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Encyclopedia > Brian Epstein
Brian Epstein
(Photo by Dezo Hoffmann)
(Photo by Dezo Hoffmann)
Background information
Birth name Brian Samuel Epstein
Born September 19, 1934(1934-09-19)
Origin Liverpool, England
Died August 27, 1967 (aged 32)
Occupation(s) personal manager, impresario
Years active 1961—1967
Associated
acts
The Beatles, Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas, The Fourmost, and Cilla Black
Website http://www.brianepstein.com

Brian Samuel Epstein (IPA: [ˈbɹaɪən ˈepstaɪn]) (born in Liverpool, England; 19 September 193427 August 1967) was the manager of The Beatles. He also managed several other musical artists such as Gerry & The Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas, and Cilla Black. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1828 × 2672 pixel, file size: 638 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Dezider Hoffmann (most often credited as Dezo Hoffmann or Dežo Hoffmann, 1912 - 1982) was a Hungarian photographer, photojournalist and cameraman (brought up in Czechoslovakia). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... A talent manager, also known as a personal manager, is one who guides the career of artists in the entertainment business. ... An impresario is a manager or producer in one of the entertainment industries, usually Music or Theatre. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Gerry & the Pacemakers were an English rock and roll group during the 1960s, and one of the few groups to initially challenge The Beatles in popularity. ... Billy J. Kramer (born William Howard Ashton, 19 August 1943, in Bootle, Liverpool, England) was a British Invasion / Merseybeat singer. ... The Fourmost was an English Merseybeat band that recorded in the 1960s. ... Cover of Cilla Blacks 1966 album Cilla Sings a Rainbow. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Location within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region North West England Ceremonial county Historic county Merseyside Lancashire Admin HQ Liverpool City Centre Founded 1207 City Status 1880 Government  - Type Metropolitan borough, City  - Governing body Liverpool City Council Area  - Borough & City 43. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Gerry & the Pacemakers were an English rock and roll group during the 1960s, and one of the few groups to initially challenge The Beatles in popularity. ... Billy J. Kramer (born William Howard Ashton, 19 August 1943, in Bootle, Liverpool, England) was a British Invasion / Merseybeat singer. ... Cover of Cilla Blacks 1966 album Cilla Sings a Rainbow. ...


The Beatles recorded a demo in Decca's studios—paid for by Epstein—which he later persuaded George Martin to listen to. Epstein was then offered a contract (after Martin had auditioned the group) by EMI's small Parlophone label, even though they had previously been rejected by almost every other British record company. Decca may refer to: Decca Records, a 1929 British record label, also known as Decca Music Group Decca Radar (later Racal-Decca Marine), a British marine electronics manufacturer, a spin-off from the gramophone and records company Decca tree, a microphone recording system London Decca, a maker of turntable tonearms... Sir George Henry Martin CBE (born 3 January 1926 in Highbury, London, England) is sometimes referred to as the fifth Beatle—a title that he owes to his work as producer of almost all of The Beatles records. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... Parlophone is a record label which was founded in Germany prior to World War I by the Carl Lindstrom Company. ...


Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose at his home in London in August 1967. The Beatles' early success has been attributed to Epstein's management and sense of style. Paul McCartney said of Epstein: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian." This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an Academy Award and Grammy Award winning English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... The Fifth Beatle is an informal title that numerous commentators in the press and entertainment industry have applied to several people who were at one point a member of The Beatles, or who had a strong association with the Fab Four other than John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and...

Contents

Early life

Epstein was born into a Jewish family in Rodney Street, Liverpool, England. His grandfather (Isaac Epstein) was from Hodan, Lithuania, who arrived in England with his wife Diana in the 1890s at the age of eighteen. He founded a furniture dealership on Walton Road, Liverpool. Diana and Isaac's third son was Harry Epstein; the father of Brian Epstein.[1] After Harry and his brothers had joined the family firm, Isaac Epstein founded "I. Epstein and Sons", and expanded his furniture business by taking over an adjacent shop to sell a varied range of other goods, such as musical instruments and household appliances.[1] They called the new shop "NEMS" (North End Music Stores) from which McCartney's father once bought a piano.[2][3] McCartney still owns this piano. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... welcome:: This is an article about items in a room. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ...


Epstein's mother was formally named Malka (although always known by her family as Queenie—Malka translating as "queen" in Hebrew) and was a member of the successful Hyman furniture family. Harry and Queenie also had another son, Clive. During WWII the Epsteins moved to Southport to escape The Blitz—where two schools expelled Epstein for laziness and poor performance—but returned to Liverpool in 1945.[4] After his parents had moved him from one boarding school to another, the 14-year-old Epstein spent two years at Wrekin College, in Shropshire. Shortly before his sixteenth birthday in 1950, he sent a long letter to his father, explaining that he wanted to become a dress designer, but Harry Epstein was adamantly opposed to this idea, and his son finally had to "report for duty" at the family's furniture shop.[5] The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Southport (disambiguation). ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage). ... A boarding school is a usually fee-paying school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... York House, Wrekin College Wrekin College is a co-educational independent school located in Wellington, Shropshire, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /ˈʃrÉ’pʃɪər, -ʃər/), alternatively known as Salop or abbreviated Shrops, is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. ...


In December 1951, Epstein was drafted—as a clerk—into the Royal Army Service Corps, and was posted to the Albany Street Barracks near Regent's Park, in London, where he was often reprimanded for not picking up his army pay.[6] “Conscript” redirects here. ... A data entry clerk is a member of staff who reads hand-written or printed records and types them into a computer. ... The Royal Logistic Corps is a British Army corps that provides the logistical support for the Army. ... The Albany Street Barracks is a British Army barracks located on Albany Street, London, near Regents Park. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1955, at the age of twenty-one, Epstein was made a director of NEMS. In September of 1956, he took a trip to London to meet a friend, but after being there for only one day, he was robbed of his passport, birth certificate, chequebook, wristwatch, and all the money he had on him. As he did not want his parents to find out, he worked as department store clerk until he had earned enough money to buy a train ticket back to Liverpool.[7] Back in Liverpool, he confessed "everything" to a psychiatrist—a friend of the Epstein family—who suggested to Harry Epstein that his son should leave Liverpool as soon as possible. During the sessions Epstein had revealed his ambition of becoming an actor, so his parents allowed him go to London to study.[7] For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate In most countries, a birth certificate is a vital record usually containing most of the following information: Name at birth Date Time of birth Sex Place of birth Birth registration number (NHS number in UK) Legal parent(s) (in some countries including parents... Example of a Canadian cheque. ... This page is about timekeeping devices. ... The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... The word clerk, derived from the Latin clericus meaning cleric, i. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ...


Epstein attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in London. His RADA classmates included actors Susannah York, Albert Finney and Peter O'Toole, but Epstein dropped out after the third term. Back in Liverpool, Harry Epstein put his son in charge of the record department of the newly-opened NEMS music store on Great Charlotte Street.[8] Epstein worked "day and night" at the store to make it a success, and it became one of the biggest musical retail outlets in the North of England.[9] RADAs theatre in London The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in Bloomsbury, London, is generally regarded as the most prestigious drama school in the world. ... York to the right together with Ilya Salkind on the set of Superman: The Movie, circa 1977 Susannah York (born Susannah Yolande Fletcher on January 9, 1939[1]) is an English actress. ... Albert Finney (born May 9, 1936 in Salford, Lancashire, England) is a five-time Academy Award-nominated English actor of Irish descent. ... Peter Seamus OToole (Peter James OToole) (born August 2, 1932 (accepted but presumed date) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ...


The Epsteins opened a second store at 12-14 Whitechapel, and Epstein was put in charge of the entire operation. Epstein often walked across the road to the Lewis's department store—which had a music section—where Peter Brown was employed. He watched Brown's sales technique and was impressed enough to lure Brown to work for NEMS with the offer of a higher salary and a commission on sales.[10] On 3 August 1961, Epstein started a regular music column in the Mersey Beat magazine, called, 'Record Releases, by Brian Epstein of NEMS'.[4] Lewiss was a department store group operating in the United Kingdom from 1856 to the 1990s. ... Peter Brown is an American businessman, born and educated in England. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mersey Beat was a music publication in Liverpool, England in the early 1960s. ...


The Beatles

Epstein at the Cavern Club (photo by David Steen)
Epstein at the Cavern Club (photo by David Steen)

The Beatles' name was supposedly first noticed by Epstein in issues of Mersey Beat, and on numerous posters around Liverpool, before asking Bill Harry who they were (Harry had previously convinced Epstein to sell the Mersey Beat magazine at NEMS).[11][12] The Beatles were featured on the front page of the second issue of Mersey Beat.[13][14] The Beatles had recorded the 'My Bonnie' single with Tony Sheridan in Germany, and some months after its release Epstein asked Alistair Taylor about it in NEMS.[15] Epstein's version of the story was that a customer—Raymond Jones—walked into the NEMS shop and asked Epstein for the "My Bonnie" single, which made Epstein curious about the group.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1395 × 2013 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1395 × 2013 pixel, file size: 440 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... External view of the New Cavern Club, January 2006 The Cavern Club, which was opened on January 16, 1957, is a legendary rock and roll club at 10 Mathew Street, Liverpool, England, where Brian Epstein was introduced to the Beatles on 9 November 1961. ... Bill Harry was born in Liverpool, England. ... My Bonnie was a 1962 album by Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers, better known as the Beatles. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... Tony Sheridan (born Andrew Esmond Sheridan McGinnity on May 21, 1940), is an English rock and roll singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Alistair Taylor is the personal assistant of Brian Epstein. ...


The Beatles were due to perform a lunchtime concert in the Cavern Club on 9 November 1961, which was not far from the NEMS store. Epstein asked Bill Harry to arrange for Epstein and his assistant Taylor to watch them perform, and Epstein and Taylor were allowed into the club without queuing, with a welcome message being announced over the club's public-address system by Bob Wooler, who was the resident DJ.[17] Epstein later talked about the performance: External view of the New Cavern Club, January 2006 The Cavern Club, which was opened on January 16, 1957, is a legendary rock and roll club at 10 Mathew Street, Liverpool, England, where Brian Epstein was introduced to the Beatles on 9 November 1961. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A live sound reproduction system has two main forms: A sound reinforcement system enhances the volume of the initial sound and will be designed so that as much as possible the listener will not realise that an artificial system is being used to make it easier for them to hear... Frederick James Bob Wooler was born, Liverpool on 19 January 1926; died, Liverpool, 8 February 2002. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ...

I was immediately struck by their music, their beat, and their sense of humour on stage—and, even afterwards, when I met them, I was struck again by their personal charm. And it was there that, really, it all started.[18]

After the performance, Epstein and Taylor went into the dressing room—which was "as big a broom cupboard"—to talk to them. The Beatles immediately recognised Epstein—as they were regular customers at NEMS—but before Epstein could congratulate them on their performance, George Harrison said, "And what brings Mr. Epstein here?"[19] The term dressing room may be applied to different places. ... George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ...


The Beatles played at the Cavern over the next three weeks, and Epstein was always there to watch them. Epstein contacted their previous manager, Allan Williams, to confirm that Williams no longer had any ties to them, but Williams advised Epstein "not to touch them with a barge pole".[20] In a meeting with the group at NEMS on 10 December 1961, he proposed the idea of managing them.[21] The Beatles signed a five-year contract with Epstein on 24 January 1962.[14] Former Liverpool businessman and promoter; original manager of The Beatles, who sent the young band to Hamburg, Germany, where they gained vital show business experience. ... A quant (quant pole) is a pole used to propel a barge (barge pole) or punt through water. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Epstein had had no prior experience of artist management, he had a strong influence on their early dress-code and attitude on stage. When Epstein discovered the band, they wore blue jeans and leather jackets, performing at rowdy rock 'n' roll shows where they would stop and start songs when they felt like it, or when an audience member requested a certain song. Epstein encouraged them to wear suits and ties, insisted that they stop swearing, smoking, drinking or eating onstage, and also suggested the famous synchronised bow at the end of their performances.[22] McCartney was the first to agree with Epstein's ideas, believing it was—in part—due to Epstein's RADA training.[23] Rock and roll - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... To swear can mean either to make an oath, or to utter profanity. ...


Epstein made numerous trips to London to visit record companies with the hope of securing a record contract, but was rejected by many, including Columbia, Pye, Philips, Oriole, and most famously, Decca [see The Decca audition].[24] The Beatles later found out that Epstein had paid Decca producer Tony Meehan (ex-drummer of the Shadows) to produce the studio recordings.[24] While Epstein was negotiating with Decca, he also approached EMI marketing executive Ron White, who later contacted EMI producers Norrie Paramor, Walter Ridley, and Norman Newell, but they all declined to record the group.[25][26] White could not contact EMI's fourth staff producer (Martin) as he was on holiday.[27] Pye Records was a British record label. ... Philips Records is a record label that was founded by Dutch electronics giant Philips. ... Oriole Records was the name of two record companies, one in the United States and one in the United Kingdom. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Daniel Joseph Anthony Tony Meehan, (March 2, 1943 – November 28, 2005), was one of the founder members of the British group The Shadows, along with Jet Harris, Hank B. Marvin and Bruce Welch. ... The Shadows were an English instrumental rock n roll group active from the 1950s to the 2000s. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... Norrie Paramor is best known as a record producer, but was also a composer, arranger, and orchestral conductor. ...


On 8 February 1962, Epstein visited a HMV store in Oxford Street, London, to have the Decca audition tape transferred to disc. A HMV technician named Jim Foy liked the recordings, and suggested that Epstein should contact Parlophone's George Martin.[28] The Beatles were signed by EMI's small Parlophone label after the group had been rejected by almost every other British record company, and without Martin ever having seen them play live.[29] is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Oxford Street, with Centre Point in the background Oxford Street in 1875, looking west from the junction with Duke Street. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 Kasia Kowalska concert in Warsaw A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ...


Martin scheduled an audition—at Abbey Road Studios—which convinced Martin that they were good enough, but with one exception: Martin did not like drummer Pete Best's playing.[29] When the news came that Martin wanted to replace Best on their recordings with a session drummer, John Lennon, McCartney and Harrison asked Epstein to fire Best from the band. Epstein agonised about the decision, and asked Bob Wooler if it was a good idea, to which Wooler replied that Best was very popular with the fans and they wouldn't like it at all.[30] Ringo Starr took his place, as Starr had previously played with Rory Storm and the Hurricanes, and had previously stepped in to drum with them when Best was ill or unable to play.[29] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Beatles, early 1962: (L-R) Pete, George, Paul and John. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Richard Starkey Jr, MBE (born 7 July 1940), known by his stage name Ringo Starr, is an Academy Award and Grammy Award winning English musician, singer, songwriter and actor, best known as the drummer of The Beatles. ... Rory Storm (January 7, 1938 – September 28, 1972), real name Alan Caldwell, was the leader of Rory Storm & The Hurricanes, a Liverpool band who were contemporaries of The Beatles in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ...


The Beatles toured the Philippines in July 1966, but Epstein unintentionally snubbed the nation's first lady, Imelda Marcos, when presented with an invitation to a breakfast party.[31] Epstein politely declined on behalf of the group, as it had never been the group's policy to accept such official invitations.[32] The Beatles and their entourage were ejected from their hotel the same day and were given a police escort to the airport. They boarded the plane to fly home, but Epstein and Mal Evans were ordered off, with both believing they would not be allowed back on the plane.[33] Epstein was forced to give back most of the money that they had earned in the Philippines before being allowed back on the plane.[34] Imelda Romuáldez Marcos (born July 2, 1929 in Manila) is a former First Lady and erstwhile powerful political figure in the Philippines. ... Malcolm Mal Evans (27 May 1935 – 5 January 1976). ...


After Candlestick Park

The Beatles' hectic schedule of touring, television, and film work between 1963-65 kept Epstein very busy. The Beatles' last live concert was at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, California on 29 August 1966, and Epstein's management duties changed to reflect the changing nature of their career. He wanted them to continue touring, however, but they adamantly refused.[35] The Beatles started to pay less attention to Epstein's advice on many issues after they stopped touring, such as the legally risky cover art of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Epstein later brought Robert Stigwood into the NEMS organisation, and wanted to sell the control of NEMS to him, but didn't tell any of the group about his decision.[36] Monster Park (colloquially, The Stick or Candlestick, after its original name of Candlestick Park) is an outdoor sports and entertainment stadium located in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Stigwood (born April 16, 1934 in Adelaide, Australia) is an Australian-born entertainment entrepreneur. ...


Before Epstein's death, McCartney had been taking a much more active interest in NEMS' finances, and the group was becoming aware that some artists with more ruthless managers—such as the Rolling Stones under Allen Klein—claimed to be receiving more commercially advantageous terms. After Epstein's death, Stigwood wanted to take over the management of NEMS—believing that he was the "natural successor"—but Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr all vehemently opposed him, with Lennon saying, "We don't know you. Why would we do this?"[36] This article is about the rock band. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Business dealings

Epstein (standing) with some of his NEMS artists.
Epstein (standing) with some of his NEMS artists.

McCartney admitted that they signed all the contracts Epstein presented to them without reading them first, but when Lennon was asked for a comment about Epstein's business dealings after Epstein’s death, he said, "Well, he was alright. I've found out since, of course, that he wasn't quite as honest to us as he made out"—although many other interviews with Lennon report him as being very loyal to Epstein, and even saying, "We had complete faith in him when he was running us. To us, he was the expert".[37][38][39] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 365 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 729 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 365 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 729 pixel, file size: 200 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ...


The Beatles all signed Epstein's first management contract, but Epstein did not sign it himself, thereby giving himself the option of withdrawing at any time. The contract could not have been legally binding on McCartney and Harrison, as they were both still minors (the age of majority at that time was 21) and lacked the legal capacity to sign a binding contract. The contract stated that Epstein would receive a management commission of 25 per cent of their gross income after a certain threshold had been reached.[14][40] The Beatles argued for a smaller percentage, but Epstein pointed out that he had been paying their expenses for months, without receiving anything in return.[41] Epstein once offered the individual Beatles a fixed wage of £50-a-week for life, instead of receiving money from record sales. Harrison commented that he was earning £25 a week at the time, which was more than the £10 a week his father was earning, but the group as a whole declined Epstein's offer, as they thought that they were worth much more than £50-a-week.[42] After the release of Love Me Do in 1962, Epstein signed a second (and legally binding) contract.[43][44] In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ... Capacity and incapacity are legal terms that refer to the ability of persons to make certain binding dispositions of their rights, such as entering into contracts, making gifts, or writing a valid will. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... == Is the amount of a companys revenue after deducting cost of goods sold. ... In accounting, an expense is a general term for an outgoing payment made by a business or individual. ... Love Me Do is an early Lennon-McCartney song, mainly written by Paul McCartney in 1961-2. ...


The Beatles' recording contract that EMI offered Epstein gave them one penny for each record sold, which was split amongst the four members, meaning one farthing per group member.[45] The royalty rate was further reduced for singles sold outside the UK, on which the group received half of one penny (again split between the whole band) per single.[46] Martin said later that EMI had "nothing to lose" by signing a contract with them.[47] For the NBA basketball player with the nickname see Penny Hardaway A variety of low value coins, including an Irish 2p piece and many U.S. pennies. ... Wren design Farthing from 1948 A farthing (meaning fourth part) was a British coin worth one quarter of a penny. ...


The Beatles' concerts were booked by Epstein himself, and he also presented groups managed by NEMS as an opening act, thereby making money for NEMS as the promoter, booking agent, and Manager for all the concerts.[48] The Beatles were constantly in demand by concert promoters, and Epstein took advantage of the situation to avoid paying some taxes by accepting "hidden" fees on the night of a performance, which he always kept in a brown paper bag.[49] Epstein also successfully managed Gerry & the Pacemakers, Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas (who had three hits with Lennon-McCartney songs) the Fourmost (their first two singles were written by Lennon) the Cyrkle (Epstein's first American group) and Cilla Black (who was Epstein's only female artist) as well as other artists. For the sequel to the computer game Entrepreneur, which has no article of its own, see The Corporate Machine. ... A talent agent is a person who finds jobs for actors, musicians, models, and other people in various entertainment businesses. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on... The Fourmost was an English Merseybeat band that recorded in the 1960s. ... The Cyrkle was a 1960s-era U.S. rock and roll band. ...


During the first Beatles' flight to America was Epstein was constantly offered numerous samples of products by merchandisers—who required a licence from Epstein to be allowed to sell them—including clocks, pens, plastic wigs, bracelets, and games, but Epstein rejected all of them. David Jacobs, the lawyer for NEMS, had already given away some exclusive merchandising rights to Nicky Byrne in England, which later turned out to be a financial mistake as Epstein had asked for a percentage that was far below the norm at the time.[50] The Beatles were ensconced in the Plaza hotel in New York, and Epstein was further besieged by calls and visits from merchandisers, promoters, television commentators, and hustlers—all demanding to talk to him.[51] Mindful of the number of records the group were selling in America, Capitol records sent a well-spoken Yorkshire girl, Wendy Hanson, to the Plaza hotel to act as Epstein's secretary, and to filter his calls.[52] Hanson later worked solely with Epstein in his Albemarle Street office, which was separate from the NEMS office.[53] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... NY redirects here. ... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Epstein asked James Trevor Isherwood (a Chartered Accountant) to set up a company to collect Lennon and McCartney's PRS payments—called Lenmac—which he did on 12 May 1964. When he first visited Epstein's office, Isherwood was surprised to learn that Epstein took 25% of the gross income, and not what he thought was the usual 10% that other managers received at that time.[54] All of Epstein's expenses were also deducted from any of his artists gross income, which meant office rental, staff wages, travel, telephone costs, and entertaining expenses.[55] Before his death, Epstein knew that the renegotiation of his management contract (up for renewal on 30 September 1967) would reduce his management fee from 25 per cent to 10 per cent, but would mean a larger drop in NEMS income, as Beatles' concert fees had been taken out of the equation.[56] Chartered Accountant (CA) is the title of members of a certain professional accountancy associations in the Commonwealth countries and Ireland. ... PRS may refer to: Personal response system, a method of polling groups The Performing Right Society, a UK collecting society This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... == Is the amount of a companys revenue after deducting cost of goods sold. ... In accounting, an expense is a general term for an outgoing payment made by a business or individual. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


The Beatles entered into a publishing agreement with Dick James Music (DJM) who set up a company called Northern Songs. Epstein agreed that James should receive 25 per cent of the shares, and Charles Silver—his financial partner and accountant—should also receive 25 per cent. Lennon and McCartney received 20 per cent each, and Epstein held the remaining 10 per cent.[57] The Beatles PRS income increased rapidly, and Epstein asked Isherwood to work out a way of avoiding the tax that Lennon and McCartney would have to pay. Isherwood suggested a Stock-market flotation for Northern Songs, and further advised Epstein that Lennon and McCartney should move to houses near his [Isherwood's] in Esher during the flotation, which Lennon, Harrison, and Starr did—with only Epstein and McCartney remaining in London.[58] Dick James (born Reginald Leon Vapnick, in 1920, in London died 2 January 1986) was the singer of the Robin Hood and The Buccaneers themes, from British television in the 1950s and was a friend and associate of renowned record producer George Martin. ... Northern Songs Ltd. ... Accountant, or Qualified Accountant, or Professional Accountant, is a certified accountancy and financial expert in the jurisdiction of many countries. ... An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a corporations common shares to investors on a public stock exchange. ... Esher is a town in the Surrey borough of Elmbridge in South East England near the River Mole. ...


After moving to London Epstein rented an office in Monmouth Street—close to Seven Dials—in 1965, and later leased the Saville Theatre on Shaftesbury Avenue. He promoted new works by writers such as Arnold Wesker in productions that occasionally fell afoul of the Lord Chamberlain by including "obscene" content or nudity. Epstein changed the programme to that of a music venue in 1966, presenting various U.S. acts.[59] The Seven Dials sundial pillar, 2004. ... The Saville Theatre was a West End theatre in London, England, during the 20th century. ... Shaftesbury Avenue is a major London street, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, that runs in a north-easterly direction from Piccadilly Circus to New Oxford Street, crossing Charing Cross Road at Cambridge Circus. ... Arnold Wesker (born 24 May 1932) is considered one of the key figures in 20th Century drama. ... The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is one of the chief officers of the Royal Household in the United Kingdom, and is to be distinguished from the Lord Great Chamberlain, one of the Great Officers of State. ...


Personal life

Throughout Epstein's life he was known to be kind and caring to his family, friends of his family, and business colleagues. When Lennon married Cynthia Powell, on 23 August 1962, Epstein attended the wedding as the "best man" and paid for their celebration lunch afterwards.[60][61] During Cynthia's pregnancy Epstein paid for a private room in a hospital and offered the Lennons the sole use of his flat on Faulkner Street when they needed somewhere to live. He also agreed to be Julian Lennon's godfather (Lennon and Cynthia's son).[62][63] Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Charles Julian Lennon known universally as Julian Lennon, (born April 8, 1963 in Liverpool, England) is an English singer, songwriter, musician, and first son of Beatle John Lennon and the only child of his first wife Cynthia Lennon. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ...


Sexual orientation

A Dezo Hoffmann photo of Epstein.
A Dezo Hoffmann photo of Epstein.

Epstein was homosexual, which was not publicly known until a long time after his death, although it was an open secret among his friends and business associates.[64] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1948 × 2568 pixel, file size: 719 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1948 × 2568 pixel, file size: 719 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Dezider Hoffmann (most often credited as Dezo Hoffmann or Dežo Hoffmann, 1912 - 1982) was a Hungarian photographer, photojournalist and cameraman (brought up in Czechoslovakia). ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


While Epstein was in the Army, he had a tailor make an officer's uniform for him that he wore when cruising the bars of London, but was arrested one night (for impersonating an officer) at the Army and Navy Club on Piccadilly by the Military Police. Epstein managed to avoid a court martial by agreeing to see an army psychiatrist, who uncovered Epstein's homosexuality.[65] He was discharged from the army after ten months on the medical grounds of being "emotionally and mentally unfit".[66] Cruising for sex, or cruising, describes the act of walking or driving about a locality in pursuit of a partner for (often quick and anonymous) sex. ... Piccadilly is a major London street, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. ... The MP Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Whilst Epstein was studying acting at RADA, he was arrested for "persistent importuning", and was later blackmailed by an ex-Guardsman—Billy Connolly—which led to him dropping out after his third term. Throughout the later court case against Connolly, Epstein was referred to as "Mr. X", as the law allowed anonymity at that time.[67] McCartney said that he and the others knew that Epstein was a homosexual, but they did not care, because Epstein greatly encouraged them when record companies turned them down, and used to take them to late-night drinking clubs, to which they had previously never had access.[14] Although Lennon often made sarcastic comments about Epstein's homosexuality to friends and to Epstein personally, nobody outside their closed circle was allowed to comment on it. Ian Sharp—one of Lennon's art school friends—once made a sarcastic remark about Epstein but was sent a letter by Epstein's office within forty-eight hours that demanded a complete apology. Sharp apologised but was then completely ostracised, and was told by McCartney in a letter to have no contact at all with any of them in the future.[68] A public convenience in a Greenwich Park, the design of which may be the origin of the term Cottaging. Cottaging is a gay slang term for having non-committed casual sex in a public lavatory (a cottage) or for cruising for sex or picking up sexual partners in public lavatories... The Coldstream Guards is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division. ...


There were rumours of a brief sexual encounter between Lennon and Epstein when they both went on a four-day holiday together to Barcelona, Spain in April 1963. Lennon always denied this, telling Playboy in 1980: "It was never consummated, but we had a pretty intense relationship." Lennon's first wife Cynthia also maintains that Lennon's relationship with Epstein was platonic.[69] A fictionalised account of the Spanish holiday was portrayed in the film 1991 The Hours and Times. Lennon's friend and confidant, Peter Shotton, claimed in his book, The Beatles, Lennon and Me, that under provocation from Epstein, Lennon did partly give in: "I let him toss me off, and that was it." Biographer Hunter Davies also recalled Lennon telling him he had consented to an encounter "to see what it was like." Writer Albert Goldman expanded on both claims in his The Lives of John Lennon, alleging a longtime affair between the two men. Despite his soft-spoken manner and dapper appearance, Epstein was strongly attracted to "rough trade", often seeking illicit encounters with abusive partners, and was subjected to blackmail, battery, and threats. Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Playboy is an American mens magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner and his associates, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... The Hours and Times is a 1991 drama film written and directed by Christopher Münch. ... Peter Shotton (born 4 August 1941, in Liverpool) is a British businessman best known for his long friendship with John Lennon of The Beatles. ... Johann Nepomuk Geiger, watercolor, 1840. ... Hunter Davies (born 7 January 1936) is a prolific British author, journalist and broadcaster, best known for his books about The Beatles. ... Albert Harry Goldman (crazy jew) (April 15, 1927 – March 28, 1994) was an American professor and author. ... Cover of one of the most controversial celebrity biographies of the 20th century, Albert Goldman’s The Lives of John Lennon. ... Trade refers to the straight partner of a gay man (as in, Hes trade), or to the genre of such partners. ...


Epstein's strongest relationship with a woman was with Alma Cogan, who was also Jewish and was a part of the glitzy world of old-fashioned show business. Epstein always bought her presents when he was abroad, and even took her to Liverpool to meet his parents. Despite Epstein's preference for male company, some of his friends believed they would eventually get married.[70] Cogan died of ovarian cancer in 1966 at age 34. Alma Angela Cohen, known as Alma Cogan (May 19, 1932 - October 26, 1966) was an English singer of traditional pop music. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor (a kind of neoplasm) located on an ovary. ...


In October 1964, Epstein's autobiography, A Cellarful of Noise, was published in the UK and later in the U.S. It was co-written by journalist Derek Taylor, who had served as Epstein's assistant that year, then later as the publicist for NEMS from 1968-1970. (Lennon reportedly once quipped that the memoir should have been titled A Cellarful of Boys).[39] 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Derek Taylor (1932-1997) is best known as the press agent for the hugely popular rock band, The Beatles. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Male homosexual relations were illegal throughout the UK until September 1967 (only one month after Epstein's death) when gay male sexuality was legalised in England and Wales (remaining illegal in Scotland and Northern Ireland until 1980 and 1982, respectively). Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Drug use

At the preview of A Hard Day’s Night in 1964.
At the preview of A Hard Day’s Night in 1964.

After the start of his management career, Epstein started taking amphetamines—usually Preludin, which was legal at that time—which Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr also took and had previously taken in Hamburg. He explained his use of the drug as the only way of staying awake at night during numerous concert tours.[71] In 1964, Brown started to notice that Epstein was taking too many pills, because Epstein often had a cough at parties, which Brown knew was Epstein's way of secretly putting pills into his mouth without anyone noticing.[72] McCartney often met Epstein at late-night clubs in London, and remembered that Epstein would often "grind his jaws", and once said, "Ugghhh, the pills..." to McCartney.[73] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (1854 × 1244 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution (1854 × 1244 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... Phenmetrazine is a stimulant of the central nervous system. ...


In 1964, after having been introduced to cannabis by Bob Dylan in New York, McCartney remembered Epstein standing in front of a mirror, pointing at himself and repeatedly saying "Jew!", and laughing loudly, which McCartney found hilarious and "very liberating".[74] Epstein later became heavily involved in the 1960s drug scene, and during the four months when the Sgt. Pepper album was being recorded, Epstein spent his time on holiday, or at the Priory Clinic, in Putney, London, where he tried unsuccessfully to curb his drug use. He left the Priory for the party to launch Sgt. Pepper to selected journalists at his house at 24 Chapel Street, but went straight back to the Priory afterwards.[75][76] After McCartney's admission on 19 June 1967, about his use of LSD, Epstein defended McCartney to the Media—admitting that he had also taken it himself.[77] Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, musician, and poet who has been a major figure in popular music for five decades. ... NY redirects here. ... Sgt. ... The Priory Healthcare Group is a independent provider of mental health care facilities in the United Kingdom. ... Putney is a district of south-west London in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...


Gambling

The Beatles and Epstein visited Elvis Presley in America, and while they were at Graceland, Colonel Tom Parker showed Epstein a gambling table and several packs of playing cards. Epstein straightened his bow tie and immediately wanted to play, as he was known for his love of gambling for high-stakes.[78] McCartney frequently visited gambling clubs in London, such as the 'Curzon House' (which was Epstein's favourite club) and often saw Brian Epstein gambling there. McCartney once saw Epstein put a Dunhill lighter on the table that was worth £100 (worth approximately £1,300. GBP, or $2,500. USD in today's money [79]), and then lose it during a game of cards. Epstein would often lose thousands of pounds by playing baccarat or chemin de fer, but would stay at the Curzon House the whole evening—eating an expensive meal and drinking fine wines. The club never presented Epstein with a bill, as they knew that he lost so much in their casino.[80] Elvis Aron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), often known simply as Elvis and also called The King of Rock n Roll or simply The King, was an American singer, musician and actor. ... For other uses, see Graceland (disambiguation). ... Colonel Tom Parker (born Andreas Cornelius van Kuijk on June 26, 1909 – January 21, 1997), was an American/Dutch entertainment impresario known best as the manager of Elvis Presley. ... Some typical modern playing cards. ... One option to tie a bowtie The bowtie is a mens fashion accessory, popularly worn with other formal attire, such as suits. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... Alfred Dunhill, Ltd. ... GBP may be: short for Game Boy Player the ISO currency code for the British Pound Sterling. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... This article is about the card game. ... This article is about the card game. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Death

The Daily Mirror Headline: "EPSTEIN (The Beatle-making Prince of Pop) DIES AT 32".
The Daily Mirror Headline: "EPSTEIN (The Beatle-making Prince of Pop) DIES AT 32".

A few weeks before his own death, Epstein had attended a traditional shiva in Liverpool after his father passed away, having just come out of the Priory clinic where he had been trying to cure his acute insomnia and his addiction to amphetamines.[81] Epstein's last visit to a Beatles' recording session was on 23 August 1967, at the Chappell Recording Studios on Maddox street, London.[82] Image File history File links Brian Epstein newspaper headline. ... Image File history File links Brian Epstein newspaper headline. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... This article is about Jewish event. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


On Thursday 24 August, Epstein asked Brown and Geoffrey Ellis down to Kingsly Hall, which was his country home in Uckfield, Sussex, for the Bank Holiday weekend. After they got there, Epstein decided to drive back to London by himself because an expected group of rent boys he had invited failed to arrive.[56] Epstein phoned Brown the next day at 5 o'clock in the afternoon from his Chapel Street house in London. Brown thought that Epstein sounded "very groggy", and suggested that Epstein take a train back down to Kingsley Hall instead of driving under the influence of Tuinals. Epstein replied that he would eat something, read his mail and watch Juke Box Jury before phoning Brown to tell him which train to meet. He never called again.[56] is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Population: 15,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ473213 Administration District: Wealden Shire county: East Sussex Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: East Sussex Historic county: Sussex Services Police force: {{{Police}}} Ambulance service: South East Coast Post office and telephone Post... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Public holidays in the United Kingdom. ... Male prostitution is the sale of sexual services (prostitution) by a male. ... Tuinal is the brand name of a drug that combines two barbiturates — secobarbital and amobarbital — in equal proportions. ... Juke Box Jury was a pop themed panel show, originally produced by BBC television from 1959-1967. ...


Epstein died of a drug overdose on 27 August 1967. The Beatles were in Bangor at the time, having a meeting with the Indian guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and Epstein had previously agreed to travel to Bangor after the August Bank Holiday.[83][84] A concert by Jimi Hendrix was cancelled on the same day that Epstein died at the Saville Theatre (which Epstein leased) out of respect.[83] At the statutory inquest, his death was officially ruled accidental, and was probably caused by a gradual buildup of Carbitral in his system, mixed with alcohol. It was revealed that he had taken six Carbitral pills in order to sleep, which was probably usual for Epstein, but meant that his tolerance was very close to becoming lethal.[56] A drug overdose occurs when a drug is ingested in quantities and/or concentrations large enough to overwhelm the homeostasis of a living organism, causing severe illness or death. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Bangor, in north Wales, is one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. ... A Guru (Sanskrit: ), is a teacher in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, as well as in many new religious movements. ... Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (b. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ...


Peter Brown claimed in his memoir, The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles, that he had once found a suicide note written by Epstein and spoke with him directly about it. According to Brown, the note read in part, "This is all too much and I can't take it anymore." A short will and testament followed, in which Epstein left his house and money to his mother and his brother (Brown himself was a small beneficiary). When confronted with the note, Epstein told Brown that he was grateful Brown had not told anyone about it, and told him that he was sorry he had made Brown worry. He explained that he had simply had taken one pill too many and that he did not intend to overdose and promised to be more careful from then on. Brown later wrote that he wondered if he was really doing Epstein a favour by not showing the note to Epstein's doctor, Norman Cowan, who more than likely would have stopped prescribing drugs for Epstein.


The Beatles did not attend Epstein's funeral, wishing to give his family privacy by not attracting the media and fans. A few weeks later, however, all four attended a memorial service for Epstein at the New London Synagogue in St. John's Wood (near the Abbey Road studios) which was officiated by Rabbi Louis Jacobs, who eulogised Epstein, saying, “He encouraged young people to sing of love and peace rather than war and hatred.” Epstein is buried in the Kirkdale Jewish Cemetery in Liverpool (section A grave H12). [16][85] St Johns Wood is a district in the City of Westminster in London near Regents Park. ... Louis Jacobs (born 1920) is a Masorti rabbi in England, the first leader of Masorti Judaism (also known as Conservative Judaism) in the UK, best known as the central focus of events in the early 1960s that came to be known as The Jacobs Affair. Jacobs was ordained as an... Kirkdale is a district of Liverpool, England and a Liverpool City Council Ward. ...


Legacy

The Beatles were among the earliest entrants into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, but the man regarded as having been responsible for guiding them to their success has never been considered for membership in the Hall's "Non-Performer's Section". Epstein was earlier overlooked when Lennon, McCartney, Harrison and Starr were honoured with the MBE in 1965 (even though Harrison once said that the MBE stood for "Mister Brian Epstein"). Martin Lewis—a protegé of Derek Taylor—has become a vocal champion of Epstein's memory, creating "The Official Brian Epstein Website", which includes a petition that Epstein be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[18] Lewis also organized the 1998 re-publication—in the U.S.—of Epstein's 1964 autobiography, A Cellarful Of Noise. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... Martin Lewis. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ...


McCartney summarised the importance of Epstein when he was interviewed, in 1997, for a BBC documentary about Epstein by stating: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian."[86] In his 1970 Rolling Stone interview, John Lennon commented about Epstein's death: "I knew that we were in trouble then ... I thought, 'We've fuckin' had it!'"[87] This article is about the magazine. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p255
  2. ^ Spitz 2005. p71
  3. ^ Miles 1998. pp23-24.
  4. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p257
  5. ^ Spitz 2005. pp258-259
  6. ^ Spitz 2005. p259
  7. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p261
  8. ^ Spitz 2005. p263
  9. ^ Spitz 2005. p264
  10. ^ Brown, Peter. 2002. p63
  11. ^ Miles 1998. p84
  12. ^ Miles 1998. pp84-85
  13. ^ Spitz 2005. pp264-265
  14. ^ a b c d Miles 1998. p88
  15. ^ Spitz 2005. p265
  16. ^ a b Biography of Epstein momentmag.com. Retrieved: 10 March 2007
  17. ^ Spitz 2005. pp266-268
  18. ^ a b Brian Epstein web page brianepstein.com. Retrieved: 15 March 2007
  19. ^ Spitz 2005. p268
  20. ^ Miles 1998. p75
  21. ^ Miles 1998. p85
  22. ^ Spitz 2005. pp279-280
  23. ^ Miles 1998. p96
  24. ^ a b Miles 1998. p89
  25. ^ Coleman 1989 p88–89
  26. ^ Coleman 1989 p93
  27. ^ Coleman 1989 p93–94
  28. ^ Beatles’ History - 1962 geocities.com. Retrieved: 9 March 2007
  29. ^ a b c Miles 1998. p90
  30. ^ Spitz 2005. p329
  31. ^ Spitz 2005. p619
  32. ^ Spitz 2005. p620
  33. ^ Spitz 2005. p624
  34. ^ Spitz 2005. p625
  35. ^ Spitz 2005. p666
  36. ^ a b Spitz 2005. p725-726
  37. ^ Miles 1998. p146
  38. ^ McCabe/Schonfeld “For The Record” 1984. p90
  39. ^ a b Lennon’s comments about Epstein 213.87.37.135/oea/millennium. Retrieved: 14 March 2007
  40. ^ Miles 1998. pp144-145
  41. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p103
  42. ^ bbc.co.uk: Epstein 'wanted Beatles fortune' news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved: 9 March 2007
  43. ^ Lewisohn “Chronicles” 2006. p61.
  44. ^ Epstein’s contracts beatlemoney.com. Retrieved: 11 March 2007
  45. ^ "Beatles History: 1962" at Beatles Discography. beatles-discography.com. Retrieved: 29 January 2007
  46. ^ Brown, Peter. 2002. p79
  47. ^ George Martin and money beatlemoney.com. Retrieved: 11 March 2007
  48. ^ Brown, Peter 2002. p102
  49. ^ Brown, Peter. 2002. p110
  50. ^ Spitz 2005. pp465-466
  51. ^ Spitz 2005. pp458-464
  52. ^ Spitz 2005. p464
  53. ^ Spitz 2005. p667
  54. ^ Miles 1998. p144
  55. ^ Miles 1998. p145
  56. ^ a b c d Miles 1998. p405
  57. ^ Miles 1998. p147
  58. ^ Miles 1998. pp166-167
  59. ^ Spitz 2005. pp648-649
  60. ^ Spitz 2005. p348
  61. ^ Brown, Peter. 2002. p83
  62. ^ Brown, Peter. 2002. p93
  63. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p171
  64. ^ Miles 1998. p88
  65. ^ Miles 1998. p86.
  66. ^ Spitz 2005. p260
  67. ^ Spitz 2005. p262
  68. ^ Spitz 2005. pp302-303
  69. ^ Cynthia Lennon – “John” 2006. p104
  70. ^ Miles 1998. p138
  71. ^ Spitz 2005. pp301-302
  72. ^ Spitz 2005. p518
  73. ^ Miles 1998. p131
  74. ^ Miles 1998. pp188-189
  75. ^ Location of Epstein’s Chapel Street house multimap.com. Retrieved: 14 March 2007
  76. ^ Miles 1998. pp337-338
  77. ^ Spitz 2005. pp699-670
  78. ^ Lipack. p57.
  79. ^ These values were calculated using "Frink"
  80. ^ Miles 1998. p131
  81. ^ Miles 1998. pp404-405
  82. ^ Miles 1998. p355
  83. ^ a b bbc.co.uk: On This Day – The death of Brian Epstein news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved: 9 March 2007
  84. ^ Miles 1998. p404
  85. ^ Epstein’s gravestone images.google.co.uk. Retrieved: 15 March 2007
  86. ^ McCartney's comments about the fifth Beatle brianepstein.com. Retrieved: 12 March 2007
  87. ^ Miles 1998. p406

References

  • Braun, Michael (1995 Reprint). Love Me Do: The Beatles' Progress. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-002278-3. 
  • Brown, Peter (2002). The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of the Beatles . NAL Trade; Reprint edition. ISBN 978-0451207357. 
  • Coleman, Ray (1989). Brian Epstein: The Man Who Made The Beatles. Viking. ISBN 0-670-81474-1. 
  • Lennon, Cynthia (2006). John. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-89828-3. 
  • Lewisohn, Mark (2006). the complete Beatles chronicle. Hamlyn. ISBN 978-0600610014. 
  • Lipack, Richard Warren (1996). Epoch Moments and Secrets:. Barrister Publishers. ISBN 978-0965095914. 
  • Peter McCabe and Robert Schonfeld (1984). For the Record. Bantam Books . ISBN 978-0553248029. 
  • Miles, Barry (1998). Many Years From Now. Vintage-Random House. ISBN 0-7493-8658-4. 
  • Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Little, Brown and Company (New York). ISBN 1-84513-160-6. 
  • Wenner, Jan (2000). Lennon Remembers. Verso (London). ISBN 1-85984-600-9. 

It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... There have been several people named Peter Brown. ... Cynthia Lillian Lennon née Powell (born September 10, 1939) in Blackpool, Lancashire, England. ... Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hodder Headline. ... Mark Lewisohn (born 1958) is one of the worlds foremost experts on The Beatles. ... Bantam Books is a major U.S. publishing house owned by Random House and is part of the Bantam Dell Publishing Group. ... Barry Miles (commonly known as, and called, simply Miles) is an author who has written biographies of Paul McCartney, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg as well as books about John Lennon, the Beatles and Frank Zappa. ... Many Years From Now, is the official biography of Sir Paul McCartney, by Barry Miles. ... Vintage Books was founded in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf as a trade paperback home for its authors. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... NY redirects here. ... The verso of a broadsheet, pamphlet or any printed document is the side that is meant to be read second or the left-hand page of a folded sheet. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brian Epstein (535 words)
Brian Samuel Epstein (September 19, 1934-August 27, 1967) is best known as the manager for the hugely popular rock band, The Beatles.
Epstein and friend, Alistair Taylor, went to see the band perform at the crowded Cavern Club, which was just down the street from his store.
Epstein said of the performance: "I was immediately struck by their music, their beat, and their sense of humour on stage.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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