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Encyclopedia > Breton language
Breton
Brezhoneg 
Pronunciation: /bɾɛ.ˈzõː.nɛk/
Spoken in: France 
Region: Brittany
Total speakers: 450,000 [2]
Language family: Indo-European
 Celtic
  Insular Celtic
   Brythonic
    Breton
Language codes
ISO 639-1: br
ISO 639-2: bre
ISO 639-3: bre

Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...

Contents

History

Breton is descended from the Brythonic branch of Insular Celtic languages brought by Romano-British settlers to Brittany, perhaps from the end of the 3rd century onwards. The modern-day language most closely related to Breton is Cornish, followed by Welsh. (The other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a Langue d'oïl derived from Latin). The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Breton is traditionally spoken in Lower Brittany, roughly to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche Bernard (east of Vannes). It comes from a language community between Great Britain and Armorica (present-day Brittany). It was the language of the elite until the 12th century. However, afterwards it was only the language of the people of West Brittany (Breizh Izel), and the nobility, then successively the bourgeoisie adopted French. As a written language, the Duchy of Brittany used Latin, switching to French in the 15th century. There exists a limited tradition of Breton literature. Old Breton has left some vocabulary which has served in the present day to produce philosophical and scientific terms in Modern Breton. In the old city centre Harbour to cathedral Vannes (Breton: Gwened) is a town and commune located in the Morbihan département, in Brittany, in the west of France. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... The Duchy of Brittany was an independent state from 841 to 1532. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Breton literature is the Breton language literary tradition of Brittany. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ...


The French Monarchy never really concerned itself with the minority languages of France. The revolutionary period really started policies favouring French over the "regional" languages, more pejoratively called patois. It was assumed that reactionary and monarchist forces preferred regional languages in an attempt to keep the peasant masses under-informed. Under the Third, Fourth and Fifth republics, humiliating practices geared towards stamping out Breton language and culture prevailed in state schools until the late 1960s. Even the Catholic Church finally turned against the Breton language after the Second Vatican Council. There are a number of languages of France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


Today, despite the political centralization of France and the important influence of the media, Breton is still spoken as an everyday language by about 500,000 people. This is, however, down from 1.3 million in 1930. At the beginning of the 20th century, half the population of Lower Brittany knew only Breton, the other half being bilingual. By 1950, there were only 100,000 monolingual Bretons, with even fewer nowadays.[1] A statistical survey[2] performed in 1997 found around 300,000 speakers in Breizh izel, of which about 190,000 were aged 60 or over. Probably less than 2% of 15-19 year-olds spoke Breton. Monoglottism (Greek monos, alone, solitary, + glotta, tongue, language) is the condition of being able to speak only a single language. ...


In 1925, thanks to Professor Roparz Hemon, the first issue appeared of the review Gwalarn. During its 19-year run, Gwalarn tried to raise the language to the level of other great "international" languages by creating original works covering all genres and by proposing Breton translations of internationally-recognized foreign works. Roparz Hemon was a Breton author and scholar (1900 - 1979). ...


In 1946, Al Liamm replaced Gwalarn. Other periodicals appeared and began to give Breton a fairly large body of literature for a minority language[citation needed].

Sign in French and Breton in Rennes, outside a school with bilingual classes
Sign in French and Breton in Rennes, outside a school with bilingual classes

In 1977, Diwan schools were founded to teach Breton by immersion. They taught thousands of young people from elementary school to high school. They gained more and more fame due to their high level of results in school exams. Another proposed teaching method was a bilingual approach, promoted by Div Yezh ("Two Languages") in the State schools and Dihun ("Awakening") in the Catholic schools. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Diwan is a federation of Breton language schools in Brittany. ... Dihun is one of the 47 woredas in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. ...


The Asterix comic series has been translated into Breton. This is notable because, according to the comic, the Gaulish village where Asterix lives is in the Armoric peninsula, which is now Brittany. Some other comics have also been translated into Breton: Tintin, Spirou, Titeuf, Hägar the Horrible, Peanuts, Yakari and so on. For other uses, see Asterix (disambiguation). ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... The main characters and others from The Castafiore Emerald, one of the later books The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ... Young Spirou on the cover of Spanish magazine Yo y Yo Spirou is: Spirou magazine, a Belgian childrens comic magazine; one of its serial comic strips, Spirou et Fantasio (Spirou and Fantasio), which is also published in hardcover format Spirou, the eponymous character of the comic strip and of... Titeuf is a Franco-Belgian comics series created by the Swiss comics creator Zep which was adapted into an animated TV series, and appears in the dedicated comics magazine Tchô!. // Cover of Le guide du zizi sexuel (2001) a hors-serie album Titeuf was initially published in the fanzine Sauve... Hägar the Horrible is the title and the name of the main character of a syndicated comic strip by Dik Browne, first seen in February 1973 and distributed to 1,900 newspapers in 58 countries, in 13 languages. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... Yakari is a Franco-Belgian comic book series written by Job and illustrated by Derib. ...


Some movies (Lancelot, Shakespeare in Love, Marion du Faouet, Sezneg) and TV series (Columbo, Perry Mason) are also broadcast in Breton. For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare in Love is an award-winning 1998 romantic comedy film. ... Columbo is an American crime fiction TV series starring Peter Falk as Lieutenant Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department. ... Perry Mason is a fictional defense attorney who originally appeared in detective fiction by Erle Stanley Gardner. ...


Some poets, linguists, and writers who wrote in Breton, for example Yann-Ber Kalloc'h, Roparz Hemon, Anjela Duval, Pêr-Jakez Helias, Youenn Gwernig are now known internationally. Roparz Hemon was a Breton author and scholar (1900 - 1979). ... Pêr-Jakez Helias (nom de plume Pierre-Jakez Hélias) was a French author, poet, stage actor and radio worker of Breton expression. ...


Today, Breton is the only living Celtic language which is not recognized as an official language. The French State refuses to change the second article of the Constitution (added in 1994), which states that "the language of the Republic is French". The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


The first Breton dictionary, the Catholicon, was also the first French dictionary. Edited by Jehan Lagadec in 1464, it was a trilingual work containing Breton, French and Latin. Today the existence of bilingual dictionaries directly from Breton into languages such as English, Dutch, German, Spanish and Welsh demonstrates the determination of a new generation to gain international recognition for Breton. There also exists a monolingual dictionary, defining Breton words in Breton. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...


Geographic distribution

Breton is spoken mainly in Western Brittany, but also in a more dispersed way in Eastern Brittany (where Gallo is spoken alongside Breton and French), and in areas around the world which have received Breton emigrants. Gallo is a regional language of France, traditionally spoken in Eastern Brittany. ...


Official status

Ofis ar Brezhoneg, the Breton language agency, was set up in 1999 by the Bretagne region to promote and develop the use of Breton
Ofis ar Brezhoneg, the Breton language agency, was set up in 1999 by the Bretagne region to promote and develop the use of Breton[3]

Breton is not an official language of France, despite pleas from autonomists and others for official recognition and for the language to be guaranteed a place in schools, the media, and other aspects of public life. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1516 × 1095 pixel, file size: 869 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1516 × 1095 pixel, file size: 869 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


An attempt by the French government to incorporate the independent Breton-language immersion schools (called Diwan) into the state education system was blocked by the French Constitutional Council on the grounds that, as the 1992 amendment to the Constitution of the 5th Republic states that French is the language of the Republic, no other language may be used as a language of instruction in state schools. The Toubon Law states that French is the language of public education, which means that Breton-language schools do not receive funding from the state. A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Toubon Law (full name: law 94-665 of 4 August 1994 relating to usage of the French language), is a law of the French government mandating the use of the French language in official government publications, advertisements, and some other contexts. ...


Nevertheless, the regional and departmental authorities do use Breton to a very limited extent insofar as they feel able, for example in signage. Some bilingual signage may also be seen, such as street name signs in Breton towns, and one station of the Rennes metro system has signs in both French and Breton. Abbey Road in London A street name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street. ... Opened on March 15, 2002, the metro in Rennes is based on Siemens Transportation Systems VAL (véhicule automatique léger or light automatic vehicle) technology. ...


Dialects

The dialects of Breton as identified by ethnologists are Leoneg, Tregerieg, Gwenedeg, and Kerneveg (in French, respectively: léonard, trégorrois, vannetais, and cornouaillais). There are no clear borders between those dialect areas because the language varies slightly from one village to the next. Compared to the other dialects, the Gwenedeg dialect is somewhat more distinct due several pronunciation specificities. Ethnologyis a genre of cultural anthropology and| anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the beliefs and practices of different societies. ... Trégorrois Breton is the dialect of Breton spoken in Trégor (Bro Dreger in Breton). ...


Sounds

  Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Plosive   b     d     ɟ   ɡ    
Nasal m   n   ɲ ŋ    
Trill     r          
Fricative   f  v s  z ʃ  ʒ   x   h
Approximant         j  ɥ   w  
Lateral     l   ʎ      

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A labiovelar consonant is a consonant made with two blockages, one at the lips (labial) and the other at the soft palate (velar). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Grammar

Verbal aspect

As in English and Irish, there are grammatical aspects for verbs in a particular tense, detailing whether or not an action is habitual. As in English, there is a distinction between the habitual form and progressive aspect: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... The progressive or continuous tenses of a verb are those denoting an incomplete action in progress at a specific time. ...

  • Me zo o komz gant ma amezeg ("I am talking with my neighbour") ;
  • Me a gomz gant ma amezeg [bep mintin] ("I talk with my neighbour [every morning]") ;

"Conjugated" prepositions

As in other modern Celtic languages, Breton pronouns are fused into preceding prepositions to produce a sort of "conjugated" preposition. Below are some examples in Breton, Welsh, and Irish. In Literary Welsh this prepositional form is often at the end of the sentence as in other Celtic languages. Interestingly, French exhibits a similar construction to indicate possession: Ce livre est à moi ("This book is mine"); à moi, literally, "to me". The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... In some languages, an inflected preposition, or conjugated preposition, is a word formed from the contraction of a preposition with a personal pronoun. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Breton Welsh (Northern) Irish Scottish Gaelic English Literal Translation
ul levr zo ganin mae gen i lyfr tá leabhar agam tha leabhar agam I have a book A book is with-me
ur banne zo ganit mae gennyt ti ddiod tá deoch agat tha deoch agad you have a drink a drink is with-you [sg]
un urzhiataer zo gantañ mae ganddo fo gyfrifiadur tá ríomhaire aige tha coimpiutair aige he has a computer a computer is with-him
ur bugel zo ganti mae ganddi hi blentyn tá páiste aici tha pàisde aice she has a child a child is with-her
ur c'harr zo ganimp (or ganeomp) mae gennym ni gar tá carr againn tha càr againn we have a car a car is with-us
un ti zo ganeoc'h mae gennych chi tá teach agaibh tha taigh agaibh you [pl] have a house a house is with-you [pl]
arc'hant zo ganto (or gante) mae ganddyn nhw arian tá airgead acu tha airgead aca they have money money is with-them

Initial consonant mutations

Breton has four initial consonant mutations: though modern Breton lost the nasal mutation of Welsh, it also has a 'hard' mutation, in which voiced stops become voiceless, and a 'mixed' mutation, which is a mixture of hard and soft mutations. Consonant mutation is the phenomenon in which a consonant in a word is changed according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Consonant Mutation in Breton
Unmutated Consonant Soft Mutation Aspirant Mutation Hard Mutation Mixed Mutation
p b f
t d z
k g c'h
b v p v
d z t t
g c'h k c'h
gw w kw w
m v v

Vocabulary

  • Some words passed in French and in English

The English words dolmen and menhir have been borrowed from French, which supposedly took them from Breton. However, this is uncertain: for instance, menhir is peulvan or maen hir ("long stone"), maen sav ("straight stone") (two words : noun + adjective) in Breton. Dolmen is a misconstructed word (it should be taol-vaen). Some studies state[citation needed] that these words were borrowed from Cornish. Maen hir can be directly translated from Welsh as "long stone" (which is exactly what a Menhir / maen hir, is: a long stone). Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ... -1... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ...


Orthography

The first Breton texts, contained in the Leyde manuscript, were written at the end of the 8th century: fifty years prior to the Strasbourg Oaths, considered to be the earliest example of French. After centuries of orthography calqued on the French model, in the 1830s Le Gonidec created a modern phonetic system. Text of the Oaths The Oaths of Strasbourg (Modern French: les serments de Strasbourg, Modern German: die Straßburger Eide) is the name by which we know the pledges of allegiance taken in 842 by Louis the German, son of Louis the Pious, and ruler of the eastern Frankish kingdom... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...


During the early years of the 20th century, a group of writers known as Emglev ar Skrivanerien elaborated and reformed Le Gonidec's system, making it more suitable as a super-dialectal representation of the dialects of Cornouaille, Leon and Trégor. This KLT (from Kernev, Leon and Treger, the Breton names for Cornouaille, Leon and Trégor) orthography was established in 1911. At the same time writers using the more divergent Vannetais dialect developed a system also based on that of Le Gonidec to represent their dialect. Cornouailles location within Brittany. ...


Following proposals made during the 1920s, the KLT and Vannetais orthographies were merged in 1941 to create an orthographic system which could represent all four dialects. One of the most salient features of this Peurunvan wholly unified orthography was the inclusion of the <zh> digraph, which represents a /h/ in Vannetais which corresponds to a /z/ in the KLT dialects. This digraph also provides an alternate name for the orthography: Zedacheg i.e. ZH-ish. zh is a digraph found in many languages. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


In 1955 a new orthography was proposed by François Falc'hun and the group Emgleo Breiz, which had the aim of using a set of graphemes closer to the conventions of French. This Orthographie Universitaire ("University Orthography", known in Breton as Skolveurieg) was given official recognition by the French authorities as the "official orthography of Breton in French education". This orthography was met with strong opposition and is largely only used by the magazine Brud Nevez and the publishing house Emgléo Breiz.


Between 1971 and 1974 a new standard orthography has been devised - the etrerannyezhel or interdialectale. This system is based on derivation of the words. [citation needed]


Today the majority of writers continue to use the Peurunvan orthography, including most Breton-language schools.


Differences between Skolveurieg and Peurunvan

Both orthographies make use of the Latin alphabet, with the supplemental signs â, ê, î, ñ, ô, û, ù, ü, and é which is used only in Skolveurieg. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Differences between the two systems are particularly noticeable in word endings. In Peurunvan final obstruents which are devoiced in absolute final position and voiced in sandhi before voiced sounds are represented by a grapheme indicating a voiceless sound. In OU they are written as voiced but represented as voiceless before suffixes: braz big, brasoh bigger. In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ...


In addition, Peurunvan maintains the KLT convention which distinguishes noun/adjective pairs with nouns written with a final voiced consonant and adjectives with a voiceless one. There is, however, no distinction in pronunciation, e.g. brezhoneg Breton language vs. brezhonek Breton (adj).


Some examples of words in both orthographies:


(1956)

glaw glav glao
piw piv piou
levr levr leor
ewid evit evid
gant gant gand
anezhi anezhi anezi
ouzhpenn ouzhpenn ouspenn
brawañ bravañ brava
pelec'h pelec'h peleh

Examples

Bilingual signage in Quimper/Kemper. Note the use of the word ti in the Breton for police station and tourist office, plus the variant da bep lec'h for all directions.
Bilingual signage in Quimper/Kemper. Note the use of the word ti in the Breton for police station and tourist office, plus the variant da bep lec'h for all directions.


Visitors to Brittany may encounter words and phrases (especially on signs and posters) such as the following: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1037x1120, 741 KB) Directional road signs, bilingual in French and Breton, in the city of Kemper (Quimper) in Brittany Photo taken by Man vyi with Canon PowerShot A40 on 14/10/2003 File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1037x1120, 741 KB) Directional road signs, bilingual in French and Breton, in the city of Kemper (Quimper) in Brittany Photo taken by Man vyi with Canon PowerShot A40 on 14/10/2003 File links The following pages link to this file... Quimper (Kemper in Breton, Corspotium in Latin) is a commune of Brittany in northwestern France. ...

BRETON ENGLISH
degemer mat welcome
deuet mat oc'h you're welcome
Breizh Brittany
brezhoneg Breton (language)
ti, "ty" house
ti-kêr town hall
kreiz-kêr town centre
da bep lec'h all directions
skol school
skol-veur university
bagad pipe band (nearly)
fest-noz lit. "night fete", a "day fete" also exists, known as : fest deiz
kenavo goodbye
krampouezh pancakes (a pancake = ur grampouezhenn)
chistr cider
chouchen special Breton hydromel
war vor atao always at sea

Kevrenn an Arvorig here with dancer Bro ar Ster Goz A bagad is a Breton band, composed of biniou (Breton bagpipes), bombardes and snare drums. ... The Fest Noz (translation: Festival of the Night) is a Breton traditional festival, similar to a céilí. There is traditional music, dancing and drinking, particularly of chouchen, a traditional drink made from fermenting honey in water. ... Chouchen is an alcoholic drink popular in Brittany. ...

See also

Wikipedia
Breton language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Breton language

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... Human habitation in the area now called Brittany goes back to the late Paleolithic or Epi-Palaeolithic. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Fañch Broudic, Qui parle breton aujourd'hui? Qui le parlera demain? Brest: Brud Nevez, 1999
  3. ^ Ofis ar Brezhoneg
Celtic languages
Continental Celtic Gaulish †| Lepontic † | Galatian † | Celtiberian † | Noric †
Goidelic Irish | Galwegian † | Manx | Scottish Gaelic (ScotlandCanada)
Brythonic Breton | Cornish | British † | Cumbric † | Ivernic † | Pictish † | Welsh
Mixed languages Shelta | Bungee †
Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Breton language: Information from Answers.com (1798 words)
Breton is not a descendant of any of the Continental Celtic languages such as Gaulish (though it may have borrowed some features from it); rather, it is descended from the Brythonic branch of Insular Celtic languages brought by Romano-British settlers to Brittany, perhaps from the end of the 3rd century onwards.
Breton is not an official language of France, despite pleas from autonomists and others for official recognition and for the language to be guaranteed a place in schools, the media, and other aspects of public life.
Breton has four initial consonant mutations: though modern Breton lost the nasal mutation of Welsh, it also has a 'hard' mutation, in which voiced stops become voiceless, and a 'mixed' mutation, which is a mixture of hard and soft mutations.
Breton - Search Results - MSN Encarta (91 words)
Breton, André (1896-1966), French poet and critic, a leader of the surrealist movement.
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