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Encyclopedia > Breast milk

Breast milk usually refers to the milk produced by a human female which is usually fed to infants, toddlers, and young children by breastfeeding. It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat solid food and digest a wider variety of food. Breast milk is fed to the infant by a variety of methods: breastfeeding, baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, and nasogastric tube. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... An infant being fed by bottle A baby bottle is a bottle with a teat to drink directly from. ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a plastic tube, inserted into a nostril through the nose, into the throat, down the oesophagus and into the stomach. ...

Contents

Production

Under the influence of the hormones prolactin and oxytocin, women produce milk after pregnancy to feed their baby. The initial milk produced is often referred to as colostrum, which is high in the immunoglobulin IgA, which coats the gastrointestinal tract. This helps to protect the newborn until its own immune system is functioning properly along with creating a mild laxative effect, expelling meconium and helping to prevent the build up of bilirubin (a contributory factor in jaundice). For the pop music band, see The The. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... Not to be confused with claustrum. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... Gut redirects here. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Meconium from 12-hour-old newborn — the babys third bowel movement. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are many reasons a mother may not produce enough breast milk. Some of the most common are: improper latch, not nursing or pumping enough to meet supply, certain medications, birth control, illness, dehydration, or, rarely, a physical inability to produce. Lack of supply can be addressed by nursing or/and pumping more frequently.[citation needed] The more the mother nurses her baby, or pumps, the more milk is produced.[citation needed] It is very helpful to nurse on demand - to nurse when the baby wants to nurse rather than on a schedule. If pumping; it is helpful to have an electric high grade pump so that all of the milk ducts are stimulated. Some mothers try to increase their milk supply in other ways - by taking the herb fenugreek, used for hundreds of years to increase supply ("Mother's Milk" teas contain fenugreek as well as other supply-increasing herbs); there are also prescription medications that can be used, such as Domperidone (off-label use) and Reglan.[citation needed] Manual breast pump A breast pump is a mechanical device (powered manually or by electricity) that extracts milk from the breasts of a woman who is lactating. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Domperidone (trade name Motilium or Motillium) is an antidopaminergic drug, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and used orally, rectally or intravenously, generally to suppress nausea and vomiting. ... Reglan (metoclopramide) Pharmacology, Warnings, Pregnancy, Lactation, Side Effects Pharmacology (Top) Pharmacology: Metoclopramide, a benzamide, is an antiemetic agent. ...


Composition

The exact integrated properties of breast milk are not entirely understood[citation needed], but the nutrient content after this period[citation needed] is relatively consistent and draws its ingredients from the mother's food supply. If that supply is found lacking, content is obtained from the mother's bodily stores. The exact composition of breast milk varies from day to day, depending on food consumption and environment, meaning that the ratio of water to fat fluctuates. Foremilk, the milk released at the beginning of a feed, is watery, low in fat and high in carbohydrates relative to the creamier hindmilk which is released as the feed progresses. The breast can never be truly "emptied" since milk production is a continuous biological process. A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Human milk contains 0.8% to 0.9% protein, 3% to 5% fat, 6.9% to 7.2% carbohydrates and 0.2% ash (minerals). Carbohydrates are mainly lactose; several lactose-based oligosaccharides have been identified as minor components. The principal proteins are casein homologous to bovine beta-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, IgA, lysozyme and serum albumin. Non-protein nitrogen-containing compounds, making up 25% of the milk's nitrogen, include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, amino acids and nucleotides.[1][2] Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Casein (from Latin caseus cheese) is the most predominant phosphoprotein found in milk and cheese. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... Lactalbumin is the albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey. ... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... You may be looking for albumen, or egg white. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ... For the use of creatine to enhance athletic performance, please see Creatine supplements. ... Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass). ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...


Mother's milk has been shown to supply a type of endocannabinoid (the natural neurotransmitters which marijuana simulates), 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol.[3] Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor. ...


Though now it is almost universally prescribed, in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... An infant being fed by bottle. ...


However, today it is now recognized that there is no commercial formula that can equal breast milk. In addition to the appropriate amounts of carbohydrate, protein and fat, breast milk also provides vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes and hormones - all of the things that a growing infant will require. Breast milk also contains antibodies from the mother that may help the baby to resist infections. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Digestive enzymes are enzymes in the alimentary tract that break down food so that the organism can absorb it. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ...


Women who are breastfeeding should consult with their physician regarding substances that can be unwittingly passed to the infant via breast milk, such as alcohol, viruses (HIV or HTLV-1) or medications. An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases. ...


Most women who do not breastfeed use infant formula, but breast milk donated by volunteers to human milk banks can be obtained by prescription. [1] Cow's milk is recommended as a substitute, but only for children over one year old. An infant being fed by bottle. ...


Comparison to other milks

All mammal species produce milk, but the composition of milk for each species varies widely and other kinds of milk are often very different from human breast milk. As a rule, the milk of mammals that nurse frequently (including human babies) is less rich, or more watery, than the milk of mammals whose young nurse less often. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


Whole cow's milk does not contain sufficient vitamin E, iron, or essential fatty acids, which can make infants fed on cow's milk anemic. Whole cow's milk also contains excessive amounts of protein, sodium, and potassium which may put a strain on an infant's immature kidneys. In addition, the proteins and fats in whole cow's milk are more difficult for an infant to digest and absorb than the ones in breast milk.[4] Evaporated milk may be easier to digest due to the processing of the protein but is still nutritionally inadequate. A significant minority of infants are allergic to one or more of the constituents of cow's milk. These problems can also affect formula milk derived from cow's milk.[vague] Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Evaporated milk is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. ... A food allergy is an immunologic response to a food protein. ...


Goat's milk does not contain agglutinin, which means that the fat globules in goat's milk do not cluster together like they do in cow's milk, which makes goat's milk easier for an infant to digest. Goat's milk also does not contain many of the allergens found in cow's milk. However, like cow's milk, goat's milk is also unsuitable for infants as it also does not have appropriate concentrations of electrolytes and can cause intestinal irritation and anemia. Agglutination is the clumping of particles. ...


Human milk is noticeably thinner and sweeter than cow milk. Left in a cup, the cream will rise and form a thin layer.


Extraordinary consumption

In the ancient world, breast milk was sometimes consumed by fertility cults, and in other religious ceremonies.[citation needed]


Preliminary research indicates that breast milk can induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells [5]. Adults with GI disorders and organ donation recipients can also benefit from the immunologic powers of breast milk. More research is needed in these areas.


See also

Erotic lactation means breastfeeding of an adult partner or re-lactation for primarily erotic reasons. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manual breast pump A breast pump is a mechanical device (powered manually or by electricity) that extracts milk from the breasts of a woman who is lactating. ... According to a joint statement of WHO and UNICEF The best food for a baby who cannot be breastfed is milk expressed from the mother’s breast or from another healthy mother….The best food for any baby whose own mother’s milk is not available is the breastmilk of... An infant being fed by bottle. ...

References

  1. ^ Jenness R (Jul 1979). "The composition of human milk". Seminars in Perinatology 3 (3): 225-239. PMID 392766. 
  2. ^ Thorell L; Sj√∂berg LB, Hernell O (Dec 1996). "Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant.". Pediatric Research 40 (6): 845-852. PMID 8947961. 
  3. ^ Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC. (April 2005). "Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood.". Experimental Biology and Medicine 230 (4): 225-234. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020286. PMID 15792943. 
  4. ^ MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Cow's milk for infants and children
  5. ^ Hallgren O, Aits S, Brest P, Gustafsson L, Mossberg AK, Wullt B, Svanborg C (2008). "Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells.". Adv Exp Med Biol. 606: 217-40. PMID 18183931. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Childrens Hospital and Regional Medical Center is a 250-bed childrens hospital in the Laurelhurst neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Breast Pumps - Breast Milk (368 words)
If your breast pump does not collect milk in a clean storage container, begin by pouring your milk into a container designed for storing milk in the refrigerator or freezer.
Breast milk that will be frozen should have at least one inch between the milk and the container lid.
Store milk in the main refrigerator or freezer compartment, away from the door, to avoid changes in temperature that may compromise the milk.
Welcome to TarlaDalal.com (1070 words)
Once you start breast feeding (lactating) for the first day or two, a yellowish translucent fluid called colostrum, is secreted in place of breast milk, that is quite distinct from the breast milk.
Breast milk contains a protein called lactalbumin, and an enzyme called amylase, that aids in digestion and converts the milk into a soft curd that is easily digested by newborns.
A breast fed baby will also have a reduced likelihood of allergic reactions, as the proteins present in the breast milk are less likely to cause allergies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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