FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Breast" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Breast
Pregnant human female's breast
Pregnant human female's breast

The term breast refers to the upper ventral region of an animal’s torso, particularly that of mammals, including human beings. The breasts of a female mammal’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. This article deals with the human breast; for other animals, see udder and mammary gland. Look up breast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brest is the name of several cities: City in Belarus: Brest, Belarus, formerly in Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly known as Brest-Litovsk. ... Look up boob in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1128, 158 KB) Summary by Tom Adriaenssen from http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1128, 158 KB) Summary by Tom Adriaenssen from http://www. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Mammary glands are milk-secreting adaptations of sweat glands and are the characteristic of mammals which gave the class its name. ... A glass of cows milk. ... A cow udder with 4 teats An udder is the mammary organ of cattle and some other mammals, including goats and sheep. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ...


Breasts are more visible on adult women, but male humans also have breasts which, although usually less prominent, are structurally identical (homologous) to the female, as they develop embryologically from the same tissues. Diverse women. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Look up breasts, WikiSaurus:breasts in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Contents

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Anatomy

See also: Human anatomy
Breast schematic diagram (adult female human cross section) - Legend: 1. Chest wall 2. Pectoralis muscles 3. Lobules 4. Nipple 5. Areola 6. Duct 7. Fatty tissue 8. Skin
Breast schematic diagram (adult female human cross section) - Legend: 1. Chest wall 2. Pectoralis muscles 3. Lobules 4. Nipple 5. Areola 6. Duct 7. Fatty tissue 8. Skin

The breasts are modified sudoriferous (sweat) glands, producing milk in females.[1] Each breast has one nipple surrounded by the areola. The areola is colored from pink to dark brown and has several sebaceous glands. In females, the larger mammary glands within the breast produce the milk. They are distributed throughout the breast, with two-thirds of the tissue found within 30 mm of the base of the nipple.[2] These are drained to the nipple by between 4 and 18 lactiferous ducts, where each duct has its own opening. The network formed by these ducts is complex, like the tangled roots of a tree. It is not always arranged radially, and branches close to the nipple. The ducts near the nipple do not act as milk reservoirs; Ramsay et al. have shown that conventionally described lactiferous sinuses do not, in fact, exist. List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 518 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 2368 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 518 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 2368 pixel, file size: 1. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the upper front (anterior) of the chest wall. ... In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension[1][2] which can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy level. ... This article is about anatomical structure. ... Cross section of the breast of a human female. ... A duct may refer to: An atmospheric duct. ... Fat - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... In humans, there are four kinds of sudoriferous or sweat glands which differ greatly in both the composition of the sweat and its purpose. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about anatomical structure. ... Cross section of the breast of a human female. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ...


The remainder of the breast is composed of connective tissue (collagen and elastin), adipose tissue (fat), and Cooper's ligaments. The ratio of glands to adipose tissues rises from 1:1 in nonlactating women to 2:1 in lactating women.[2] Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Elastin, also known as elasticin, is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... Coopers ligaments (also known as Coopers suspensory ligaments and the fibrocollegenous septa) are connective tissue in the breast that helps maintain structural integrity. ...


The breasts sit over the pectoralis major muscle and usually extend from the level of the 2nd rib to the level of the 6th rib anteriorly. The superior lateral quadrant of the breast extends diagonally upwards towards the axillae and is known as the tail of Spence. A thin layer of mammary tissue extends from the clavicle above to the seventh or eighth ribs below and from the midline to the edge of the latissimus dorsi posteriorly. (For further explanation, see anatomical terms of location.) Location The clavicular head of the pectoralis major takes its origin from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle. ... The Tail of Spence (or Spences tail) is an extension of the tissue of the breast which extends into the axilla (armpit). ... Cross section of the breast of a human female. ... Collarbone and collar bone redirect here. ... Latissimus dorsi is a large flat muscle located on the back. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ...


The arterial blood blood supply to the breasts is derived from the internal thoracic artery (formerly called the internal mammary artery), lateral thoracic artery, thoracoacromial artery, and posterior intercostal arteries. The venous drainage of the breast is mainly to the axillary vein, but there is some drainage to the internal thoracic vein and the intercostal veins. Both sexes have a large concentration of blood vessels and nerves in their nipples. The nipples of both females and males can become erect in response to sexual stimuli,[3] and also to cold. Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Right internal thoracic artery and its branches. ... Lateral thoracic artery and the axillary artery, with its other branches - anterior view of right upper limb and thorax. ... The thoracoacromial artery (a. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Anterior view of right upper limb and thorax - axillary vein and the distal part of the basilic vein and cephalic vein. ... Veins of the thorax and abdomen. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...


The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the fourth through sixth intercostal nerves. The nipple is supplied by the T4 dermatome. The Peripheral nervous system resides or extends outside the CNS central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Dermatomes Dermatomic area (also known as a dermatome) is an area of skin that is supplied by a single pair of dorsal roots. ...


Lymphatic drainage

About 75% of lymph from the breast travels to the ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. The rest travels to parasternal nodes, to the other breast, or abdominal lymph nodes. The axillary nodes include the pectoral, subscapular, and humeral groups of lymph nodes. These drain to the central axillary lymph nodes, then to the apical axillary lymph nodes. The lymphatic drainage of the breasts is particularly relevant to oncology, since breast cancer is a common cancer and cancer cells can break away from a tumour and spread to other parts of the body through the lymph system by metastasis. In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... The Axillary lymph nodes are of large size, vary from twenty to thirty in number, and may be arranged in the following groups: 1. ... See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ...


Shape and support

Relatively round breasts which protrude almost horizontally.
Relatively round breasts which protrude almost horizontally.

Breasts vary in both size and shape, and their external appearance is not predictive of their internal anatomy or lactation potential. The shape of a woman’s breasts is in large part dependent on their support, which primarily comes from the Cooper's ligaments, and the underlying chest on which they rest. The breast is attached at its base to the chest wall by the deep fascia over the pectoral muscles. On its upper surface it is given some support by the covering skin where it continues on to the upper chest wall. It is this support which determines the shape of the breasts. In a small fraction of women, the frontal milk sinuses (ampulla) in the breasts are not flush with the surrounding breast tissue, which causes the sinus area to visibly bulge outward. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x580, 91 KB) Beschreibung Autor: Ralf Roletschek Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Breast ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x580, 91 KB) Beschreibung Autor: Ralf Roletschek Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Breast ...


In discussing the support of breasts, it is helpful to draw a distinction between breasts which rest on the chest below, and those which do not. High, rounded breasts protrude almost horizontally from the chest wall. All breasts are like this in early stages of development, and such a shape is common in younger women and girls. This protruding or “high” breast is anchored to the chest at its base, and the weight is distributed evenly over the area of the base of the approximately dome- or cone-shaped breasts. [citation needed]


In the “low” breast, a proportion of the breasts’ weight is actually supported by the chest against which the lower breast surface comes to rest, as well as the deep anchorage at the base. The weight is thus distributed over a larger area, which has the effect of reducing the strain. In both males and females, the thoracic cavity slopes progressively outwards from the thoracic inlet (at the top of the breastbone) above to the lowest ribs which mark its lower boundary, allowing it to support the breasts. The thoracic cavity is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is enclosed by the ribcage and the diaphragm. ... Sternum or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ...


The inframammary fold (or line, or crease) is an anatomic structure created by adherence between elements in the skin and underlying connective tissue[4] and represents the inferior extent of breast anatomy. Some teenagers may develop breasts whose skin comes into contact with the chest below the fold at an early age, and some women may never develop such breasts; both situations are perfectly normal. The relationship of the nipple position to the fold is described as ptosis, a term also applied to other body parts and which refers in general to drooping or sagging. Due to breast weight and relaxation of support structures, the nipple-areola complex and breast tissue may eventually hang below the fold, and in some cases the breasts may extend as far as, or even beyond, the navel. The length from the nipple to the sternal notch (central, upper border) in the youthful breast averages 21 cm and is a common anthropometric figure used to assess both breast symmetry and ptosis. Lengthening of both this measurement and the distance between the nipple and the fold are both characteristic of advancing grades of ptosis. Cross section of the breast of an adult, female human. ... Breast Ptosis, or sagging breasts is a medical term for the drooping or sagging of the breast. ... It has been suggested that Bertillion Record be merged into this article or section. ...


The end of the breast, which includes the nipple, may either be flat (a 180 degree angle) or angled (angles lower than 180 degrees). Breast ends are rarely angled sharper than 60 degrees. Angling of the end of the breast is caused in part by the ligaments that suspend it, such that the breast ends often have a more obtuse angle when a woman is lying on her back. Breasts exist in a range of ratios between length and base diameter, usually ranging from 1/2 to 1.


Development

Main article: Thelarche

The development of a girl's breasts during puberty is triggered by sex hormones, chiefly estrogen. This hormone has been demonstrated to cause the development of woman-like, enlarged breasts in men, a condition called gynecomastia, and is sometimes used deliberately for this effect in male-to-female sex change hormone replacement therapy. Thelarche is the first stage of secondary (postnatal) breast development, usually occurring at the beginning of puberty in girls. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... Estriol. ... Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, pronounced is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement, which can sometimes cause secretion of milk. ... Transwomen or trans women are transsexual or transgendered people who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later) and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for transgender and transsexual people replaces the hormones naturally occurring in their bodies with those of the other sex. ...


In most cases, the breasts fold down over the chest wall during Tanner stage development, as shown in this diagram.[5] It is typical for a woman’s breasts to be unequal in size particularly while the breasts are developing. Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to be the larger.[6] In rare cases, the breasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may fail to develop entirely. The Tanner stages (also known as the Tanner scale) are stages of physical development in children, adolescents and adults. ...


A large number of medical conditions are known to cause abnormal development of the breasts during puberty. Virginal breast hypertrophy is a condition which involves excessive growth of the breasts, and in some cases the continued growth beyond the usual pubescent age. Breast hypoplasia is a condition where one or both breasts fail to develop. Virginal breast hypertrophy (VBH) is not a medical name, but the more known name for juvenile macromastia and juvenile gigantomastia. ... Hypoplasia is an incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [1]. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as: Underdeveloped breasts during puberty. ...


In Cameroon, some girls are subjected to breast ironing to stunt breast growth in order to make them less sexually attractive in the belief that this makes them less likely to become a victim of rape. Breast ironing is a form of body modification practiced in parts of Cameroon. ...


Changes

Breast with visible stretchmarks.
Breast with visible stretchmarks.

As breasts are mostly composed of adipose tissue, their size can change over time. This occurs for a number of reasons, most obviously when a girl grows during puberty and when a woman becomes pregnant. The breast size may also change if she gains (or loses) weight for any other reason. Any rapid increase in size of the breasts can result in the appearance of stretchmarks. Image File history File links Schwangerschaftsstreifen. ... Image File history File links Schwangerschaftsstreifen. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Weight, in the context of human body weight measurements in the medical sciences and in sports is a measurement of mass, and is thus expressed in units of mass, such as kilograms (kg), or units of force such as pounds (lb). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with striae. ...


It is typical for a number of other changes to occur during pregnancy: in addition to becoming larger, the breasts generally become firmer, mainly due to hypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin. The size of the nipples may increase noticeably and their pigmentation may become darker. These changes may continue during breastfeeding. The breasts generally revert to approximately their previous size after pregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging and stretchmarks. Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ...


The size of a woman’s breasts usually fluctuates during the menstrual cycle, particularly with premenstrual water retention. An increase in breast size is a common side effect of use of the combined oral contraceptive pill. Menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a recurring cycle of physiological changes that occurs in the females of several mammals, including human beings and apes. ... Premenstrual water retention is a common phenomenon associated with the menstrual cycle. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... The Pill redirects here. ...


The breasts naturally sag through aging, as the ligaments become elongated. Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen molecules. ...


Function

Breastfeeding

Main article: Breastfeeding
The breasts of a woman who is six months pregnant.[7]

The primary function of mammary glands is to nurture young by producing breast milk. The production of milk is called lactation. (While the mammary glands that produce milk are present in the male, they normally remain undeveloped.) The orb-like shape of breasts may help limit heat loss, as a fairly high temperature is required for the production of milk. Alternatively, one theory states that the shape of the human breast evolved in order to prevent infants from suffocating while feeding.[8] Since human infants do not have a protruding jaw like human evolutionary ancestors and other primates, the infant’s nose might be blocked by a flat female chest while feeding.[8] According to this theory, as the human jaw receded, the breasts became larger to compensate.[8] An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Breast_6_months_pregnant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Breast_6_months_pregnant. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ...


Milk production unrelated to pregnancy can also occur. This galactorrhea may be an adverse effect of some medicinal drugs (such as some antipsychotic medication), extreme physical stress or endocrine disorders. If it occurs in men it is called male lactation. Newborn babies are often capable of lactation because they receive the hormones prolactin and oxytocin via the mother's bloodstream, filtered through the placenta. This neonatal liquid is known colloquially as witch's milk. Galactorrhea or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ... Witchs milk or neonatal milk is milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn infants. ...


Sexual role

Breasts play an important part in human sexual behavior. They are one of most visible female secondary sex characteristics, and play an important role in sexual attraction of partners, and pleasure of the individual. On sexual arousal breast size increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples harden. During sexual intercourse it is common practice to press or massage breasts with hands. Oral stimulation of nipples and breasts is also common. Some women can achieve breast orgasms. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, marking breasts with nails and biting with teeth are explained as erotic[9]. This article is about sexual practices (i. ... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Turn on redirects here. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Oral stimulation of nipples is a human sexual practice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ancient India may refer to: The ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the... For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ...


Other suggested functions

Zoologists point out that no female mammal other than the human has breasts of comparable size, relative to the rest of the body, when not lactating and that humans are the only primate that has permanently swollen breasts. This suggests that the external form of the breasts is connected to factors other than lactation alone. Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ...


One theory is based around the fact that, unlike nearly all other primates, human females do not display clear, physical signs of ovulation. This could have plausibly resulted in human males evolving to respond to more subtle signs of ovulation. During ovulation, the increased estrogen present in the female body results in a slight swelling of the breasts, which then males could have evolved to find attractive. In response, there would be evolutionary pressures that would favor females with more swollen breasts who would, in a manner of speaking, appear to males to be the most likely to be ovulating. Ovulation is the process in the menstrual cycle by which a mature ovarian follicle ruptures and discharges an ovum (also known as an oocyte, female gamete, or casually, an egg) that participates in reproduction. ... Estriol. ...


Some zoologists (notably Desmond Morris) believe that the shape of female breasts evolved as a frontal counterpart to that of the buttocks, the reason being that whilst other primates mate in the rear-entry position, humans are more likely to successfully copulate by mating face to face, the so-called missionary position. A secondary sexual characteristic on a woman’s chest would have encouraged this in more primitive incarnations of the human race, and a face on encounter may have helped found a relationship between partners beyond merely a sexual one.[10] Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A pair of lions having sexual intercourse in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... The missionary position A variation on the missionary position as depicted in Pompeii The missionary position is a common human sex position also used by certain other species including bonobos[1] and armadillos. ...


Cultural status

In art, religion, and legend

Edouard Manet, “Blonde Woman With Bare Breasts”
Edouard Manet, “Blonde Woman With Bare Breasts”

Historically, breasts have been regarded as fertility symbols, because they are the source of life-giving milk. Certain prehistoric female statuettes—so-called Venus figurines—often emphasised the breasts, as in the example of the Venus of Willendorf. In historic times, goddesses such as Ishtar were shown with many breasts, alluding to their role as protectors of childbirth and mothering. The legendary tribe of Amazons bared their breasts, and in some accounts removed one breast to allow better combat and archery. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x1397, 176 KB) Édouard Manet, Blonde Woman with Bare Breasts File links The following pages link to this file: Breast User:Markaci/Nudity Categories: Édouard Manet ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1069x1397, 176 KB) Édouard Manet, Blonde Woman with Bare Breasts File links The following pages link to this file: Breast User:Markaci/Nudity Categories: Édouard Manet ... Édouard Manet (portrait by Nadar) Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 - April 30, 1883) was a noted French painter. ... A fertility symbol is an object used by early historical human societies representing fertility. ... Venus of Willendorf Venus figurines is an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric items, mostly in statuette form, of obese or pregnant women (which is disputed) from the Aurignacian or Gravettian period of the upper Palaeolithic, found in Europe. ... Venus of Willendorf Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


Some religions afford the breast a special status, either in formal teachings or in symbolism. Islam forbids public exposure of the female breasts.[11] In Christian iconography, some works of art depict women with their breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as a martyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint Agatha of Sicily. In Silappatikaram, Kannagi tears off her left breast and flings it on Madurai, cursing it, causing a devastating fire. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Agatha (died 251) is a Christian saint. ... Silappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் ; IPA: ),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Kannagi or (Kaṇṇaki) (Tamil: ), a legendary Tamil woman, is the central character of the South Indian epic Silapathikaram. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922. ...


In practice

Breasts are secondary sex characteristics and sexually sensitive. Bare female breasts can elicit heightened sexual desires from men and women. Cultures that associate the breast primarily with sex (as opposed to with breastfeeding) tend to designate bare breasts as indecent, and they are not commonly displayed in public, in contrast to male chests. Other cultures view female toplessness as acceptable, and in some countries women have never been forbidden to bare their chests; in some African cultures, for example, the thigh is highly sexualised and never exposed in public, but the breast is not taboo. Opinion on the exposure of breasts is often dependent on the place and context, and in some Western societies exposure of breasts on a beach may be acceptable, although in town centres, for example, it is usually indecent. In some areas, the prohibition against the display of a woman’s breasts generally only restricts exposure of the nipples. Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. ... The word lust means sexual desire (this meaning is sometimes metaphorically extended to other forms of desire, e. ... “Topless” redirects here. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Nipple is, generally, the name given to the mammalian nipple, or to things resembling it, such as the tip of an artificial teat or the tip of a grease secreting mechanism in machinery. ...


Women in some areas and cultures are approaching the issue of breast exposure as one of sexual equality, since men (and pre-pubescent children) may bare their chests, but women and teenage girls are forbidden. In the United States, the topfree equality movement seeks to redress this imbalance. This movement won a decision in 1992 in the New York State Court of Appeals—“People v. Santorelli”, where the court ruled that the state’s indecent exposure laws do not ban women from being barebreasted. A similar movement succeeded in most parts of Canada in the 1990s. In Australia and much of Europe it is acceptable for women and teenage girls to sunbathe topless on some public beaches and swimming pools, but these are generally the only public areas where exposing breasts is acceptable. Feminism is a body of social theory and a political movement primarily based on, and motivated by, the experiences of women. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


When breastfeeding a baby in public, legal and social rules regarding indecent exposure and dress codes, as well as inhibitions of the woman, tend to be relaxed. Numerous laws around the world have made public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in the workplace. Yet the public reaction at the sight of breastfeeding can make the situation uncomfortable for those involved. An infant breastfeeding International Breastfeeding Symbol (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ...


See also modesty, nudism and exhibitionism. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A nudist sunning herself on a beach in Formentera. ... An exhibitionist exposing himself at a soccer game. ...


Clothing

Since the breasts are flexible, their shape may be affected by clothing, and foundation garments in particular. A brassiere (bra) may be worn to give additional support and to alter the shape of the breasts. There is some debate over whether such support is desirable. A long term clinical study showed that women with large breasts can suffer shoulder pain as a result of bra straps,[12] although a well fitting bra should support most of the breasts’ weight with proper sized cups and back band rather than on the shoulders. A foundation garment is an undergarment designed to change the wearers shape, producing a more fashionable figure. ... Bra - front Bra - back A brassiere ( ; , commonly referred to as a bra, ) is an article of clothing that covers, supports, and elevates the breasts. ... Bra - front Bra - back A brassiere ( ; , commonly referred to as a bra, ) is an article of clothing that covers, supports, and elevates the breasts. ...


Plastic surgery

Plastic surgical procedures of the breast include those for both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery indications. Some women choose these procedures as a result of the high value placed on symmetry of the human form, and because they identify their femininity and sense of self with their breasts. “Fasial reconstruction” redirects here. ... Plastic surgery is a general term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ...


After mastectomy (the surgical removal of a breast, usually to treat breast cancer) some women undergo breast reconstruction, either with breast implants or autologous tissue transfer, using fat and tissues from the abdomen (TRAM flap) or back (latissiumus muscle flap). In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. ... Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Breast reduction surgery is a common procedure which involves removing excess breast tissue, fat, and skin with repositioning of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Cosmetic procedures include breast lifts (mastopexy), breast augmentation with implants, and procedures that combine both elements. Implants containing either silicone gel or saline are available for augmentation and reconstructive surgeries. Surgery can repair inverted nipples by releasing ductal tissues which are tethering. Breast lift with or without reduction can be part of upper body lift after massive weight loss body contouring. Breast reduction, or reduction mammoplasty, is a surgical procedure which involves the reduction in the size of breasts by excising fat, skin, and glandular tissue; it may also involve a procedure to counterract drooping of the breasts. ... Mastopexy or breast lift surgery refers to a group of elective surgical operations designed to lessen the degree of breast ptosis (the droop of the breasts). ... Breast implant diagram A breast implant is a prosthesis used in cosmetic surgery to enhance the size and shape of ones breasts or to reconstruct the breast (for example, after a mastectomy). ... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ... Saline may refer to: Salinity Saline (medicine) Saline, Michigan Saline, Scotland - a village in the burgh of Fife, Scotland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Any surgery of the breast carries with it the potential for interfering with future breastfeeding,[13][14][15] causing alterations in nipple sensation, and difficulty in interpreting mammography (xrays of the breast). A number of studies have demonstrated a similar ability to breastfeed when breast reduction patients are compared to control groups where the surgery was performed using a modern pedicle surgical technique.[16][17][18][19] Plastic surgery organizations have generally discouraged elective cosmetic breast augmentation surgery for teenage girls as the volume of their breast tissue may continue to grow significantly as they mature and because of concerns about understanding long-term risks and benefits of the procedure.[20] Breast surgery in teens for reduction of significantly enlarged breasts or surgery to correct hypolasia and severe asymmetry is considered on a case by case basis by most surgeons. Mammography. ...


Disorders

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

Infections and inflammations

These may be caused among others by trauma, secretory stasis/milk engorgement, hormonal stimulation, infections or autoimmune reactions. Repeated occurrence unrelated to lactation requires endocrinological examination.

A 1930 Soviet poster. Are you taking care of your breasts? Harden your nipples with daily washing in cold water.
A 1930 Soviet poster. Are you taking care of your breasts? Harden your nipples with daily washing in cold water.

Image File history File linksMetadata Grudi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grudi. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast caused by the blocking of the milk ducts while the mother is lactating (see breastfeeding). ... The term stasis has several meanings: A state of stabilty, in which all forces are equal and opposing, therefore they cancel out each other. ... Look up Abscess in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Abscess in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Look up Abscess in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mondors disease is a rare condition which involves thrombophlebitis of the superficial veins of the breast and anterior chest wall. ... Breast engorgement occurs in the mammary glands when too much breast milk is contained within them. ...

Benign conditions

Benign conditions include: Look up Benign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A supernumerary nipple (also known as a third nipple, accessory nipple, polythelia or polymastia) is an additional nipple occuring in mammals including humans. ... Accessory breasts, also known as polymastia, supernumerary breasts, or mammae erraticae, is the condition of having an additional breast. ... Look up aberration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A breast cyst appears as a lump on the breast, which may appear to be similar to breast cancer but is generally benign. ... Fibroadenoma of the breast is a benign tumor characterized by proliferation of both glandular and stromal elements. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Gynecomastia, or gynaecomastia, pronounced is the development of abnormally large mammary glands in males resulting in breast enlargement, which can sometimes cause secretion of milk. ... Nipple discharge is the abnormal release of fluid from the nipples of the breasts. ... Galactorrhea or galactorrhoea is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing. ... In medicine, a fistula (pl. ... Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast. ... Focal epithelial hyperplasia is an oral infection caused by a virus similar to the wart-producing papillomavirus. ... Papilloma refers to a benign epithelial tumor. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... A galactocele is a cystic tumor containing milk or a milky substance that is usually located in the mammary glands. ...

Pre-malignant diseases

  • Carcinoma in situ, a pre-malignant condition which can progress to a malignant cancer

Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ...

Malignant diseases

Malignant diseases include: In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ...

Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Pagets disease of the breast, also known as Pagets disease of the nipple, is a condition that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema - with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast. ...

See also

Adult model Aria Giovanni displaying cleavage Cleavage is the cleft created by the partial exposure of a womans breasts, especially when exposed by low-cut clothing. ... Breast fetishism[1] is the attribution of powerful or supernatural qualities to the concept of perceiving breasts as signs of human sexuality. ... Breast self-examination (BSE) is an easy but unreliable method for finding possible breast cancer. ... “Private parts” redirects here. ... Mammary intercourse. ... A goat kid feeding on its mothers milk Teat is an alternative word for the nipple of a mammary gland, in humans referred to as a breast, from which milk is discharged. ... The milk lines are a thickening of the epidermis, from the upper limbs (arms) to the lower limbs (legs) in mammals of both sexes. ... The Wonderbra is best known in the United States as a push-up brassiere (bra) style re-introduced to the U.S. market in 1994. ... Breast bondage is a technique in BDSM play. ...

References

  1. ^ Introduction to the Human Body, fifth ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, 2001. 560.
  2. ^ a b Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging, D.T. Ramsay et al., J. Anat. 206:525-34.
  3. ^ www.mckinley.uiuc.edu/Handouts/female_function_dysfunction.html.
  4. ^ Boutros S, Kattash M, Wienfeld A, Yuksel E, Baer S, Shenaq S. The intradermal anatomy of the inframammary fold. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep; 102(4):1030-3. PMID
  5. ^ A.R. Greenbaum, T. Heslop, J. Morris and K.W. Dunn, An investigation of the suitability of bra fit in women referred for reduction mammaplasty, Br J Plast Surg 56 (2003) (3), pp. 230–236
  6. ^ C.W. Loughry, et al (1989). "Breast volume measurement of 598 women using biostereometric analysis". Annals of Plastic Surgery 22 (5): 380 – 385. 
  7. ^ A Woman's Body: Breasts are Not Just for Filling Sweaters. Available online
  8. ^ a b c Bentley, Gillian R. (2001). "The Evolution of the Human Breast". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 32 (38). 
  9. ^ Sir Richard Burton's English translation of Kama Sutra
  10. ^ Morris, Desmond (1967). The Naked Ape: a zoologist's study of the human animal. Canada: Bantam Books, 64–68. N3924. 
  11. ^ “They shall cover their chests” or “they should draw their khimar (veils) over their bosoms”, depending on the translation, Quran (24:31). Available online
  12. ^ Ryan, EL, Pectoral girdle myalgia in women: a five-year study in a clinical setting. Clin J Pain. 2000 Dec; 16(4):298-303.
  13. ^ Neifert, M; DeMarzo S, Seacat J, Young D, Leff M, Orleans M (1990). "The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance and pregnancy-induced changes on lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain". Birth 17 (1): 31—38. PMID 2288566. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  14. ^ FAQ on Previous Breast Surgery and Breastfeeding. La Leche League International (2006-08-29). Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  15. ^ West, Diana. Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery. Australian Breastfeeding Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  16. ^ Cruz-Korchin, N; Korchin L (2004-09-15). "Breast-feeding after vertical mammaplasty with medial pedicle". Plast Reconstr Surg 15 (114): 890–94. PMID 15468394. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  17. ^ Brzozowski, D; Niessen M, Evans HB, Hurst LN (February 2000). "Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty". Plast Reconstr Surg 105 (2): 530–34. PMID 10697157. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  18. ^ Witte, PM; van der Lei B, van der Biezen JJ, Spronk CA (2004-06-26). "Successful breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 148 (26): 1291–93. PMID 15279213. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  19. ^ Kakagia, D; Tripsiannis G, Tsoutsos D (2005-10). "Breastfeeding after reduction mammaplasty: a comparison of 3 techniques". Ann Plast Surg 55 (4): 343–45. PMID 16186694. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  20. ^ Plastic Surgery: Policy Statements Index.

Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... Bantam Books is a major U.S. publishing house owned by Random House and is part of the Bantam Dell Publishing Group. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Documentary film

  • Breasts, directed by Meema Spadola, 1996

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Breast Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute (857 words)
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.
Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon type of breast cancer in which the breast is warm, red, and swollen.
Breast tissue that is dense on a mammogram.
MedlinePlus: Breast Cancer (1239 words)
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives.
Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in size or shape of the breast or discharge from a nipple.
Breast self-exam and mammography can help find breast cancer early when it is most treatable.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m