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Encyclopedia > Brazilian pepper
Brazilian Pepper

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Schinus
Species: S. terebinthifolius
Schinus terebinthifolius

Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 387 KB)Schinus terebinthifolius, South Lido Beach, Florida. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families See text The Sapindales is an order of flowering plants included among the rosid subgroup of dicotyledons. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... Species Many, including: Schinus angustifolius Schinus antiarthriticus Schinus areira Schinus bituminosis Schinus huigan Schinus occidentalis Schinus mellisii Schinus molle Schinus terebinthefolius Schinus is a genus of trees in the Family Anacardiaceae comprising the pepper trees, most notably Schinus molle, the Peruvian pepper tree and S. terebinthefolius, the Brazilian pepper tree... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

The branches can be upright, reclining, or nearly vine-like, all on the same plant. The leaves are alternate, 10-22 cm long, pinnately compound with (3-) 5-15 leaflets; the leaflets are roughly oval (lanceolate to elliptical), 3-6 cm long and 2-3.5 cm broad, and have finely toothed margins, an acute to rounded apex and yellowish veins. The leaf rachis between the leaflets is usually (but not invariably) slightly winged. The plant is dioeceous, with small white flowers borne profusely in axillary clusters. The fruit is a small red spherical drupe 4-5 mm diameter, carried in dense clusters of hundreds of berries. In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Plant sexuality deals with the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of fruits. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ...

There are two varieties: A variety is a recognised division of a species in botany, next below the rank of subspecies; in zoology, species are only divided into subspecies and never into varieties. ...

  • Schinus terebinthifolius var. acutifolius. Leaves to 22 cm, with 7-15 leaflets; fruit pink.
  • Schinus terebinthifolius var. terebinthifolius. Leaves to 17 cm, with 5-13 leaflets; fruit red.

Like many other species in the family Anacardiaceae, Brazilian pepper has aromatic sap that can cause skin reactions (similar to poison-ivy burns) in some sensitive people. Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... The abbreviation, acronym, or initialism SAP has several different meanings: SAP AG, a German software company, or its various products such as SAP R/3 or SAP Business Information Warehouse second audio program (television) Session Announcement Protocol Soritong audio player Simple As Possible Computer Architecture Structural Adjustment Program of the... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poisonivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ...


Cultivation and uses

Brazilian pepper is an attractive small tree, widely grown as an ornamental tree in frost-free regions of South America for its decorative foliage and fruit. The seeds can be used as a spice if used in moderation, adding a pepper-like taste to food, but they are toxic in large amounts. An ornamental plant is a plant species or cultivar that is grown indoors, or in gardens and parks for its amenity value, or for beauty (in its end use), rather than commercial or other value. ... Screen shot of Spice OPUS, a fork of Berkeley SPICE SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) is a general purpose analog circuit simulator. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...

Planted outside of its native range, Brazilian pepper has become widespread as an invasive species in many subtropical regions with moderate to high rainfall, including parts or all of Australia, the Bahamas, Bermuda, southern China, Cuba, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Puerto Rico, Reunion, and the United States (primarily Florida and Hawaii). In drier areas, such as Israel and southern California, it is also grown but has not generally proved invasive. It has been suggested that Invasive plants be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170 451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ...

Brazilian Pepper is hard to control because it sends up root suckers and new shoots if the trunk is cut.

It was introduced to Florida by at latest 1891, probably earlier (Gogue et al. 1974), where it has spread rapidly and replaces native plants, with thousands of hectares occupied. It is especially suited to colonizing disturbed sites. It can grow in both wet and dry conditions and it produces abundant seeds that are spread by birds and other animals. Its growth habit allows it to climb over understory trees and invade mature canopies, forming thickets that choke out all other plants. The species is now illegal to sell, transport, or plant in the United States, where it is classified as a Category I pest by the Exotic Pest Plant Council (EPPC). To keep the plant from spreading into native plant communities and displacing them, Brazilian Pepper should be eradicated wherever it can.


  • Gogue, G. J., Hurst, C. J., & Bancroft, L. 1974. Growth inhibition by Schinus terebinthifolius. HortScience 9 (3): 301.

See also

Families See text The Sapindales is an order of flowering plants included among the rosid subgroup of dicotyledons. ...

External links

  • Global Invasive Species Database: Schinus terebinthifolius
  • US Nature Conservancy: Schinus terebinthifolius

  Results from FactBites:
Brizilian Pepper Plant (12443 words)
Brazilian pepper belongs to the Anacardiaceae, the Cashew or Sumac family, which comprises approximately 600 species in 70 genera (actual numbers of taxa vary among authors, with genera ranging from 60 to 80, and species from 600 to 850).
Brazilian pepper belongs to the Anacardiaceae family; therefore the sap and smoke from the burning may irritate or cause an allergic reaction to sensitive individuals.
Brazilian pepper distribution was mapped by Park resource management personnel in 1976 and found to have spread to parts of the pinelands, the Flamingo area, the coastal area around Madeira and Little Madeira Bays, and north of Park headquarters along the eastern Park boundary.
  More results at FactBites »



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