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Encyclopedia > Breakup of Yugoslavia
An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. Key: ██ Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ██ Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, Serbia ██ Slovenia ██ Croatia ██ Republic of Macedonia ██ Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL): Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska ██ Kosovo ██ Montenegro
An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control.
Key:
██ Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ██ Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro, Serbia ██ Slovenia ██ Croatia ██ Republic of Macedonia ██ Inter-Entity Boundary Line (IEBL): Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska ██ Kosovo ██ Montenegro

Yugoslavia was a south-eastern European country in the Balkans, a region with a long history of sectarian and ethnic conflict. It was a conglomeration of six regional republics and two autonomous provinces that roughly divided on ethnic lines which split up in the 1990s into five independent countries. These eight federal units were the six republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina. The most important elements which fostered the hatred that split into the civil war are the formation of the first Yugoslavia, the civil war during the Second World War, the overreaching idea of "Greater Serbia" and the Balkan adaptations of Pan-Slavism. The borders dividing the republics were the product of old treaties signed by the great European powers. Among the republics created was ethnically mixed Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnia had never been a modern state, moreover, it did not have a clear ethnic majority with “44% Muslims, 33% Serbs, and the remaining population consisting of Croats and other minorities.” This left "Greater Serbia" open to interpretation, with large tracks of Bosnia and Croatia under dispute as to its proper ownership. Image File history File links Breakup_of_Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Breakup_of_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Balkan peninsula with northwest border Isonzo-Krka-Sava The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Bože Pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino and Naprej zastava slave medley Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander I... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ... ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ...

Contents

Timeline of the breakup of Yugoslavia

After the death of Josip Broz Tito

After the death of Tito 4 May 1980, ethnic tension grew in Yugoslavia. The death of Tito removed what many Yugoslavs and Westerners saw as the country’s main unifying force. The legacy of the Constitution of 1974 was used to throw the system of decision-making into a state of paralysis, all the more hopeless as the conflict of interests had become irreconcilable. The constitutional crisis that inevitably followed resulted in rise of nationalism in all republics and provinces: Slovenia and Croatia made demands for looser ties within the Federation, Albanian majority in Kosovo demanded the status of a republic, Serbia sought to achieve control over Yugoslavia. This does not cite its references or sources. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith, 1986). ... Tension may mean: In physics, tension is a force related to the stretching of a string or a similar object. ...


1986-1989

In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts contributed significantly to the rise of nationalism in Serbia, as it drafted a memorandum addressing some burning issues concerning position of Serbs as the most numerous people in Yugoslavia. The largest Yugoslav republic in territory and population, Serbia's influence over the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina was reduced by the Constitution of 1974, which gave them long demanded autonomy. Government of the Socialist republic of Serbia was restricted in making and carrying out decisions that would apply to the provinces. The provinces had a vote in the Federal Presidency Council (an eight member council composed of representatives from six republics and two autonomous provinces), which was not always casted in favor of Serbia proper. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ...

Slobodan Milošević never had much formal power outside Serbia proper, but his de facto influence on events in the break-up of Yugoslavia was unsurpassed.
Slobodan Milošević never had much formal power outside Serbia proper, but his de facto influence on events in the break-up of Yugoslavia was unsurpassed.

Serbian communist leader Slobodan Milošević sought to restore pre-1974 Serbian powers. Other republics, especially Slovenia and Croatia, denounced this move as a revival of Serbian hegemonism (see Great Serbia). Milošević succeded in reducing the autonomy of Vojvodina and of Kosovo and Metohija, and could now himself install representatives of the provinces in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. The very instrument that reduced Serbian influence before was now used to increase it: in the eight member Council, Serbia could count on four votes minimum - Serbia proper, then-loyal Montenegro, and now even Vojvodina and Kosovo. Slobodan Milosevic official portrait from http://www. ... Slobodan Milosevic official portrait from http://www. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević   (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (Požarevac, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević   (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (Požarevac, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ...


As a result of these events, the ethnic Albanian miners in Kosovo organized strikes, demanding autonomy back. This contributed to ethnic conflict between the Albanians and the Serb population of the province. At 77% of the population of Kosovo in the 1980s,[1] ethnic-Albanians were the majority. The number of Serbs in Kosovo was falling throughout the entire century, they moved north mostly for economic reasons. The ever increasing ethnic tensions increased this trend, and by 1999, Serbs formed as little as 10% of the total population. The Albanians are an ethnic group primarily associated with Albania, Kosovo and the Albanian language. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Meanwhile Slovenia, under the presidency of Milan Kučan, and Croatia, supported Albanian miners and their struggle for recognition [citation needed]. Initial strikes turned into widespread demonstrations demanding Kosovo to become the seventh republic. This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later even the Federal Army was sent to the province by the order of the Serbia-held majority in the Yugoslav Presidency Council. Milan Kučan (January 14, 1941 - ) is a Slovene politician and statesman. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian: Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslovenska narodna armija (JHA / JNA); Croatian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija (JNA); Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA); Macedonian: Jугословенската народна армија (JНA); Albanian: Armata Popullore e Jugosllavisë) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


1990s

In January 1990, the extraordinary 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was convened. For most of the time, the Slovenian and Serbian delegations were arguing over the future of the League of Communists and Yugoslavia. The Serbian delegation, led by Milošević, insisted on a policy of "one person, one vote", which would empower the majority population, the Serbs. In turn, the Slovenians, supported by Croatians, sought to reform Yugoslavia by devolving even more power to republics, but were voted down. As a result, the Slovenian, and eventually Croatian delegation left the Congress, and the all-Yugoslav Communist party was dissolved. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Following the fall of communism in the rest of Eastern Europe, each of the republics held multi-party elections in 1990. The unresolved issues remained. In particular, Slovenia and Croatia elected governments oriented towards independence (under Milan Kučan and Franjo Tuđman, respectively), while Serbia and Montenegro elected candidates who favoured Yugoslav unity. In Croatia there was growing advocacy of "Croatian state and historical rights", the Serbs were stripped of their national and constitutional rights, thus becoming demoted from a constituent nation of Croatia to national minority. Following this, the Serbs proclaimed the emergence of Serbian Autonomous Areas (known later as Republic of Serb Krajina) in Croatia. Croatia embarked upon the illegal importation of arms, mainly from Hungary, which was made public when Yugoslav Counter Intelligence (KOS, Kontra-obavještajna Služba) showed a video of a secret meeting between Croatian Defence Minister Martin Špegelj and two men. Špegelj announced that they were at war with the army and gave instructions about arms smuggling as well as methods of dealing with the Yugoslav Army's officers stationed in Croatian cities. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization, based upon common ownershipmovement]]. Early forms of human social organization have been described as primitive communism by Marxists. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Milan Kučan (January 14, 1941 - ) is a Slovene politician and statesman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The borders of the RSK c. ... Spegelj Tapes were tapes of conversations of Martin Å pegelj and Josip Boljkovac, which were captured by the KOS secret service, and aired in January 1991 to the larger Yugoslav public. ...


In March 1990, during the demonstrations in Split (Croatia), a young Yugoslav Army conscript was pushed off the tank after driving it through people.[citation needed] Also guns were fired from army bases through Croatia. Elsewhere, tensions were running high. For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ...


In the same month, the Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija, JNA) met with the Yugoslav Presidency Council in an attempt to convince them to declare a state of emergency which would allow for the army to take control of the country. The representatives of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo and Metohija, and Vojvodina voted for the proposition, while all other republics, Croatia (Stipe Mesić), Slovenia (Janez Drnovšek), Macedonia (Vasil Tupurkovski) and Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bogić Bogićević), voted against. The tie delayed an escalation of conflicts, but not for long. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian: Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslovenska narodna armija (JHA / JNA); Croatian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija (JNA); Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA); Macedonian: Jугословенската народна армија (JНA); Albanian: Armata Popullore e Jugosllavisë) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) has been the President of the Republic of Croatia since 2000. ... Handshake between Slovenian Prime Minister Janez DrnovÅ¡ek, on the right, and Jacques Delors Janez DrnovÅ¡ek (born May 17, 1950) is the current President of Slovenia. ... Vasil Tupurkovski (Cyrillic: Васил Тупурковски) was born on April 8, 1951 in Skopje, Yugoslavia (Macedonia). ...


Following the first multi-party election results, the republics of Slovenia and Croatia proposed transforming Yugoslavia into a loose confederation of six republics in the autumn of 1990, however Milošević rejected all such proposals, arguing that like Slovenians and Croats, the Serbs should also have a right to self-determination. A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић, pronounced []); (20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...


On March 9, 1991 demonstrations were held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade, but the police and the military were deployed in the streets to restore order, killing two people. In late March 1991, the Plitvice Lakes incident was one of the first sparks of open war in Croatia. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), whose superior officers were predominantly of Serbian ethnicity, maintained an impression of being neutral, but as time went on, they got more and more involved in the state politics. March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... The Plitvice Lakes incident of March 1991 (known in Croatian as Plitvice Bloody Easter, Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama / Plitvički Krvavi Uskrs) was a clash between security forces of the Republic of Croatia and armed Serb separatists. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian: Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslovenska narodna armija (JHA / JNA); Croatian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija (JNA); Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA); Macedonian: Jугословенската народна армија (JНA); Albanian: Armata Popullore e Jugosllavisë) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


On June 25, 1991, Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia. In Slovenia, Slovenian Teritorial defence (Teritorialna obramba, a paramilitary organization) seized the Yugoslav border posts with Austria and Italy, taking down the Yugoslav and raising the Slovenian flag. The following day (June 26), the Federal Executive Council specifically ordered the army to take control of the internationally recognized borders. June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the SFRY, ratio 1:2 Flag of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of three equal horizontal bands coloured in pan-Slavic colors - blue (top), white and red - with yellow bordered red star, symbol of communism, at the flags centre. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The national flag of Slovenia features three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian coat of arms located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ...


The Yugoslav People's Army forces, based in barracks in Slovenia and Croatia, attempted to carry out the task within next 48 hours. However, due to the misinformation given to the their own conscripts, and the fact that the majority of them did not wish to engage in a war on their home soil, the Slovenian Territorial Defence forces retook most of the posts within several days with only minimal loss of life on both sides. There was an incident of a suspected war crime near Holmec, as the Austrian ORF TV station showed footage of three Yugoslav Army soldiers surrendering to the Territorial Defence, before gunfire was heard and the troops were seen falling down. However, none were killed in the incident. Ceasefire was agreed upon. According to the Brioni Agreement, recognized by representatives of all republics, the international community pressured Slovenia and Croatia to place a three-month moratorium on their independence. During these three months, the Yugoslav Army completed its pull-out from Slovenia, but in Croatia, a bloody war broke out in the autumn of 1991. Ethnic Serbs, who had created their own state Republic of Serbian Krajina in heavily Serb-populated regions resisted the forces of the Republic of Croatia who were trying to bring that breakaway region back under Croatian jurisdiction. In some places, the Yugoslav Army acted as a buffer zone, in others it was aiding Serbs in their confrontation with the new Croatian army and their police force. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbian: Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslovenska narodna armija (JHA / JNA); Croatian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija (JNA); Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada (JLA); Macedonian: Jугословенската народна армија (JНA); Albanian: Armata Popullore e Jugosllavisë) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... ORF (Österreichischer Rundfunk, literally Austrian Broadcasting) is the national Austrian public service broadcaster. ... The Ten-Day War, sometimes called the Slovenian War (Slovenian: Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna, Slovenian Independence War or desetdnevna vojna Ten-Day War), was a brief military conflict between Slovenia and Yugoslavia in 1991 following Slovenias declaration of independence. ... The Brioni Agreement is a document signed on the Brioni (Brijuni) islands (near Pula, Croatia) on July 7th 1991 by representatives of the Republic of Slovenia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under the political sponsorship of the European Community. ... The modern period in Croatian history begins in 1990 with the countrys change of political and economic system as well as achieving independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia and the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Republic of Serb Krajina (Serbian: Република Српска Крајина, РСК; sometimes also translated Republic of Serbian Krajina) was a self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia during the 1990s. ...

War in former Yugoslavia.
War in former Yugoslavia.
Countries of former Yugoslavia.
Countries of former Yugoslavia.

In September 1991, the Republic of Macedonia also declared independence, becoming the only former republic to gain sovereignty without resistance from the Belgrade-based Yugoslav authorities and Army. Five hundred U.S. soldiers were then deployed under the U.N. banner to monitor Macedonia's northern borders with the Republic of Serbia, Yugoslavia. Macedonia's first president, Kiro Gligorov, maintained good relations with Belgrade and the other former republics and there have to date been no problems between Macedonian and Serbian border police, even though small pockets of Kosovo and the Preševo valley complete the northern reaches of the historical region known as Macedonia, which would otherwise create a border dispute (see also IMORO). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 61 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia during last wars. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 61 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia during last wars. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 51 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia with division of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1887x1192, 51 KB) Summary Map of former Yugoslavia with division of Bosnia-Herzegovina. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Kiro Gligorov Kiro Gligorov (Киро Глигоров in Macedonian/Bulgarian, also known as Kiril Blagoev Gligorov/Кирил Благоев Глигоров), born May 3, 1917 in Å tip was the first democraticaly elected president of the Republic of Macedonia. ... PreÅ¡evo (Serbian: PreÅ¡evo or Прешево, Albanian: Preshevë or Presheva) is a town and municipality in Pčinja District of Central Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, bordering the Republic of Macedonia, with Kosovos mountainous frontier in the visible western distance. ... Excerpt from the statute of BMARC, 1896 (in Bulgarian) Statute of the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees Chapter I. - Goal Chapter II. - Structure and Organization Excerpt from the statute of IMARO, 1906 (in Bulgarian) Statute of Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (amended at the general congress in 1906) Chapter I...


As a result of the conflict, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted UN Security Council Resolution 721 on November 27, 1991, which paved the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.[2] The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


In Bosnia and Herzegovina in November 1991, the Bosnian Serbs held a referendum which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of staying in a common state with Serbia and Montenegro. On January 9, 1992 the Bosnian Serb assembly proclaimed a separate "Republic of the Serb people of Bosnia and Herzegovina". The referendum and creation of SARs were proclaimed unconstitutional by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and declared illegal and invalid. However, in February-March 1992 the government held a national referendum on Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia. That referendum was in turn declared contrary to the BiH and Federal constitution by the federal Constitution court and the newly established Bosnian Serb government; it was largely boycotted by the Bosnian Serbs. The turnout was somewhere between 64-67% and 98% of the voters voted for independence. It was unclear what the two-thirds majority requirement actually meant and whether it was satisfied [citation needed]. The republic's government declared its independence on 5 April, and the Serbs immediately declared the independence of Republika Srpska. The war in Bosnia followed shortly thereafter. Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:rofl. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, procedure, or act being in accordance with the laws or guidelines contained in a constitution. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of Serbia and Montenegro.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisted of Serbia and Montenegro.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) was formed on April 28, 1992, and it consisted of the former Socialist Republics of Serbia and Montenegro. Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... Map of Serbia and Montenegro, from CIA World Factbook. ... Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ...


The war in the western parts of former Yugoslavia ended in 1995 with U.S.-sponsored peace talks in Dayton, Ohio, which resulted in the so-called Dayton Agreement. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Nickname: Gem City Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded April 1, 1796 Incorporated 1805 Mayor Rhine L. McLin Area    - City 146. ... General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, i. ...


In Kosovo, throughout the 1990s, the leadership of the Albanian population had been pursuing tactics of non-violent resistance in order to achieve independence for the province. In 1996, radical Albanians formed the Kosovo Liberation Army which carried out armed actions in the southern Serbian province. The Yugoslav reaction involved the indiscriminate use of force against civilian populations, and caused many ethnic-Albanians to flee their homes. Following the Racak incident and unsuccessful Rambouillet Agreement in the early months of 1999, NATO proceeded to bombard Serbia and Montenegro for more than two months, until the Milošević's government submitted to their demands and withdrew its forces from Kosovo. See Kosovo War for more information. Since June 1999, the province has been governed by peace-keeping forces from NATO and Russia, although all parties continue to recognize it as a part of Serbia. Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rambouillet Agreement is the name of a proposed peace agreement between Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian delegation. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


21st century

Milošević's rejection of claims of a first-round opposition victory in new elections for the Federal presidency in September 2000 led to mass demonstrations in Belgrade on October 5 and the collapse of the regime's authority. The opposition's candidate, Vojislav Koštunica took office as Yugoslav president on October 6, 2000. On Saturday, March 31, 2001, Milošević surrendered to Yugoslav security forces from his home in Belgrade, following a recent warrant for his arrest on charges of abuse of power and corruption. On June 28 he was driven to the Yugoslav-Bosnian border where shortly after he was placed in the custody of SFOR officials, soon to be extradited to the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. His trial on charges of genocide in Bosnia and war crimes in Croatia and in Kosovo and Metohija began at The Hague on February 12, 2002, and he died there on 11 March 2006, while his trial was still ongoing. On April 11, 2002, the Yugoslav parliament passed a law allowing extradition of all persons charged with war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal. Dr. Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica   (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (pronounced , born March 24, 1944, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, now Serbia) is the current Prime Minister of Serbia. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996 Pocket badge of the SFOR The Stabilisation Force (SFOR) was... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), is a body of the United Nations (UN) established to... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


In March 2002, the Governments of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to reform the FRY in favour of a new, much weaker form of cooperation called Serbia and Montenegro. By order of the Yugoslav Federal Parliament on February 4, 2003, Yugoslavia, at least nominally, ceased to exist. A federal government remained in place in Belgrade but assumed largely ceremonial powers. The individual governments of Serbia and of Montenegro conducted their respective affairs almost as though the two republics were independent. Furthermore, customs were established along the traditional border crossings between the two republics. February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 21, 2006, 86 percent of eligible Montenegrin voters turned out for a special referendum on the independence of Montenegro from the state union with Serbia. They voted 55.5% in favour of independence, recognised as above the 55% threshold set by the European Union for formal recognition of the independence of Montenegro. On June 3, 2006, Montenegro officially declared its independence, with Serbia following suit two days later, effectively dissolving the last vestige of the former Yugoslavia. May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


New states

The present-day countries created from the former parts of Yugoslavia are:

Kosovo, which is a UN protectorate since 1999, may declare its independance from Serbia. Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 (local also Albanian) Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence from Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment    - Formation 8th century   - Independence c. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ...


Reasons for the breakup

Structural problems

Tito’s Yugoslavia was characterised by constant reforms which failed to resolve key national problems. Moreover, the federal system, due to increasing national tensions, and the communist party’s wish to support "national self determination" began to loosen its control. This resulted in the creation of Kosovo, an autonomous region of Serbia, legislated by the 1974 constitution. This constitution broke down powers between the capital and the newly created autonomous regions in Vojvodina (an area of Yugoslavia with a large number of ethnic minorities) and Kosovo (with a large Albanian population). This not only exacerbated Serbian fears of a "weak Serbia, for a strong Yugoslavia" but also hit at the heart of Serbian national sentiment. A majority of Serbs see Kosovo as the "cradle of the nation," and would not accept the possibility of losing it to the majority Albanian population. Albanians were especially feared because they were both Muslims and non-Slavs. Federalism can refer to either: The form of government, or constitutional structure, found in a federation. ... Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија or Kosovo i Metohija, also Космет or Kosmet; Albanian: Kosovë or Kosova) is a province in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ...


Kosovo's special significance was due to the defeat of Prince Lazar, the last King of Serbia. It was said that he was betrayed at the Battle of Kosovo Polje against the invading Ottoman Turks. The devastating defeat was the end of the Serbian kingdom and the beginning of 400 years of subjugation under the Ottomans. However, the first records of the battle weren’t created till 100 years after the battle, and then in the form of a poem. The romantic spin given to this episode of history contributed to the sacred and hallowed nature of the region of Kosovo. The significance of Kosovo in the Serbian mindset was so strong that Serbian children were christened as “little avengers of Kosovo.” This emotional attachment to Kosovo was a major reason for the Kosovo War that broke out in 1999. Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... This is the list of Serbian monarchs. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation) The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ...


This loosened version of the federation, essentially made Yugoslavia a de facto confederacy, placing pressure upon the legitimacy of the regime and engendered resentment in the richer republics. Slovenia and Croatia, the most developed republics were continually frustrated by their inability to further lift their standard of living as they had to subsidize the development of the poor republics in what they described as an "economic black hole." It highlighted the vast differences in the quality of life in the different republics. Tito’s death created further problems, in an effort to ensure his legacy, Tito’s 1974 constitution established a system of year long presidencies, on a rotation basis out of the eight leaders of the republics. Such short terms were highly ineffective. Essentially it left a power vacuum which was left open for most of the 1980s, with only Slobodan Milošević taking the reigns in 1987. A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević   (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (Požarevac, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...


Economic weakness

Along with internal structural problems, Yugoslavia was further undermined by economic factors. Yugoslavia’s non-aligned stance had resulted in access to loans from both superpower blocs. This contact with the West opened up Yugoslavia’s markets sooner than the rest of Central and Eastern Europe. The 1973 oil crisis coupled with Western trade barriers, dramatically hindered her thirty years of breakneck economic growth. In order to maintain this, Yugoslavia took on a number of International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans and subsequently fell into heavy IMF debt. As a condition of receiving loans, the IMF demands certain "liberalisation" of a country’s market place. During this time Yugoslavia incurred $19.9 billion in foreign debt by 1981. This problem was compounded by the general "unproductiveness of the South," which not only added to Yugoslavia’s economic woes, but also irritated Slovenia and Croatia further. However of real concern was the unemployment rate, at 1 million by 1980. The recession lowered the number of consumer products available, which had always been higher in Yugoslavia than in other socialist states. It illustrated to the general public the incompetence of the communist party to run the system. A decade of tightening belts resulted in growing frustration and resentment against the both Serbian ‘ruling class,’ and the minorities who were seen to benefit from government legislation. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... As a market-emphasized descendant of classical liberalism, market liberalism advocates full freedom of markets, without e. ...


The international climate

Yugoslavia was a unique state, straddling both the East and West. Moreover, Tito was fundamental maker of the third world or "group of 77" which acted as an alternative to the superpowers. More importantly, Yugoslavia acted as a buffer state between the West and the Soviet Union and also prevented the Soviets from getting a toehold on the Mediterranean Sea. However, with the rise of Gorbachev, perestroika and glasnost, the West felt secure enough in the USSR’s intentions that Yugoslavia was no longer of strategic importance. The external status quo, which the Communist Party had depended upon to remain viable was beginning to disappear. Furthermore, the failure of socialism all over Central and Eastern Europe once again brought Yugoslavia’s inner contradictions, inefficiencies and ethno-religious tensions to the surface. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... For the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, see Mediterranean Basin. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev, with the slogan perestroika Perestroika ( , Russian: IPA: ) is the Russian term (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Nationalism

The perceived disadvantage on the part of the Slovenes and Croatians, the inefficacies of the state, and the "disproportionate" majority of Serbs in the state apparatus allowed nationalist leaders such as Franjo Tudjman of Croatia to whip up nationalistic sentiment in order to demand independence. Tudjman’s reinstatement of the Croatian Checkerboard as the symbol of Croat independence ignited fears of a return to the fascist World War II-era Ustaše state, which was compounded further by circulation of a new currency also named after its Ustaše counterpart. Tudjman’s government-controlled press portrayed the Serb population within Croatia as subversive and imperialistic. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Franjo Tuđman (May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999) was the first president of Croatia in the 1990s. ... During World War II, in April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded. ... UstaÅ¡e volunteers for the Waffen SS (Domobran Regiment) marching during a parade in the Independent State of Croatia. ...


Slobodan Milošević was a master demagogue. In 1989, the 600th anniversary of Serbia’s historic defeat at Kosovo Polje, Milošević gave a highly provocative speech to one million Serbs, which made reference to the nation's great historic past. Milošević’s answer to the incompetence of the federal system was to centralize the government. Considering Slovenia and Croatia were looking farther ahead to independence, this was considered unacceptable.


At the Yugoslav conference in late 1989 talks broke down. The leaders could not come to an agreement on how to deal with the rotating presidency. Moreover many members were no longer willing to rescue what they saw as a sunken ship. War soon broke out in Slovenia in 1990. After a week, the Slovenes were victorious and the break up of Yugoslavia had begun. The Ten-Day War, sometimes called the Slovenian War (Slovenian: Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna, Slovenian Independence War or desetdnevna vojna Ten-Day War), was a brief military conflict between Slovenia and Yugoslavia in 1991 following Slovenias declaration of independence. ...


References

  1. ^ Demographic history of Kosovo#1968-1989: Autonomy
  2. ^ Resolution 721. N.A.T.O. (1991-09-25). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  • Almond, Mark, Europe’s Backyard War, William Heinemann Ltd, Great Britain, 1994
  • et. al. Duncan, W. Raymond and Holman, G. Paul, Ethnic Nationalism and Regional Conflict: The Former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, Westview Press Inc, USA, 1994. ISBN 0-8133-8813-9
  • Dragosavljevic, Angelija, Slobodan Milosevic: A Study In Charismatic Leadership And Its Distortions 1987-1992, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1993
  • Magas, Branka, The Destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking the Break-up 1980–1992, Verso, Great Britain, 1993. ISBN 0-86091-593-X
  • Mojzes, Paul, Yugoslavian Inferno: in the Balkans, The Continuum Publishing company, USA, 1994
  • Parenti, Micheal, To Kill a Nation: The Attack on Yugoslavia, Verso, London, 2000
  • Radan, Peter, Break-up of Yugoslavia and International Law, Routaledge, Great Britain, 2002
  • Woodward, Susan, L. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos & Dissolution after the Cold War, the Brookings Institution Press, Virginia, USA, 1995

// Ottoman Rule 14th century The Dečani Charter from 1330[citation needed] contained detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania: 3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being non-Albanian. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... Jon Mark & Johnny Almond Mark–Almond was an English band of the late 1960s and early 1970s, who worked in the territory between rock and jazz. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Australian National University (ANU), is a university located in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ... The verso of a broadsheet, pamphlet or any printed document is the side that is meant to be read second or the left-hand page of a folded sheet. ...

See also

The present-day countries created from the former parts of Yugoslavia:


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