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Encyclopedia > Breguet 14
Breguet 14

Polish Breguet 14 during the Kiev Offensive Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef Piłsudski, Edward Rydz-Śmigły Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by...

Type Bomber
Manufacturer Breguet
Maiden flight November 21 1916
Introduced 1917
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
US Army Air Service
Polish Air Force
Produced 1917-1928
Number built ca 7,800

The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. Apart from its widespread usage, it was noteworthy for becoming the first aircraft in mass production to use large amounts of metal rather than wood in its structure. This allowed the airframe to be lighter than a wooden airframe of the same strength, in turn making the aircraft very fast and agile for its size, able to outrun many of the fighters of the day. Its strong construction was able to sustain much damage, it was easy to handle and had good performance. The Breguet 14 is considered one of the best aircraft of the war. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... The Société des Ateliers dAviation Louis Bréguet, a former French aircraft manufacturer, was set up in 1911 by aviation pioneer Louis Charles Breguet. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1916: Events January January 12 - German aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke, with 8 kills, are the first pilots awarded with Pour le Mérite (the Blue Max) January 29 - the second and last Zeppelin raid on Paris inflicts 54 casualties. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1917: Events February No. ... The familiar French military aviation roundel gave rise to similar roundels for air forces all over the world, including that of the United Kingdom (RAF), which reversed the colors on the French roundel. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ... Reproduction of a Sopwith Camel biplane flown by Lt. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ...

Contents

Design and development

The aircraft was designed by Louis Breguet, who flew the first prototype (originally designated Breguet AV Type XIV) on its first flight on November 21, 1916. The design was a come-back for Breguet to designing conventional planes, after designing pusher type aircraft Breguet BUM. Later that month, the French Army's Section Technique de l' Aéronautique (S.T.Aé.) issued requirements for four different new aircraft types. Breguet submitted his new design for two of those categories - reconnaissance aircraft, and bomber. Louis Charles Breguet (January 2, 1880 - May 4, 1955) was a French airplane designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A British WWI-era F.E.2b pusher. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ...


Following evaluation in February, the Breguet 14 was accepted for both these roles, and in March, orders were placed for 150 reconnaissance aircraft and 100 bombers, designated Breguet 14A.2 and 14B.2 respectively (by 1918 written Breguet XIV A2/B2). The A.2 was equipped with a camera, with some carrying radio, while the lower wing of the 14B.2 was modified slightly in order to accommodate bomb racks (built by Michelin). Both variants featured automatic flaps but these were not fitted to production aircraft. Michelin (full name: Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) (Euronext: ML) based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France, is primarily a tyre manufacturer. ... Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, increase the lift (and drag) of a wing by changing the camber of the airfoil. ...


Other minor variants flown in small numbers during the war included the 14B.1 long-range single-seater bomber, the 14GR.2 long-range reconnaissance, the 14H floatplane, the 14S air ambulance and the 14Et.2 trainer. Later variants 14bis A2 and 14bis B2 featured improved wing. An improved variant with bigger wings was the Breguet 16. There was also the two-seater fighter Breguet 17, which was built in small numbers only. A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery A seaplane is an aircraft designed to take off and land on water. ... Ontario Health air ambulance An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot easily or quickly reach the scene or the patient needs to be repositioned at a distance where air transportation is most practical. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Operational history

Following successful deployment by the French, the type was also ordered by the Belgian Army (40 aircraft) and the US Army Air Service (over 600 aircraft). Around half the Belgian and US aircraft were fitted with Fiat A.12 engines due to shortages of the original Renault 12F. By the end of World War I, some 5,500 Breguet 14s had been produced. Flag of Belgium The Land Component, formerly the Belgian Army, is the land-based armed force of the Belgian Armed Forces. ... The United States Army Air Service was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. ... The Fiat A.12 was a 6 cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engine 160mm x 180mm, 21. ...


The type continued to be widely used after the war, equipping the French occupation forces in Germany and being deployed to support French troops in the colonies. A special version was developed for the harsh conditions encountered overseas, designated 14TOE (Théatres des Operations Extérieures). These saw service in putting down uprisings in Syria and Morocco, in Vietnam and in France's attempted intervention in the Russian Civil War. The last trainer examples were not withdrawn from French military service until 1932. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other air arms using the type included Brazil (30), China (70), Czechoslovakia (10), Denmark, Finland (38), Greece, Japan, Siamese Air Force, Uruguay (9) and Spain. Polish Air Force used 158 Breguet 14s, about 70 of them were used in combat in the Polish-Soviet war. In Japan, Breguet 14s were licence built by Nakajima. History The Danish armed forces received 38 Supermarine Spitfire H. F. Mk. ... The Greek Air Force (Greek: Πολεμική Αεροπορία) is one of the braches of the Greek Armed Forces. ... Siam redirects here. ... Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SiÅ‚y Powietrzne RP). ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Categories: Stub | Japanese aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engine manufacturers ...


Post war, Breguet had also begun to manufacture dedicated civil versions. The 14T.2 Salon carried two passengers in a specially modified fuselage. An improved version of this was the 14Tbis manufactured as both a land-plane and seaplane. The 14Tbis also formed the basis of the improved 14Tbis Sanitaire air ambulance version, and 100 mail planes custom-built for Pierre Latécoère's fledgling airline, Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère. After changing name to CGEA, the airline used among others 106 Breguet 14s for flights over Sahara desert. The 18T was a single 14T re-engined with a Renault Ja engine and equipped to carry four passengers. When production finally ceased in 1928, the total of all versions built had reached 7,800 (according to other sources, 8,000 or even 8,370). A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... A mailplane is an aircraft used for carrying mail. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operators

Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Brazil Brazil
Flag of the Republic of China China
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador
(one aircraft only)
Flag of Finland Finland
Flag of France France
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala
Flag of Japan Japan
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
(2 aircraft)
Flag of Iran Persia
(2 aircraft)
Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Flag of Sweden Sweden
(one aircraft only)
Flag of Thailand Siam
Flag of Turkey Turkey
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay
Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...

Specifications (14B.2)

Data from {name of first source}


General characteristics

  • Crew: Two
  • Length: 8.87 m (29 ft 1 in)
  • Wingspan: 14.36 m (47 ft 1 in)
  • Height: 3.30 m (10 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 47.50 m² (511 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 1,010 kg (2,227 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,536 kg (3,386 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1× Renault 12Fe, 224 kW (300 hp)

Performance The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft can achieve flight. ...

  • Maximum speed: 175 km/h (95 knots, 109 mph)
  • Range: 900 km (486 nm, 560 mi)
  • Service ceiling 6,000 m (19,685 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 292 m/s (960 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 32 kg/m² (6.6 lb/ft²)
  • Power/mass: 0.14 W/kg (0.09 hp/lb)

Armament V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...

The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ...

References

  • Tomasz J. Kowalski, Samolot Breguet 14, TBiU no.197, Warsaw 2002, ISBN 83-11-09461-6 (Polish language)

See also


Related development

  • Breguet 16 - Breguet 17

Comparable aircraft

Related lists Airco DH.4 The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day-bomber of the First World War. ... Three DH.9A in formation. ... The Salmson 2 was a French biplane reconnaissance aircraft which was developed to a 1916 requirement. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis-Charles Breguet (343 words)
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History, Specifications and Pictures of the Breguet Br.14 Biplane Reconnaissance / Fighter / Bomber Aircraft - ... (1726 words)
The aircraft proved to be of the utmost reliability and lethality upon entering the war front in 1916 and would go on to become the single-most important aircraft of the French flying forces during the whole course of the war.
Designed in the summer of 1916 by the aviation firm led by Louis Breguet, the Breguet 14 was all set to fly operationally by the following year.
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