tables by pointing to the recent raft of Liberal patronage appointments.[9] He demanded that Turner apologize to the country for making "these horrible appointments." Turner replied that "I had no option" except to let the appointments stand. Mulroney famously responded: The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ...

"You had an option, sir. You could have said, 'I am not going to do it. This is wrong for Canada, and I am not going to ask Canadians to pay the price.' You had an option, sir--to say 'no'--and you chose to say 'yes' to the old attitudes and the old stories of the Liberal Party."[9]

Turner froze and wilted under this withering riposte from Mulroney.[9] He could repeat only, "I had no option." A visibly angry Mulroney called this "an avowal of failure" and told Turner, "You had an option, sir. You could have done better." The exchange led most papers the next day, with most of them paraphrasing Mulroney's counterattack as "You had an option, sir--you could have said 'no.'" Many observers believe that at this point, Mulroney assured himself of becoming prime minister,[9] as the exchange made Turner look weak, indecisive, and a carbon copy of Trudeau. You had an option, sir (sometimes remembered as You had a choice, sir) was a phrase used by Brian Mulroney against John Turner during the English-language leaders debate in the 1984 Canadian federal election. ...


In September, Mulroney and the Tories won the largest majority government in Canadian history. They took 211 seats, three more than their previous record in 1958. The Liberals won only 40 seats, their worst performance ever. At the time, it was also the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level in Canada. The Conservatives won just over half of the popular vote (compared to 53.4% in 1958) and led in every province, emerging as a national party for the first time since 1958. Especially important was the Tories' performance in Mulroney's home province, Quebec. They won 58 seats out of a possible 75 (up from only one seat in 1980) after winning the most seats in that province only once since 1896. Mulroney himself yielded Central Nova back to MacKay to run in the eastern Quebec riding of Manicouagan, which included Baie-Comeau. The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1896 election The Canadian federal election of 1896 was held on June 23, 1896 to elect members of the 8th Parliament of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Manicouagan in relation to the other Quebec ridings Manicouagan is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968. ...


In 1984, the Canadian Press named Mulroney "Newsmaker of the Year" for the second straight year, making him only the second prime minister to have received the honour both before becoming prime minister and when prime minister (the other being Lester Pearson). The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... A Canadian Newsmaker of the Year has been voted every year since 1946 by the Canadian Press. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ...


Prime Minister

First term

Mila (left) and Brian (right) Mulroney greet Rt. Hon. Pierre Trudeau (Foreground).
Mila (left) and Brian (right) Mulroney greet Rt. Hon. Pierre Trudeau (Foreground).

The first Conservative majority government in 26 years – and only the second in 49 years – was considered by many to be a breath of fresh air at first, but growing pains soon surfaced. Many of his ministers had little government experience, resulting in conflicts of interest and embarrassing scandals. Many Tories expected patronage appointments due to the long time out of government.[10] Indeed, Mulroney made a number of unscripted gaffes regarding patronage, including the reference to Ambassador Bryce Mackasey as "there's no whore like an old whore".[11] The new Prime Minister's handlers were concerned by his seeming unpredictability and rumours of drinking. Image File history File links Milabrianmulroney. ... Image File history File links Milabrianmulroney. ... ... The Honourable Bryce Stuart Mackasey (August 25, 1921 – September 5, 1999) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and Cabinet minister. ...


On paper, Mulroney entered office in a very formidable position. No other party crossed the fifty-seat mark, and he could have theoretically taken Canada in any direction he wanted. His position was far more precarious than his parliamentary majority would suggest. His support was based on a "grand coalition" of socially conservative populists from the West, Quebec nationalists, and fiscal conservatives from Ontario and the Maritimes. Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ...


Not surprisingly, such diverse interests became difficult for Mulroney to juggle. He attempted to appeal to the Western provinces, whose earlier support had been critical to his electoral success, by cancelling the National Energy Program and including a large number of Westerners in his Cabinet (including Clark as minister of external affairs). However, he was not completely successful, even aside from economic and constitutional policy. For example, he moved CF-18 servicing from Manitoba to Quebec in 1986, even though the Manitoba bid was lower and the company was better rated,[12] and received death threats for exerting pressure on Manitoba over French language rights.[13] The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada. ... The CF-18 Hornet is a Canadian Forces aircraft, based on the American F/A-18 Hornet. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...

Mila (left) and Brian (right) Mulroney at Andrews Air Force Base in September, 1984

One of Mulroney's main priorities, at least publicly, was to rein in the deficit, which was running into the billions of dollars. However, the country's debt increased substantially through his term. His attempts to cut spending limited his ability to deliver on many promises. Also impeding his progress was the Liberal controlled Senate, led by Allan MacEachen, which took on a very assertive role in legislation, forcing the government to compromise some points. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 852 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ID: DF-SC-85-12406 Service Depicted: Other Service Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney bids farewell to dignitaries after a state visit. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 852 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ID: DF-SC-85-12406 Service Depicted: Other Service Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney bids farewell to dignitaries after a state visit. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ...


A major undertaking by Mulroney's government was an attempt to resolve the divisive issue of national unity. Quebec was the only province that did not sign the new Canadian constitution negotiated by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1982, and Mulroney wanted to include Quebec in a new agreement with the rest of Canada. In 1987, he negotiated the Meech Lake Accord with the provincial premiers, a package of constitutional amendments designed to satisfy Quebec's demand for recognition as a "distinct society" within Canada, and to devolve some powers to the provinces. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the countrys constitution is an amalgam of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ...


Another priority of Mulroney's was the privatization of many of Canada's crown corporations. In 1984, the Government of Canada held 61 different crown corporations.[14] It sold off 23 of them. Air Canada was completely privatized by 1989, although the Air Canada Public Participation Act continued to make certain requirements of the airline. Petro-Canada would later be privatized. In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... Petro-Canada is a Canadian oil and gas firm headquartered in Calgary, Alberta. ...


The Air India Flight 182 bombing which originated in Montreal happened during Mulroney's first term. This was considered to be the largest terrorist act before September 11, 2001, with the majority of the 329 victims being Canadian citizens. Mulroney sent a letter of condolence to then Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, which sparked an uproar in Canada since he did not call families of the actual victims to offer condolences. Gandhi replied that he should be the one providing condolences to Mulroney, given that the majority of victims were Canadian or lived in Canada. Many Indo-Canadians considered this to be a racist act because they felt Mulroney did not consider them to be true Canadian citizens as they were not of Anglo descent. Furthermore, there were several warnings from the Indian government to the Mulroney government about terrorist threats towards Air India flights. Questions remain as to why these warnings were not taken more seriously and whether the events leading to the bombing could have been prevented.[15] [16] [17] A public inquiry into the Air India bombing is currently underway to answer some of these questions. Air-India Flight 182 was a Boeing 747 that exploded on June 23, 1985 while at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland; all 329 on board were killed, of whom 136 were children and 280 were Canadian citizens. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2...


Mulroney's government actively opposed the apartheid regime in South Africa. Mulroney met with many opposition leaders throughout his ministry. His position put him at odds with the American and British governments, but also won him respect elsewhere. Also, external affairs minister Joe Clark was the first foreign affairs minister to land in previously-isolated Ethiopia to lead the Western response to the 1984 - 1985 famine in Ethiopia; Clark landed in Addis Ababa so quickly he had not even seen the initial CBC report that had created the initial and strong public reaction. Canada's response was overwhelming and led the US and Britain to follow suit almost immediately — an unprecedented situation in foreign affairs at that time, since Ethiopia had a Marxist regime and had previously been isolated by Western governments. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Location of Ethiopia, as Ethiopian borders were as of the famine, prior Eritrean independence in 1993. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


The government took a strong stand against the U.S. intervention in Nicaragua under Reagan, and accepted refugees from El Salvador, Guatemala, and other countries with regimes supported directly by the Reagan administration. Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ...


Near the end of his first term, Mulroney closed a dark chapter in Canadian history with a formal apology and $300 million compensation package for the families of the 22,000 Japanese Canadians who had been stripped of their property and interned during the Second World War.


During his tenure as prime minister, Brian Mulroney's close relationship with U.S. President Ronald Reagan helped result in both a landmark treaty on acid rain and the ratification of a free-trade treaty with the United States under which all tariffs between the two countries would be eliminated by 1998. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Reagan redirects here. ... The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ...


Critics noted that Mulroney had originally professed opposition to free trade during the 1983 leadership campaign.[18] This agreement was controversial, and the Senate demanded an election before proceeding on voting, although Mulroney planned on calling an election before the treaty had been signed. The free trade was the central issue of the 1988 election, with the Liberals and NDP opposing it. With the Liberals gaining the initial momentum, a successful counterattack by Allan Gregg resulted in the PCs being re-elected with a solid but reduced majority and 43% of the popular vote. Mulroney thus became the only Conservative to lead his party to two consecutive majority governments in peacetime during the 20th century. In this election, Mulroney was elected as the MP for Charlevoix, which included Baie-Comeau after redistribution of the electoral boundaries. Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Allan Gregg (born 1952) is a Canadian pollster, political advisor, and pundit. ... Charlevoix is a Canadian federal electoral district (riding) in the eastern part of Quebec. ...


Second term

The Mulroneys with President and Mrs. Reagan in Quebec, Canada, March 18, 1985, the day after the famous "Shamrock Summit", when the two leaders sang "When Irish Eyes are Smiling".

Mulroney's second term would be marked by an economic recession. He proposed the introduction of a national sales tax, the Goods and Services Tax (GST), in 1989. When it was introduced in 1991, it replaced the Manufacturers' Sales Tax (MST) that had previously been applied at the wholesale level on goods manufactured in Canada. A bitter Senate battle ensued, and many polls showed that as many as 80% of Canadians were opposed to the tax. Mulroney would have to use Section 26 (the Deadlock Clause), a little known Constitutional provision, allowing him in an emergency situation to ask the Queen to appoint 8 new Senators. Although the government argued that the tax was not a tax increase, but a tax shift, the highly visible nature of the tax was extremely unpopular, and many resented Mulroney's use of an "emergency" clause in the constitution. Photo courtesy Ronald Reagan Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo courtesy Ronald Reagan Library File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Shamrock Summit was a name given to the 1985 meeting between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan of the United States. ... When Irish Eyes Are Smiling is a lighthearted song in tribute to Ireland. ... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ...


The Meech Lake Accord would also meet its doom in 1990. It was not ratified by the provincial governments of Manitoba and Newfoundland before the June ratification deadline. This failure sparked a revival of Quebec separatism,[19] and led to another round of meetings in Charlottetown in 1991 and 1992. These negotiations culminated in the Charlottetown Accord, which outlined extensive changes to the constitution, including recognition of Quebec as a distinct society. However, the agreement was overwhelmingly defeated in a national referendum in October 1992. Many blamed the GST battle and Mulroney's unpopularity for the fall of the Accord. Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... For other uses, see Charlottetown (disambiguation). ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ...


In 1990 Mulroney nominated Ray Hnatyshyn, an MP from Saskatoon and a former Cabinet minister, to be Governor General (1990-1995). MP Ray Hnatyshyn & Gilles Lamontagne Minister of National Defence attend a reception following a parade at #107 Spitfire Royal Canadian Air Cadet Squadron in Saskatoon, SK - circa 1980 Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC, FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002... For other uses of Saskatoon, see Saskatoon (disambiguation). ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ...


The worldwide recession of the early 1990s further exacerbated the government's financial situation. His inability to improve the government's finances, as well as his use of tax increases to deal with it was a major factor in alienating the western conservative portion of his power base. Canada also suffered from the "Made in Canada Recession", in which the Bank of Canada experimented with a zero inflation policy. With Mulroney's permission, the Bank of Canada raised interest rates, exacerbating the hardship experienced by Canadians. The Bank of Canada was the only central bank in the industrialized world to attempt to reach zero inflation and the experiment was an abject failure, which saw many ordinary people lose their jobs.[citation needed] Annual budget deficits ballooned to record levels, reaching $42 billion in his last year of office; this sent the national debt towards dangerous standards, further weakening the Canadian dollar and damaging Canada's international credit ratings. In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... The zero interest rate policy (ZIRP) is a Keynesian macroeconomics scheme for economies exhibiting slow growth with a very low interest rate, such as contemporary Japan. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... The zero interest rate policy (ZIRP) is a Keynesian macroeconomics scheme for economies exhibiting slow growth with a very low interest rate, such as contemporary Japan. ... C$ redirects here. ...


Mulroney supported the United Nations coalition during the 1991 Gulf War and when the UN authorized full use of force in the operation, Canada sent a CF18 squadron with support personnel and a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war as well as a company of The Royal Canadian Regiment to safeguard these ground elements. In August he sent the destroyers HMCS Terra Nova and HMCS Athabaskan to enforce the trade blockade against Iraq. The supply ship HMCS Protecteur was also sent to aid the gathering coalition forces. When the air war began, Canada's planes were integrated into the coalition force and provided air cover and attacked ground targets. This was the first time since the fighting on Cyprus in 1974 that Canadian forces participated directly in combat operations. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The CF-18 Hornet is a Canadian Forces aircraft, based on the American F/A-18 Hornet. ... The Royal Canadian Regiment (The RCR) is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. ... HMCS Terra Nova is a Canadian destroyer of the Restigouche class. ... HMCS Athabaskan is a name used by three ships of the Canadian Navy. ... Protecteur-class Auxiliary Oiler Replenishment (AOR) ships are used by the Canadian Navy to resupply ships at sea with food, munitions, fuel and spare parts. ...


For the Canadian Forces, the Mulroney years began with hope but ended with disappointment. Most members of the CF welcomed the return to distinctive uniforms for the three services, replacing the single green uniform worn since unification (1967-70). A White Paper proposed boosting the CF's combat capability, which had, according to Canadian Defence Quarterly, declined so badly that Canada would have been unable to send a brigade to the Gulf War had it desired to. The CF in this period did undergo a much-needed modernization of a range of equipment from trucks to a new family of small arms. Many proposed reforms, however, failed to occur, and according to historian J.L. Granatstein, Mulroney "raised the military's hopes repeatedly, but failed to deliver." In 1984, he had promised to increase the military budget and the regular force to 92,000 troops, but the budget was cut and the troop level fell to below 80,000 by 1993. This was, however, in step with other NATO countries after the end of the Cold War [5]. The Mulroney government would undertake a defence policy review, publishing a new statement in late 1991, but political considerations meant that no comprehensive policy for the post-Cold War era was arrived at before the government's defeat in 1993. According to Granatstein, this meant that Canada was not able to live up to its post-Cold War military commitments. The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... Jack Lawrence Granatstein (born 1939) is a prolific and renowned Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history. ... The Cold War (1985-1991) discusses the period within the Cold War between the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ...


The decline of cod stocks in Atlantic Canada led the Mulroney government to impose a moratorium on the cod fishery there, putting an end to a large portion of the Newfoundland fishing industry, and causing serious economic hardship. The government instituted various programmes designed to mitigate these effects but still became deeply unpopular in the Atlantic provinces. COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Look up Moratorium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The environment was a key focus of Mulroney's government, as Canada became the first industrialized country to ratify both the biodiversity convention and the climate change convention agreed to at the UN Conference on the Environment. His government added significant new national parks (Bruce Peninsula, South Moresby and Grasslands), and passed the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Map of Southern Ontario showing Bruce Peninsula in red. ... The Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999 is An Act respecting pollution prevention and the protection of the environment and human health in order to contribute to sustainable development. ...


Retirement

Widespread public resentment of the Goods and Services Tax, an economic slump, the dilapidation of his political coalition, and his lack of results regarding the Quebec situation caused Mulroney's popularity to decline considerably during his second term. An ominous sign was a 1989 by-election in the Alberta riding of Beaver River. In this election, called when Tory MP John Dahmer died, Reform Party candidate Deborah Grey won by a hefty 4,200 votes after finishing fourth in the general election just five months earlier. This turned out to be the first sign that Mulroney's grand coalition was coming apart at the seams; the PCs had dominated Alberta's federal politics since the 1968 election. Another sign came after the failure of Meech Lake, when Bouchard and several other Tories broke with the party to form the Bloc Québécois, a pro-sovereigntist party. The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Beaver River was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Alberta. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ... Deborah Cleland Grey (born July 1, 1952) is a former prominent Canadian Member of Parliament from Alberta for the Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance and Conservative Party of Canada. ... In the Canadian federal election of June 25, 1968, the Liberal Party won a majority government under its new leader, Pierre Trudeau. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The province of Quebec shown in red. ...


Mulroney entered 1993 facing a statutory general election. By this time, his approval ratings had dipped into the teens, and were at 11% in a 1992 Gallup poll, making him one of the most unpopular prime ministers since opinion polling began in Canada in the 1940s.[20] When Mulroney announced he was stepping aside as leader of the party, his standing was 21% in the latest Gallup Poll in February 1993. [21] The consensus was that Mulroney would be heavily defeated by Jean Chrétien and the Liberals if he led the Tories into the next election--ironically, the same situation that led to Trudeau's departure from the scene nine years earlier. He announced his retirement from politics in February and was replaced as Prime Minister by Defence Minister Kim Campbell in June. Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Minister of National Defence (French: Ministre de la Défense nationale) is the Canadian politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the Department of National Defence which oversees the Canadian Forces. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ...


In his waning days in office, Mulroney made several decisions that hampered the Tory campaign later that year. He took a lavish international "farewell" tour[22] mostly at taxpayers' expense, without transacting any official business. Also, by the time he handed power to Campbell, there were only two-and-a-half months left in the Tories' five-year mandate. Mulroney also did not immediately vacate 24 Sussex Drive after Campbell was sworn in as Prime Minister--as their new private residence in Montreal was still undergoing renovations, Brian and Mila Mulroney did not move out of 24 Sussex until their new home was ready. Instead, Campbell took up residence at Harrington Lake, the Prime Minister's official summer retreat. Side View of 24 Sussex Drive 24 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Canada. ... The Harrington Lake estate is both the name of the official country retreat of the Prime Minister of Canada and of the land which surrounds it. ...


In her memoirs, Time and Chance, and in her response in the National Post to The Secret Mulroney Tapes, Campbell complained that Mulroney left her with almost no time to salvage the Progressive Conservatives' tattered reputation once the bounce from the leadership convention wore off. Campbell went as far as to claim that Mulroney knew the Tories would be defeated regardless of who led them into the election, and wanted a "scapegoat who would bear the burden of his unpopularity" rather than a true successor. The National Post is a Canadian English-language national newspaper based in Don Mills, Ontario, a district of Toronto. ... The Secret Mulroney Tapes: Unguarded Confessions of a Prime Minister is a controversial biography of former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, by veteran writer and former Mulroney confidant Peter C. Newman. ...


The 1993 election was an unmitigated disaster for the Tories. The oldest party in Canada was reduced from a majority to two seats in the worst defeat ever suffered for a governing party at the federal level. The 149-seat loss far exceeded the 95-seat loss the Liberals suffered in 1984. As an example of the antipathy toward Mulroney, his former riding fell to the Bloc by a lopsided margin; the Tory candidate finished a distant third, with only 6,800 votes--just a few votes shy of losing his electoral deposit.[23]


Airbus/Schreiber affair

Main article: Airbus affair

In 1997, Mulroney settled a libel lawsuit he had brought against the Government of Canada two years previously. Mulroney received an apology and a $2.1 million reimbursement for legal and public relations costs. At issue were allegations that Mulroney had accepted bribes in the "Airbus affair" concerning government contracts. The government said the charges could not be substantiated. The principal Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) investigator on the case resigned a year later. The government later dropped the investigation entirely. The Airbus affair refers to allegations of secret commissions paid to members of the Brian Mulroney government in exchange for the purchase by Crown corporation Air Canada of a large order of Airbus jets. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Civil action redirects here. ... The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... The Airbus affair refers to allegations of secret commissions paid to members of the Brian Mulroney government in exchange for the purchase by Crown corporation Air Canada of a large order of Airbus jets. ... RCMP redirects here. ...


But a key fact was unknown in 1997. Mulroney had accepted at least $225,000 in cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a German-Canadian businessman who had been a middle man for Airbus and other companies. The cash changed hands in three meetings in hotels in Montreal and New York. The payments occurred over an 18-month period, beginning in 1993 when Mulroney had stepped down as Prime Minister but was still a member of Parliament. In 2007, Mulroney stated that he had kept the cash in a New York safety deposit box (and not carried it undeclared across the US-Canada border) and in a safe in his Montreal home. Karlheinz Schreiber (born March 25, 1934 in Petersdorf (Thüringen)) is a German-born Canadian lobbyist, fundraiser, arms dealer and businessman. ...


Schreiber had at his disposal $20 million from Airbus for the payment of secret commissions. CBC Television reported on February 8, 2006[24] that the money Schreiber paid to Mulroney originated in a Swiss bank account code-named "Frankfurt." Schreiber used the same account to pay the secret Airbus commissions. Schreiber transferred $500,000 from "Frankfurt" to an account in Zürich code-named "Britan" on July 26, 1993 and used these funds to make the three cash payments to Mulroney in 1993 and 1994. CBC Television is a Canadian English language television network. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Five years after the payments began, Mulroney and Schreiber met again in a suite at the Hotel Savoy in Zurich, Switzerland. Schreiber claims Mulroney tried to extract a promise: Schreiber would never reveal the payments. Schreiber also claims Mulroney's attorneys later tried to induce him into perjury by asking that he sign an affidavit falsely stating that he had never paid any money to Mulroney. Mulroney denies the charge. He also denies Schreiber's claim that the payments totaled $300,000. Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant), and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiants signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. ...


Testifying before the House of Commons Ethics Committee on December 13, 2007, Mulroney said the cash payments were for lobbying foreign leaders to buy armored vehicles from Thyssen industries, a company Schreiber represented. Mulroney said Schreiber had paid him as a consultant for this task only. Mulroney said he never had a written contract, made written reports, or issued receipts for the cash payments. Mulroney said he had destroyed records related to the transactions and received the payments in cash at Schreiber's insistence. Mulroney denied any legal wrong doing. He admitted to errors in judgment and apologized for any appearance of impropriety. Mulroney described the affair as "a near death experience" and said his family had suffered greatly.


For many years, Mulroney had not acknowledged receiving money from Schreiber. The payments were not disclosed in Mulroney's 1995 lawsuit against the Government of Canada. Mulroney had testified under oath that he "never had any dealings" with Schreiber, knew him only "peripherally" and they had a cup of coffee "once or twice." In his 2004 book A Secret Trial, former law professor William Kaplan describes Mulroney's testimony as evasive, incomplete and misleading. William Kaplan is a Canadian lawyer and writer. ...


In his testimony, Schreiber made allegations that imply "...a Canadian party leader subverted and deposed by foreign interests, of federal contracts being used to funnel money back to those interests, of bid-rigging and kickbacks." (Andrew Coyne in Maclean's magazine, January 14, 2008, p. 27). Mulroney and Schreiber question each other's credibility. In his testimony to the Canadian House of Commons Ethics Committee on December 13, 2007, Mulroney pointed out contradictory statements Schreiber has made over the years, including statements made under oath. Schreiber had been incarcerated in Canada following his 1999 arrest on a German warrant, and is currently released on bail. Andrew Coyne, MA , BA is a Canadian journalist and columnist. ... Macleans is Canadas leading weekly news magazine. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...


Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper had called a public inquiry in November, 2007, and appointed David Lloyd Johnston as a special adviser, to study the matter and prepare terms of reference for the inquiry - although Johnston had once reported directly to Mulroney during his term as prime minister. Johnston reported to Harper on January 11, 2008 that he had found 16 significant questions which required further examination. Harper accepted the report, and stated that a limited public inquiry process would begin once the House of Commons Ethics Committee finished its work (The Globe and Mail, January 11, 2008, p. A1). Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... David Lloyd Johnston (born 1941) is a Canadian academic and author. ... The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English-language nationally distributed newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. ...


Schreiber is fighting extradition to Germany, where he is at the center of a bribery scandal that helped bring down a government and damaged the legacy of former Chancellor Helmut Kohl. He appeared before the House of Commons Ethics Committee three times in late November and early December 2007, and again in February 2008, and will likely be called upon to testify at the future limited public inquiry. Mulroney appeared before the Ethics Committee on December 13, 2007. Six weeks later, his lawyers submitted a letter to Paul Szabo, the Ethics Committee chairman, indicating that their client would not appear again before the committee because of his "unfair" treatment on December 13.[25] On February 26, 2008, two days before that scheduled appearance, CTV News reported that Mr. Mulroney's lawyer had reiterated Mulroney's refusal to reappear before the Committee. [26] Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see February (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ... Paul John Mark Szabo (born May 10, 1948 in Toronto, Ontario) is a Canadian politician. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... CTV National News is a newscast on CTV, which airs at 11pm local time on the main network across Canada. ...


After politics

Since leaving office, Mulroney has served as an international business consultant. He currently sits on the board of directors of multiple corporations, including Barrick Gold, Quebecor Inc. and Archer Daniels Midland. He remains a partner with the law firm Ogilvy Renault. His experiences as prime minister, such as trying to reconcile the western provinces and Quebec and his close relationship with former President George H.W. Bush, have served him well. The following is a list of people on multiple governing boards. ... Barrick Gold Corporation TSX: ABX NYSE: ABX is the largest gold mining company in the world, with its headquarters in Toronto, Canada It currently maintains operating mines and development projects in the United States, Canada, Australia, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Tanzania. ... Quebecor Inc. ... The Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM), based in Decatur, Illinois, operates more than 270 plants worldwide, where cereal grains and oilseeds are processed into numerous products used in food, beverage, nutraceutical, industrial and animal feed markets worldwide. ... Ogilvy Renault LLP is one of Canadas leading law firms with offices in Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver, and London (UK). ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June...


In 1998, Mulroney was accorded Canada's highest civilian honour when he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ...

At the funeral of Ronald Reagan with former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
At the funeral of Ronald Reagan with former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, former Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher

In January 2004, Mulroney delivered a keynote speech in Washington, D.C. celebrating the tenth anniversary of the North American Free Trade Agreement. In June 2004, Mulroney presented a eulogy for former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the latter's state funeral. Mulroney and former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher were the first foreign dignitaries to eulogize at a funeral for an American president. Two years later, at the request of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Mulroney traveled to Washington, DC along with Michael Wilson, Canada's ambassador to the United States, as Canada's representatives at the state funeral of former president Gerald Ford. Image File history File linksMetadata Mulroney_Thatcher_and_Gorbachev_at_Reagan's_funeral. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mulroney_Thatcher_and_Gorbachev_at_Reagan's_funeral. ... President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, Vice-President Dick Cheney, Lynne Cheney, and former President Bill Clinton and Senator Hillary Clinton, watch the casket of former President Ronald Reagan carried into the Washington National Cathedral The death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan took place in June 2004. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Yasuhiro Nakasone (中曽根 康弘 Nakasone Yasuhiro, b. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... NAFTA redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Betty Ford kneels in prayer at the casket of her late husband, Gerald Ford, as he lies in state. ...


In February 2005, Mulroney was diagnosed with a lesion on one of his lungs. In his youth, Mulroney had been a heavy smoker. He underwent successful surgery and was recovered well enough to tape a speech for the Conservative Party of Canada's 2005 Policy Convention in Montreal in March, though he could not attend in person. Though his surgery was initially reported to have gone on without incident, he later developed pancreatitis and he remained in hospital for several weeks. It was not until April 19 that his son, Ben Mulroney, announced he was recovering and would soon be released. The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benedict Ben Mulroney (born March 9, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian television host. ...


On September 12, 2005, veteran writer and former Mulroney confidant Peter C. Newman released The Secret Mulroney Tapes: Unguarded Confessions of a Prime Minister. Based in large part on unguarded remarks from the former prime minister which Newman had taped with Mulroney's knowledge, the book set off national controversy. Newman had been given unfettered access to Mulroney for a thorough biography. Newman claims Mulroney did not honour an agreement to allow him access to confidential papers.[27] After the falling out, Mulroney began work on his autobiography, without Newman's help. Mulroney himself has declared that he showed poor judgement in making such unguarded statements, but he says that he will have to live with it. is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Charles Newman (born May 10, 1929 in Vienna, Austria) is a Canadian journalist who emigrated from Czechoslovakia to Canada in 1940 as a Jewish refugee. ...


This led Mulroney to respond at the annual Press Gallery Dinner which is noted for comedic moments, in Ottawa, 22 October 2005. The former Prime Minister appeared on tape and very formally acknowledged the various dignitaries and audience groups before delivering the shortest speech of the night: "Peter Newman: Go fuck yourself. Thank you. Good night."[citation needed] is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thirteen years after leaving office, Mulroney was named the 'greenest' Prime Minister in Canadian history by a 12-member panel at an event organized by Corporate Knights magazine.[28] The January 2006 Issue of Corporate Knights (Forestry Issue) Corporate Knights Inc. ...


On June 15, 2007, the University of Western Ontario awarded Brian Mulroney an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LLD).[29] is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a research university located in London, Ontario. ...


Legacy

NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992; From left to right: (Standing) Mexican President Salinas, US President Bush, Mulroney, (Seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, Michael Wilson.
NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992; From left to right: (Standing) Mexican President Salinas, US President Bush, Mulroney, (Seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, Michael Wilson.

Mulroney's legacy is complicated and even emotional. Mulroney makes the case that his once radical policies on the economy and free trade were not reversed by subsequent governments, and regards this as vindication.[30] His Deputy Prime Minister Don Mazankowski said that his greatest accomplishment will be seen as, "Dragging Canada kicking and screaming into the 21st century." Mulroney's legacy in Canada is associated mostly with the 1988 Free Trade Agreement[31] and the Goods and Services Tax (GST). NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992 From left to right (standing) President Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Mulroney (Seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, Michael Wilson. ... NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992 From left to right (standing) President Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Mulroney (Seated) Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, Michael Wilson. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Jaime José Serra Puche (b. ... Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Hon. ... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ...


Although the Tories were re-elected in 1988 campaigning on free trade, they won with only 43% of the popular vote, compared to 56% of the vote which went to the Liberals and the New Democratic Party who campaigned mostly against the agreement. However, when the Liberals under Jean Chrétien came to office in 1993 promising to re-negotiate key parts of the agreement, they continued the deal with only slight changes, and signed the North American Free Trade Agreement which expanded the free trade area to include Mexico. Environmentalists, social activists, nationalists, labour leaders and members of the cultural community continue to complain today of alleged injustices Canada faces due to free trade. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... NAFTA redirects here. ...


The visibility of the GST proved to be very unpopular. The GST was created to help eliminate the ever growing deficit and to replace the hidden Manufacturer's sales tax, which Mulroney argued was hurting business. Mulroney's usage of a rare Constitutional clause to push the tax through,[32] prices not falling very much with the MST removed, and the "in your face" nature of the tax would infuriate politicians and the public. The succeeding Liberal government of Jean Chrétien campaigned in 1993 on a promise to remove the GST but never did so once in office, prompting two of their members Sheila Copps and John Nunziata to resign or be expelled in protest. Current Prime Minister Harper has lowered the GST to 6% in 2006 and announced in late 2007 to reduce it further to 5%. Mulroney's supporters argue that the GST helped the subsequent government eliminate the deficit, and that the visible nature of the tax kept politicians more accountable. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Sheila Maureen Copps, PC, HBA, LL.D (hc), (born November 27, 1952, in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian journalist and former politician. ... John Nunziata (born January 4, 1955) is a Canadian politician. ...


At the international level, Mulroney was one of Canada's most influential prime ministers. His emphasis on strong personal relationships with other leaders made him a successful advocate in fighting apartheid within the Commonwealth and beginning the process of mobilizing international efforts to combat global warming. Chrétien, who attacked Mulroney for this, became good friends with Bush's successor Bill Clinton. Near the end of his tenure, Chrétien received some criticism as some of his subordinates made personal attacks against George W. Bush. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Mulroney's intense unpopularity at the time of his resignation led many Conservative politicians to distance themselves from him for some years. His government had flirted with 10% approval ratings in the early 1990s, when Mulroney's arrogance, honesty, and intentions were frequently questioned in the media, by Canadians in general and by his political colleagues.[33] . During the 1993 election, the Progressive Conservative Party was reduced to just two seats, which was seen as partially due to a backlash against Mulroney, as well as due to the fracturing of his "Grand Coalition".


Social conservatives found fault with Mulroney's government in a variety of areas. These include Mulroney's opposition to capital punishment[13] and an attempted compromise on abortion.[34] Fiscal conservatives likewise didn't appreciate his tax increases and his failure to curtail expansion of "big government" programs and political patronage. While Mulroney's views on these issues helped him to be electable across Canada, the Canadian right wing would fracture during Mulroney's tenure. Big government is a pejorative term generally used by political conservatives or laissez-faire advocates to describe a government which is excessively large or inefficient, or which is inappropriately involved in certain areas of public policy. ... ...


In the 1993 election, nearly all of the Tories' Western support transferred into Reform, which replaced the PCs as the major right-wing force in Canada. The Tories only won two seats west of Quebec in the next decade and recovered only upon reunification the elements that had split from the party in the late 1980s. The Canadian right was not reunited until they merged with Reform's successor, the Canadian Alliance, in December 2003 to form the new Conservative Party of Canada. Mulroney played an influential role by supporting the merger at a time when former PC leaders Joe Clark, Jean Charest and Kim Campbell either opposed it or expressed ambivalence. The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... John James Charest, PC, LL.B., MNA, known as Jean Charest IPA: (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ...


Historians Norman Hillmer and J.L. Granatstein ranked Mulroney eighth among Canada's prime ministers in their 1999 book Prime Ministers: Rating Canada's Leaders. Jack Lawrence Granatstein (born 1939) is a prolific and renowned Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history. ...


Memoir

Mulroney appears during an interview, speaking about his memoirs.
Mulroney appears during an interview, speaking about his memoirs.

Mulroney's Memoirs: 1939-1993 was released on September 10, 2007. Mulroney criticizes Pierre Trudeau for avoiding service in the Second World War, and favourably references sources that describe the young Trudeau as holding anti-Semitic views.[35] Tom Axworthy, a prominent Liberal strategist, responded that Trudeau should be judged on his mature views, rather than "ridiculous" beliefs that he briefly entertained in his youth. Historian and former MP and Trudeau biographer John R. English has also noted that Trudeau's youthful views must be considered in the context of their age, saying "I don't think it does any good to do this kind of historical ransacking to try to destroy reputations".[36][37] The name Karlheinz Schreiber does not appear in the long memoir (The Globe and Mail, December 10, 2007). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 791 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,008 × 764 pixels, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 791 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,008 × 764 pixels, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Thomas Sidney Axworthy, OC, Ph. ... This article is about the former Canadian Member of Parliament for Kitchener. ... Karlheinz Schreiber (born March 25, 1934 in Petersdorf (Thüringen)) is a German-born Canadian lobbyist, fundraiser, arms dealer and businessman. ... The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English-language nationally distributed newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. ...


Honours

According to Canadian protocol, as a former Prime Minister, he is styled "The Right Honourable" for life. The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Mulroney chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General: The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ...

The Honourable Gérard Vincent La Forest (born April 1, 1926) was a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from January 16, 1985 to September 30, 1997. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Claire LHeureux-Dubé (born September 7, 1927) served as a justice on the Supreme Court of Canada from 1987 to 2002. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... John Sopinka (March 19, 1933 - November 24, 1997) was a Canadian lawyer and puisne justice on the Supreme Court of Canada, the first Ukrainian-Canadian appointed to the high court. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Honourable Mr. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Peter deCarteret Cory, B.A., LL.B., LL.D. (born October 25, 1925) was a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1989 to 1999. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Categories: Stub | Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Joseph Antonio Charles Lamer, PC , CC , CD , LL.D , D.U., known as Antonio Lamer (July 8, 1933 – November 24, 2007) was a Canadian lawyer and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... A Puisne Justice or Puisne Judge (pronounced puny) is the title for a regular member of a Court. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Honourable Justice William Alexander Stevenson (born May 7, 1934 in Edmonton) was a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1990 to 1992. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Frank Iacobucci (born January 29, 1937) was an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of Canada from 1991 to 2004 when he retired from the bench. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable John C. Major, B. Comm , LL.B , LL.D , QC (Born in Mattawa, Ontario, 1931) is a Canadian jurist and pusine justice on the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notable cabinet ministers

Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Honourable Arthur Jacob Jake Epp, PC (born September 1, 1939) is an executive and former Canadian politician. ... Barbara J. McDougall (born November 12, 1937, Toronto, Ontario) is a former Canadian politician. ... Hon. ... Hon. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... John James Charest, PC, LL.B., MNA, known as Jean Charest IPA: (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... Bernard Valcourt, PC (born February 18, 1952) is a Canadian politician and lawyer. ... Erik Hersholt Nielsen, P.C., D.F.C., Q.C., LL.B., (born February 24, 1924) is a former Canadian politician and longtime Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament for Yukon. ... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... Henry Perrin Beatty, PC (born June 1, 1950) is a corporate executive and former Canadian politician. ...

See also

The Shamrock Summit was a name given to the 1985 meeting between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan of the United States. ... The Airbus affair refers to allegations of secret commissions paid to members of the Brian Mulroney government in exchange for the purchase by Crown corporation Air Canada of a large order of Airbus jets. ... Benedict Ben Mulroney (born March 9, 1976 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian television host. ... Is This Goodbye, Charlie Brown? is one of many prime-time animated TV specials based upon the popular comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz. ...

Further reading

  • Winners, Losers, by Patrick Brown (journalist), Rae Murphy, and Robert Chodos, 1976.
  • Where I Stand, by Brian Mulroney, 1983.
  • Discipline of Power: the Conservative Interlude and the Liberal Restoration, by Jeffrey Simpson, Macmillan of Canada, 1984, ISBN 0920510248.
  • Brian Mulroney: The Boy from Baie Comeau, by Nick Auf der Maur, Rae Murphy, and Robert Chodos, 1984.
  • Mulroney: The Making of the Prime Minister, by L. Ian MacDonald, 1984.
  • The Insiders: Government, Business, and the Lobbyists, by John Sawatsky, 1987.
  • Prime Ministers of Canada, by Jim Lotz, 1987.
  • Selling Out: Four Years of the Mulroney Government, by Eric Hamovitch, Rae Murphy, and Robert Chodos, 1988.
  • Friends in high places: politics and patronage in the Mulroney government, by Claire Hoy, 1989.
  • Mulroney: The Politics of Ambition, by John Sawatsky, 1991.
  • Right Honourable Men: the Descent of Canadian Politics from Macdonald to Mulroney, by Michael Bliss, 1994.
  • On the Take: Crime, Corruption and Greed in the Mulroney Years, by Stevie Cameron, 1994.
  • The Prime Ministers of Canada, by Gordon Donaldson (journalist), 1997.
  • Presumed Guilty: Brian Mulroney, the Airbus Affair, and the Government of Canada, by William Kaplan, 1998.
  • Prime Ministers: Rating Canada's Leaders, by Norman Hillmer and J.L. Granatstein, 1999.
  • The Last Amigo: Karlheinz Schreiber and the Anatomy of a Scandal, by Stevie Cameron and Harvey Cashore, 1999.
  • Egotists and Autocrats: The Prime Ministers of Canada, by George Bowering, 1999.
  • Bastards and Boneheads: Canada's Glorious Leaders, Past and Present, by Will Ferguson, 1999.
  • A Secret Trial: Brian Mulroney, Stevie Cameron, and the Public Trust, by William Kaplan, 2004.
  • The Secret Mulroney Tapes: Unguarded Confessions of a Prime Minister, by Peter C. Newman, 2005.

Patrick Brown is a Canadian journalist based in Bangkok, Thailand. ... Jeffrey Simpson, The Globe and Mails national affairs columnist, has won all three of Canadas leading literary prizes -- the Governor Generals Award for non-fiction book writing, the National Magazine Award for political writing, and the National Newspaper Award for column writing. ... The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... Nick Auf der Maur (April 10, 1942 - April 7, 1998) was a Canadian journalist, politician and man about town boulevardier in Montreal, Quebec. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... John Sawatsky, born Ferdinand John Sawatzky in Winkler, Manitoba, Canada, is an award-winning author, journalist and expert on interviewing techniques. ... Michael Bliss (born 1941) is a Canadian historian and outspoken public figure. ... Stevie Cameron (born ca. ... Gordon Donaldson is a Canadian author and journalist. ... William Kaplan is a Canadian lawyer and writer. ... Jack Lawrence Granatstein (born 1939) is a prolific and renowned Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history. ... Stevie Cameron (born ca. ... George Harry Bowering (born 1935) is a prolific Canadian novelist, poet, historian, and biographer. ... Will Ferguson is a Canadian writer and novelist who is best known for his humorous observations on Canadian history and culture. ... William Kaplan is a Canadian lawyer and writer. ... Peter Charles Newman (born May 10, 1929 in Vienna, Austria) is a Canadian journalist who emigrated from Czechoslovakia to Canada in 1940 as a Jewish refugee. ...

References

  1. ^ Parliament of Canada
  2. ^ Peter C. Newman, The Secret Mulroney Tapes: Unguarded Confessions of a Prime Minister. Random House Canada, 2005, p. 54.
  3. ^ Gordon Donaldson, The Prime Ministers of Canada, (Toronto: Doubleday Canada Limited, 1997), p. 309.
  4. ^ a b Donaldson, p. 310.
  5. ^ H. Graham Rawlinson and J.L. Granatstein, The Canadian 100: The 100 Most Influential Canadians of the 20th century, Toronto: McArthur & Company, 1997, pp. 19-20.
  6. ^ a b Jim Lotz, Prime Ministers of Canada, Bison Books, 1987, p. 144.
  7. ^ http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-73-1469-9795/politics_economy/brian_mulroney/clip5
  8. ^ Donaldson, p. 320; Newman, p. 71.
  9. ^ a b c d Newman, pp. 71-72.
  10. ^ Newman, p. 91, quoting "Mulroney's friend Arthur Campeau."
  11. ^ Hamovitch, Eric, Rae Murphy, Robert Chodos. Selling Out: Four Years of the Mulroney Government, 1988. Page 115.
  12. ^ Newman, p. 116.
  13. ^ a b Newman, p. 427.
  14. ^ http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG169.pdf
  15. ^ canada.com story
  16. ^ ctv story
  17. ^ CBC website November 7, 2007
  18. ^ Donaldson, p. 334.
  19. ^ Rawlinson and Graham, p. 22.
  20. ^ Russell Ash, The Top 10 of Everything 2000, Montreal: The Reader's Digest Association (Canada) Ltd., 1999, p. 80.
  21. ^ University of Waterloo http://newsrelease.uwaterloo.ca/news.php?id=61,
  22. ^ Donaldson, p. 349.
  23. ^ http://esm.ubc.ca/CA93/results.html
  24. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2006/02/08/airbus060208.html
  25. ^ http://www.nationalpost.com/story.html?id=261289
  26. ^ http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080226/mulroney_parliament_080226/20080226?hub=TopStories
  27. ^ Newman, p. 50.
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ http://www.law.uwo.ca/News/March_07/mulroney.html
  30. ^ Newman, p. 361.
  31. ^ Donaldson, p. 334.
  32. ^ Donaldson, p. 344.
  33. ^ Donaldson, p. 327.
  34. ^ Donaldson, p. 356.
  35. ^ National Post: Repairing Trudeau's mistakes
  36. ^ Reuters: Mulroney lashes Trudeau, calls him a coward
  37. ^ Canadian Press: Liberals defend Trudeau from attack by 'sad' embittered Mulroney

Peter Charles Newman (born May 10, 1929 in Vienna, Austria) is a Canadian journalist who emigrated from Czechoslovakia to Canada in 1940 as a Jewish refugee. ... The Secret Mulroney Tapes: Unguarded Confessions of a Prime Minister is a controversial biography of former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, by veteran writer and former Mulroney confidant Peter C. Newman. ... Gordon Donaldson is a Canadian author and journalist. ... Jack Lawrence Granatstein (born 1939) is a prolific and renowned Canadian historian who specializes in political and military history. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Brian Mulroney
24th Ministry - Government of Brian Mulroney
Cabinet Posts (1)
Predecessor Office Successor
John Turner Prime Minister of Canada
(1984 – 1993)
Kim Campbell
Preceded by
Erik Nielsen
Leader of the Opposition
1983 – 1984
Succeeded by
John Turner
Progressive Conservative Leaders
1983 – 1993
Succeeded by
Kim Campbell
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
Elmer M. MacKay
Member of Parliament for Central Nova
1983 – 1984
Succeeded by
Elmer M. MacKay
Preceded by
André Maltais
Member of Parliament for Manicouagan
1984 – 1988
Succeeded by
Charles Langlois
Preceded by
Charles Hamelin
Member of Parliament for Charlevoix
1988 – 1993
Succeeded by
Gérard Asselin
Political offices
Preceded by
Amintore Fanfani
Chair of the G8
1988
Succeeded by
François Mitterrand
Preceded by
John Turner
Canadian order of precedence
as of 2007
Succeeded by
Kim Campbell
Persondata
NAME Mulroney, Martin Brian
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Mulroney, Brian
SHORT DESCRIPTION 18th Prime Minister of Canada (1984–1993)
DATE OF BIRTH March 20, 1939
PLACE OF BIRTH Baie-Comeau, Quebec
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
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The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Elmer MacIntosh MacKay, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (born August 5, 1936) is a retired Canadian politician. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... 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Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... 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The Winnipeg Sun is a daily tabloid-sized newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. ... CKXT is a broadcast television station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada which uses the on-air brand of SUN TV. The station began broadcasting on September 19, 2003, on channel 52. ... Osprey Media LP is a Canadian newspaper chain that publishes 21 daily and 37 non-daily newspapers in the province of Ontario, as well as 30 magazines. ... The Barrie Examiner is the daily newspaper for Barrie, Ontario and the area. ... The Brantford Expositor is a English language newspaper based in Brantford, Ontario and owned by Osprey Media Group Inc. ... The Cornwall Standard Freeholder is a daily newspaper based in Cornwall, Ontario. ... The Kingston Whig-Standard is a daily newspaper in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ... The Niagara Falls Review has been the local newspaper in Niagara Falls since 1879. ... The North Bay Nugget is a daily newspaper in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. ... The Northern News is a thrice-weekly newspaper in Kirkland Lake, Ontario. ... The Sun Times is a local newspaper which services the Bruce-Grey-Owen Sound area in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... The Peterborough Examiner is a newspaper that services Peterborough, Ontario and area. ... The Sarnia Observer is a daily newspaper in Sarnia, Ontario and Lambton, County. ... The Sault Star is a daily newspaper in Sault Ste. ... The St. ... The Sudbury Star is a Canadian daily newspaper, published in Greater Sudbury. ... The Timmins Daily Press is a newspaper in Timmins, Ontario, which publishes six days a week. ... Quebecor World Inc. ... Archambault is a chain of music and bookstores in Quebec. ... CANOE (acronym for Canadian Online Explorer, commonly called Canoe. ... Le SuperClub Vidéotron logo Le SuperClub Vidéotron Ltée, which includes the Jumbo Video and Microplay chains, is one of the largest video store chain operators in Canada, particularly in Quebec. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Quebecor Media Inc. ... TVA Films is a Canadian film distribution and television distribution company that was created in 2002 by TVA Group Inc. ... Télé Inter-Rives (Inter-Bank Television) is a broadcasting company based in Rimouski, Quebec. ... Vidéotron Limited is an integrated communications company active in cable television, interactive multimedia development, video on demand, wireless communication and Internet access services, serving Quebec, Canada. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baie-Comeau, Québec (2006 City Population 22,554; UA population 10,178; CA population 29,808) is a town located approximately 420 kilometers north-east of Quebec City in the Côte-Nord region of the province of Québec, Canada. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
CTV.ca | Majority want Mulroney-Schreiber affair probed (708 words)
Brian Mulroney, left, and Karlheinz Schreiber, right, are seen in these undated file photos.
The allegations have not been proven in court and Mulroney has denied the accusations.
In 1997, Mulroney received a $2.1-million settlement from Jean Chretien's government after he was connected publicly in police documents to an investigation looking into the sale of Airbus jets to Air Canada.
Brian Mulroney - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4732 words)
Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993.
Martin Brian Mulroney was born in Baie-Comeau, Quebec; a lumbering town in eastern Quebec.
Mulroney's support was based on a "grand coalition" of socially conservative populists from the West, Quebec nationalists, and fiscal conservatives from Ontario and the Maritimes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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