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Encyclopedia > Brazilian Communist Party
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brazilian Communist Party (1992). (Discuss)


The history of the Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro), best known by the abbreviation PCB, started with its foundation on March 25, 1922 in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. On that day, nine representatives of communist groups from the cities of São Paulo, Santos, Cruzeiro (in countryside São Paulo), Porto Alegre, Recife, Niterói, Juiz de Fora and Rio de Janeiro met and approved the party's statutes and the twenty-one conditions for entering the Communist International. The meeting ended with all the seventy-three members of the party singing L'Internationale (but not very loudly, due to security reasons). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) is a political party in Brazil. ... The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil), better known by its abbreviation PCdoB, or its nickname Partidos dos Estúpidos Não Pensantes, is a political party in Brazil. ... Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) is a political party in Brazil. ... History is the study of human behavior through time. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Chicago from the air. ... The flag of the Municipality Niterói is a city in Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro with a population of about 470,000. ... Flag of Rio de Janeiro See other Brazilian States Capital Rio de Janeiro Largest City Rio de Janeiro Area 43,696. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ... For the Australian oil company, see Santos Limited; for the football team, see Santos Futebol Clube. ... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Flag of São Paulo See other Brazilian States Capital São Paulo Largest City São Paulo Area 248,176. ... Geograpichal divisions of Rio Grande do Sul. ... Nickname: Veneza Brasileira (Brazilian Venice) Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area    - City 218 km²  (84. ... Juiz de Fora is a city in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil close to the state border with Rio de Janeiro. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area    - City 1,260 km² Population    - City (2005) 5,613,000 [1]  - Density 4. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... The Internationale (LInternationale in French) is the most famous socialist (and anarchist and communist) song and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Early years

The PCB's first years were marked by an effort to encourage socialist thinking in Brazil. It must be noted that, unlike many other countries, Brazil had not had much anti-capitalist political experience, except for the 1917 anarchist actions in São Paulo. During those years, the party was declared illegal by the government. On May 1, 1925, during the party's Second Congress, its weekly newspaper A Classe Operária (The Working Class) was announced, with five thousand copies being sold on the factories. This number grew to nine hundred copies by the ninth edition, but the police shut the newspaper down shortly after the twelfth edition was published. The paper reappeared in 1928, after the Third Congress was held. In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Anarchism is the name of a political philosophy or a group of doctrines and attitudes that are centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (such as the state)[1] and support its elimination. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A congress is a gathering of people, especially a gathering for a political purpose. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


By 1930, after being recognized by the Communist International and with its Socialist Youth division formed, the PCB had nearly eleven hundred members. This marks the beginning of a long period of submission to, initially the Third International, and, after its dissution, to the political leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This decade also marked two cycles on the party's history: one of increasing influence, until 1935, and one of decline, until 1942. Both cycles are comprehensible when seen in the context of the Vargas era. 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Sosialistisk Ungdom (Socialist Youth) is the youth league of the Socialist Left Party of Norway. ... The term Third International has two well-established meanings: For the unabridged dictionary, see Websters Third New International Dictionary. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Reorganization and growing

On 1943, during the so-called Mantiqueira Conference, the party secretly met in the small city of Engenheiro Passos, Rio de Janeiro, and in an open letter to Vargas decided to support a declaration of war on the Axis. At the same time, Luís Carlos Prestes was elected to the party's presidency. On 1945, after Vargas's dictatorship ended, the PCB became legal once again. By 1947, it had nearly two hundred thousand members. However, this period of official tolerance did not last long, as President Dutra denounced the PCB as "internationalist, and therefore not committed to Brazil's own interests" in 1948, an action supported by the American government. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables. ... Chicago from the air. ... Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Luís Carlos Prestes Luís Carlos Prestes (January 3, 1898 – March 7, 1990) was the legendary leader of the 1920s tenente rebellion and the Communist opposition to the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas in Brazil. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... A dictatorship is a autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Eurico Gaspar Dutra, (1883-1974), was a Brazilian general, politician and president of Brazil from 1946-1951. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


In the 1950s, as the party was driven underground, it began supporting major workers' strikes around Brazil. However, this did not prevent the beginning of internal clashes between different factions within the PCB. This became more evident after the Soviet Communist Party's 20th Congress, when Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin's policies. The factionalization of the party accelerated after a new Manifesto was passed in 1958, proposing new ways of achieving communist goals. This Manifesto linked the establishment of socialism to the broadening of democracy. Some of its top leaders, dissatisfied with the new Soviet line, quit the PCB and formed a new party, Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil - PCdoB) in 1962. The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... (Redirected from 20th Party Congress) The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during February 14—February 26, 1956. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... A policy is a plan of action to guide decisions and actions. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil), better known by its abbreviation PCdoB, or its nickname Partidos dos Estúpidos Não Pensantes, is a political party in Brazil. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


Military rule years

With this new orientation, the PCB grew in size and exercised a much greater role in the Brazilian left. However, the alliance forged with the other parties did not survive the 1964 coup d'état. PCB did play an important role against the dictatorship, by organizing the workers movement and participating in efforts to unite the opposition in its demands for democratic reforms. At that point in time the communists were a fraction of the democratic opposition front, the MDB. It refused, for example, to engage in armed struggle, differently from other left wing organizations that decided to follow that path. The clandestine operations and the political disputes regarding the strategies to resist the military regime led to many important leaders leaving the party, while many others died in the hands of the military regime. While the Communist Party in Brazil was involved in several internal clashes, the Worker's Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores) was founded. Its creation was the project of a series of left wing groups independent from the PCB (Trotskyists, Stalinists, communist dissidents, ex-guerrillas), together with some left wing Christian groups. It was structured as an alternative to Communist-led unionism in Brazil. It used to take radical instances against the military regime and gained a strong presence in between high skilled workers and middle-class intellectuals. The growth of the PT accelerated the fragmentation process inside the PCB leading ultimately to the PCB's dissolution in 1992. Look up left in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... The Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) was a centrist political party in Brazil that existed from 1965 to 1979. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as Christ. ... A skilled worker is any worker who has some special knowledge or (usually acquired) ability in his work. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Crisis and dissolution

After the 1979 amnesty, the PCB's leaders began to restructure the party. The 1982 Congress confirmed the democratic agenda, declaring the PCB "a party of the masses, linking socialist goals to true democracy, which will be constructed based on the values of freedom". Once again, internal clashes developed in the party, as it was passing through a process of renewal while its influency in the society declined. The fall of the Soviet bloc was also a strong blow to the party, turning thew renewal process into a process of dissolution and abandonment, by some of its main leaders, of marxism. This crisis came to an end only in January 1992, during the Tenth Congress, when the majority of the members decided to dissolve the party, refounding it as the Socialist People's Party (Partido Popular Socialista - PPS), in a very similar way to what happened in Italy. This page refers to the year 1979. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Political freedom is the right, or the capacity, of self-determination as an expression of the individual will. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... A crisis is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Socialist Peoples Party (Portuguese: Partido Popular Socialista, PPS) is a political party in Brazil. ...


After that, a minority group of unsatisfied leaders left and tried to refound the PCB, returning to the party's original Marxist-Leninist agenda. Effectively they created a party using the name Brazilian Communist Party, but it currently has little relevance in national politics and no representation in the Congress. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) is a political party in Brazil. ...


See also

List of political parties in Brazil This article lists political parties in Brazil. ...


List of Communist Parties There are, at present, a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number who used to be active. ...


Politics of Brazil Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and a federal district (see: States of Brazil). ...


External links

  • Brazilian Communist Party (PCB) (in Portuguese)
  • Popular Socialist Party (PPS) (in Portuguese)

Sources

  • PCdoB timeline (in Portuguese)
  • http://www.pcbsaocarlos.hpg.ig.com.br/historia_pcb.htm

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brazilian Communist Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1110 words)
On that day, nine representatives of communist groups from the cities of São Paulo, Santos, Cruzeiro (in countryside São Paulo), Porto Alegre, Recife, Niterói, Juiz de Fora and Rio de Janeiro met and approved the party's statutes and the twenty-one conditions for entering the Communist International.
The factionalization of the party accelerated after a new Manifesto was passed in 1958, proposing new ways of achieving communist goals.
The 1982 Congress confirmed the "revisionist" agenda, declaring the PCB "a party of the masses, linking socialist goals to true democracy, which will be constructed based on the values of freedom".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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