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Encyclopedia > Bremsstrahlung

, (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, "braking radiation"), is electromagnetic radiation produced by the acceleration of a charged particle, such as an electron, when deflected by another charged particle, such as an atomic nucleus. The term is also used to refer to the process of producing the radiation. Bremsstrahlung has a continuous spectrum. The phenomenon was discovered by Nikola Tesla during high frequency research conducted by him between 1888 and 1897. No file by this name exists, you can upload it File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Electromagnetic radiation can be conceptualized as a self propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... Properties The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... A stylized Bohr model-like representation of a lithium atom. ... Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultrahigh frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High frequency... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 - c. ...


Bremsstrahlung may also be referred to as free-free radiation. This refers to the radiation that arises as a result of a charged particle that is free both before and after the deflection (acceleration) that causes the emission. Strictly speaking, bremsstrahlung refers to any radiation due to the acceleration of a charged particle, which includes synchrotron radiation; however, it is frequently used (even when not speaking German) in the more literal and narrow sense of radiation from electrons stopping in matter. Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity, and at any point on a v-t graph, it is given by the slope of the tangent to that point In physics, acceleration (symbol: a) is defined as the rate of change (or time derivative) of velocity. ... Hannes Alfvén, and Nicolai Herlofson, predicted synchrotron radiation in space in 1950 [1] Synchrotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation, similar to cyclotron radiation, but generated by the acceleration of ultrarelativistic (i. ...

Contents


Outer

"Outer bremsstrahlung" is the term applied in cases where the energy loss by radiation greatly exceeds that by ionization as a stopping mechanism in matter. This is seen clearly for electrons with energies above 50 KeV. ...


Inner

"Inner bremsstrahlung" is the term applied to the less frequent case of radiation emission during beta decay, resulting in the emission of a photon of energy less than or equal to the maximum energy available in the nuclear transition. Inner bremsstrahlung is caused by the abrupt change in the electric field in the region of the nucleus of the atom undergoing decay, in a manner similar to that which causes outer bremsstrahlung. In electron and positron emission the photon's energy comes from the electron/neutron pair, with the spectrum of the bremsstrahlung decreasing continuously with increasing energy of the beta particle. In electron capture the energy comes at the expense of the neutrino, and the spectrum is greatest at about one third of the normal neutrino energy, reaching zero at zero energy and at normal neutrino energy. In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... In physics, an electric field or E-field is an effect produced by an electric charge (or a time-varying magnetic field) that exerts a force on charged objects in the field. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... The neutrino is an elementary particle. ...


Beta particle emitting substances sometimes exhibit a weak radiation with continuous spectrum that is due to both outer and inner bremsstrahlung, or to one of them alone.


Secondary radiation

Bremsstrahlung is a type of "secondary radiation", in that it is produced as a result of stopping the primary radiation (beta particles). In some cases, e.g. 32P, the Bremsstrahlung produced by shielding this radiation with the normally used dense materials (i.e. lead) is itself dangerous; in such cases, shielding must be accomplished with low density materials, e.g. Plexiglas, acrylic, Lucite, plastic, wood, or water [1]; because the rate of deceleration of the electron is slower, the radiation given off has a longer wavelength and is therefore less penetrating. This article is about the chemical element. ... Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Structure of PMMA: (C5O2H8)n Structure of methyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polymethyl-2-methylpropanoate is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Look up acrylic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Structure of PMMA: (C5O2H8)n Structure of methyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polymethyl-2-methylpropanoate is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood derives from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... A girl in a swimming pool full of water Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ...


From a plasma

In a plasma the free electrons are constantly producing Bremsstrahlung in collisions with the ions. The power density of the Bremsstrahlung radiated is given by A Plasma lamp In physics and chemistry, a plasma is an ionized gas, and is usually considered to be a distinct phase of matter. ...



Te is the electron temperature, α is the fine structure constant, and the "effective" ion charge state Zeff is given by an average over the charge states of the ions:

Zeff = Σ (Z²nZ) / ne

This formula is derived in "Basic Principles of Plasmas Physics: A Statistical Approach" by S. Ichimaru, p. 228. It applies for high enough Te that the electron deBroglie wavelength is longer than the classical Coulomb distance of closest approach. In practical units, this formula gives

PBr = (1.69×10-32 W cm-3) (ne/cm-3)2 (Te/eV)1/2 Zeff
  = (5.34×10-37 W m-3) (ne/m-3)2 (Te/keV)1/2 Zeff

For very high temperatures there are relativistic corrections to this formula, that is, additional terms of order Te/mec2.[2]


See also

Synchrotron radiation emerging from a beam port. ... Cyclotron radiation is a type of bremsstrahlung (braking) radiation. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...

External links

Look up Bremsstrahlung in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

 
 

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