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Encyclopedia > Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)
Federative Republic of Brazil
Flag of Brazil Coat of arms of Brazil
Flag Coat of arms
MottoOrdem e Progresso  (Portuguese)
"Order and Progress"
AnthemHino Nacional Brasileiro  (Portuguese)
Capital Brasilia
Largest city São Paulo
Official languages Portuguese
Demonym Brazilian
Government Presidential Federal republic
 -  President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
 -  Vice President José Alencar Gomes da Silva
 -  President of the Senate Renan Calheiros
 -  Chamber of Deputies' President Arlindo Chinaglia
 -  Chief Justice Ellen Gracie Northfleet
Independence from Portugal 
 -  Declared September 7, 1822 
 -  Recognized August 29, 1825 
 -  Republic November 15, 1889 
Area
 -  Total 8,514,877 km² (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.65
Population
 -  2007 1 estimate 183,888,841 (5th)
 -  2000 1 census 169,799,170 
 -  Density 22/km² (182nd)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 2 estimate
 -  Total US$1.804 trillion (8th)
 -  Per capita US$9.531 (65th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 2 estimate
 -  Total US$1.067 trillion (10th)
 -  Per capita US$5,717 (64th)
HDI (2007) 0.800 (high) (70th)
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT3 (UTC-2 to -5)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST4 (UTC-2 to -5)
Internet TLD .br
Calling code +55
1 Data of IBGE.
2 Estimate of the International Monetary Fund.
3 Officially UTC-3 (Brasília time).
4 Officially UTC-2 (Brasília time).

Brazil (IPA: /brəˈzɪl/), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil or República Federativa do Brasil, listen ), is a country in South America.[1] It is the fifth-largest country by geographical area, the fifth most populous country, and the fourth most populous democracy in the world. The official language is Portuguese.[2] Catholicism is the predominant religion. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Brazil is a country in South America. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Brazil. ... National flag and ensign. ... The Coat of Arms of Brazil was created in November 19, 1889, 4 days after Brazil became a republic. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Brazilian National Anthem (Hino Nacional Brasileiro in Portuguese) was first composed by Francisco Manoel da Silva upon independence from Portugal in 1822, but was not used until 1890. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Bras lia is the capital city of Brazil and is located in the center of the country in a federal district created in the state of Goi s. ... This article is about the city. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... Category: ... The Vice-President and Minister of Defense José Alencar. ... In its present configuration, the Brazilian Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is a federal legislative body and the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... Renan Calheiros (born in Murici, Alagoas, on September 16, 1955) is the current President of the Senate of Brazil. ... The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... Arlindo Chinaglia. ... The Supreme Federal Court (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF), is the Brazilian Supreme Court, the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Justice Gracie at her affirmation as President of the SFT. Ellen Gracie Northfleet (born February 16, 1948, Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian judge, and the first female to be appointed to the Brazilian Supreme Federal Tribunal and its first female president. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... This page talks about Human Developpment Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Brazil has four time zones. ... UTC redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Brazil has four time zones. ... UTC redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... In Brazil (country code: 55), the telephone numbering plan uses eight-digit local phone numbers, plus a two-digit area code. ... IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ... IMF redirects here. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Image File history File links Brazil. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Countries by area. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal [1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or...


Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of over 7,367 kilometres.[1] Brazil borders every nation on the South American continent except Ecuador and Chile: Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the department of French Guiana are to the north, Colombia to the northwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, and Uruguay to the south.[1] Numerous archipelagos are part of the Brazilian territory, such as Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz and Atol das Rocas.[1][3] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo are a group of islands which belong to Brazil. ... Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz (also called Martin Vaz), which are located 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belong to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Brazil is crossed by both the Equator and Tropic of Capricorn, and as such is home to a vast array fauna and flora, natural environments, as well as extensive natural resources. The Brazilian population is concentrated along the coastline and in a few large urban centers in the interior. While Brazil is one of the most populous nations in the world, population density drops dramatically as one moves inland.[4] World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... World map showing the Tropic of Capricorn For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Capricorn (novel). ...


Brazil was a colony of Portugal from its discovery by Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its independence in 1822. Initially independent as the Brazilian Empire, the country has been a republic since 1889, although the bicameral legislature (now called Congress) dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution defines Brazil as a Federative Republic.[2] The Federation is formed by the indissoluble association of the States, the Federal District, and the Municipalities.[2] There are currently 26 States and 5,564 Municipalities.[5] Pedro Álvares (about 1467 – about 1520), pron. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Flag States of Brazil Capital Brasilia Area 5 802 km² Population   - Total   - Density 2 051 146 353. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


Brazil is the world's 8th largest economy in terms of purchasing power and the 10th largest economy at market exchange rates. The country has a diversified middle-income economy with wide variations in development levels and mature manufacturing, mining and agriculture sectors. Technology and services also play an important role and are growing rapidly. Brazil is a net exporter, having gone through free trade and privatization reforms in the 1990s. In spite of important economical achievements, many social issues still hamper development. There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... The balance of trade encompasses the activity of exports and imports, like the work of this cargo ship going through the Panama Canal. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Brazil

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Colonization

Map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in 1519.
Map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in 1519.

Initially Portugal had little interest in Brazil, mainly because of high profits gained through commerce with Indochina. After 1530, the Portuguese Crown devised the Hereditary Captaincies system to effectively occupy its new colony, and later took direct control of the failed captaincies.[6][7] The Portuguese colonists adopted an economy based on the production of agricultural goods that were exported to Europe. Sugar became by far the most important Brazilian colonial product until the early eighteenth century.[8][9] Even though Brazilian sugar was reputed as being of high quality, the industry faced a crisis during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when the Dutch and the French started producing sugar in the Antilles, located much closer to Europe, causing sugar prices to fall. In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... The indigenous people of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Image File history File links Brazil-16-map. ... Image File history File links Brazil-16-map. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... A captaincy is a historical administrative division of the former Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. ... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. ...


During the eighteenth century, private explorers who called themselves the Bandeirantes found gold and diamond deposits in the state of Minas Gerais. The exploration of these mines were mostly used to finance the Portuguese Royal Court's debts. The predatory way in which such deposits were explored by the Portuguese Crown, however, burdened colonial Brazil with excessive taxes. Some popular movements supporting independence came about against the abusive taxes established by the colonial government, such as the Tiradentes incident in 1789, but they were often dismissed with violence by Portugal. Gold production declined towards the end of the eighteenth century, starting a period of relative stagnation of the Brazilian hinterland.[10] Both Amerindian and African slaves' man power were largely used in Brazil's colonial economy.[11] The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes (1746-April 21, 1792), was part of the Brazilian seditious movement known as the Inconfidência Mineira. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (provoke indía gnas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Afro-Brazilian or African Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or part-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock...


Empire

In 1808, the Portuguese court, fleeing from Napoleon’s troops which had invaded Portugal, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After João VI returned to Portugal in 1821, his heir-apparent Pedro became regent of the Kingdom of Brazil. Following a series of political incidents and disputes, Brazil achieved its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822. On October 12, 1822, Dom Pedro became the first Emperor of Brazil, being crowned on December 1, 1822. The Brazilian Declaration of Independence comprised a series of political events occurred in 1821-1825, most of which involved disputes between colonial Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the colony. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In 1822 (7 September), Infante dom Pedro of Portugal, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and kings representative in Brazil, was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil. ... Dom Pedro II (pron. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... The Brazilian Declaration of Independence comprised a series of political events occurred in 1821-1825, most of which involved disputes between colonial Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the colony. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1824, Pedro closed the Constituent Assembly, stating that the body was "endangering liberty". Pedro then produced a constitution modeled on that of Portugal (1822) and France (1814). It specified indirect elections and created the legislative, executive and judiciary branches of government; however, it also added a fourth branch, the "moderating power", to be held by the Emperor. Pedro's government was considered economically and administratively inefficient. Political pressures eventually made the Emperor step down on April 7, 1831. He returned to Portugal leaving behind his five-year-old son Pedro II. Until Pedro II reached maturity, Brazil was governed by regents from 1831 to 1840. The regency period was turbulent and marked by numerous local revolts including the Male Revolt, the largest urban slave rebellion in the Americas, which took place in Bahia in 1835.[12] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Pedro II can refer to three monarchs: Peter II of Aragon (1174-1213) Peter II of Brazil (1825-1891) Peter II of Portugal (1648-1706) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Male Revolt is perhaps the most significant slave rebellion in Brazil, which took place in 1835 in the city of Salvador da Bahia. ...


On July 23, 1840, Pedro II was crowned Emperor. His government was highlighted by a substantial rise in coffee exports, the War of the Triple Alliance, and the end of slave trade from Africa in 1850, although slavery in Brazilian territory would only be abolished in 1888. When slavery was finally abolished, a large influx of European immigrants took place.[13][14][15] By the 1870s, the Emperor's grasp on domestic politics had started to deteriorate in face of crises with the Roman Catholic Church, the Army and the slaveholders. The Republican movement slowly gained strength. In the end, the empire fell because the dominant classes no longer needed it to protect their interests.[16] Indeed, imperial centralization ran counter to their desire for local autonomy. By 1889 Pedro II had stepped down and the Republican system had been adopted to Brazil. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Republic

Main articles: History of Brazil (1889–1930), History of Brazil (1930–1945), History of Brazil (1945–1964), History of Brazil (1964–1985), and History of Brazil (1985–present)

Pedro II was deposed on November 15, 1889 by a Republican military coup led by general Deodoro da Fonseca,[17] who became the country’s first de facto president through military ascension. The country’s name became the Republic of the United States of Brazil (which in 1967 was changed to Federative Republic of Brazil). From 1889 to 1930, the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais alternated control of the presidency.[18][19] The period of Brazilian History, from 1889 to 1930, is commonly called the República Velha (Old Republic). ... // The tenente rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... The period between 1964 in Brazilian history, that is also known as Second Republic, was marked by a huge political instability. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2675 × 1772 pixel, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2675 × 1772 pixel, file size: 766 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of a Senate (the upper house) and a Chamber of Deputies (the lower house). ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Country Region State Brazilian Federal District Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Deodoro da Fonseca (Manuel) Deodoro da Fonseca (August 5, 1827 - August 23, 1892) overthrew Emperor Pedro II to become the first president of a Republic of Brazil. ... Motto Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia (Latin) For Brazil Great Things Are Done Anthem Bandeirantes Anthem Capital (and largest city) São Paulo Demonym Paulista Government  -  Governor José Serra  -  Vice Governor Alberto Goldman Area  -  Total 248. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ...


A military junta took control in 1930. Getúlio Vargas took office soon after, and would remain as dictatorial ruler (with a brief democratic period in between), until 1945. He was re-elected in 1951 and stayed in office until his suicide in 1954. After 1930, the successive governments continued industrial and agriculture growth and development of the vast interior of Brazil.[19][20] Juscelino Kubitschek's office years (1956-1961) were marked by the political campaign motto of plunging "50 anos em 5" (English: fifty years of development in five).[21] A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... Juscelino Kubitschek and his wife Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902-August 22, 1976) was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The military forces took office in Brazil in a coup d'état in 1964, and remained in power until March 1985, when it fell from grace because of political struggles between the regime and the Brazilian elites. Just as the Brazilian regime changes of 1889, 1930, and 1945 unleashed competing political forces and caused divisions within the military, so too did the 1964 regime change.[22] Tancredo Neves was elected president in an indirect election in 1985, as Brazil returned to civil government regime. He died before taking office, and the vice-president, José Sarney, was sworn in as president in his place. The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Tancredo de Almeida Neves, more commonly Tancredo Neves (pron. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Democracy was re-established in 1988 when the current Federal Constitution was enacted.[23] Fernando Collor de Mello was the first president truly elected by popular vote after the military regime.[24] Collor took office in March 1990. In September 1992, the National Congress voted for Collor's impeachment after a sequence of scandals were uncovered by the media.[24][25] The vice-president, Itamar Franco, assumed the presidency. Assisted by the Minister of Finance at that time, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Itamar Franco's administration implemented the Plano Real economic package,[24] which included a new currency temporarily pegged to the U.S. dollar, the real. In the elections held on October 3, 1994, Fernando Henrique Cardoso ran for president and won, being reelected in 1998. Brazil's current president is Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, elected in 2002 and reelected in 2006. Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello, pron. ... Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco, pron. ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil for two terms from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... The Plano Real (Portuguese, Real Plan) was a set of measures taken to stabilize the Brazilian economy in the early 1990s, under the direction of Fernando Henrique Cardoso as the Minister of Finance. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ...


Government and politics

See also: Politics of Brazil

The Brazilian Federation is based on the indissoluble association of three autonomous political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District.[2] A fourth entity originated in the aforementioned association: the Union.[2] There is no hierarchy among the political entities. The Federation is set on six fundamental principles:[2] sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of the people, social value of labor, freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite division of power, encompassing the Executive, Legislative and Judiciary branches under the checks and balances system, is formally established by the Constitution.[2] The Executive and Legislative are organized independently in all four political entities, while the Judiciary is organized only in the Federal and State levels. Politics of Brazil takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Brazil is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3506x2337, 1271 KB) Brasília - Presidente Lula faz pronunciamento na abertura da reunião ministerial na Granja do Torto. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3506x2337, 1271 KB) Brasília - Presidente Lula faz pronunciamento na abertura da reunião ministerial na Granja do Torto. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Citizen redirects here. ... This article is about virtue. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... In the social sciences, pluralism is a framework of interaction in which groups show sufficient respect and tolerance of each other, that they fruitfully coexist and interact without conflict or assimilation. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ...


All members of the executive and legislative branches are elected by direct suffrage.[26][27][28] Judges and other judicial authorities are appointed after passing entry exams.[26] Voting is compulsory for those aged 18 or older.[2] Four political parties stand out among several small ones: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (formerly Liberal Front Party - PFL). Practically all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated with the Executive. The form of government is Republican and democratic,[2] and the system of government is Presidential.[2] The President is Head of State and Head of Government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[2] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. Currently the President of Brazil is Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. He was elected on October 27, 2002,[29] and re-elected on October 29, 2006.[30] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in governing.[2] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of laws in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation’s bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vote redirects here. ... The Partido dos Trabalhadores (Portuguese for Workers Party) is a left-wing political party in Brazil. ... The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira) is a political party in Brazil. ... The Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Portuguese: Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro, PMDB) is the successor of the Brazilian Democratic Movement. ... The Democrats (Democratas) is a political party in Brazil. ... In politics, authority generally refers to the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enforce them, or the ability to permit something. ... Agency may refer to any of the following: Look up Agency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary agency (business), a company in the service industry. ... GOVERNEMENT IS NOT A VIRGIN! Its F***ed Up We Pray To god that he give virginity back Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government) is a social institution composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance (or government) of a state. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This article is about the political process. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... In its present configuration, the Brazilian Senate (Portuguese: Senado Federal) is a federal legislative body and the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Law

Main article: Law of Brazil
The finance minister, Guido Mantega, and the president of the Supreme Federal Tribunal, Ellen Gracie Northfleet.
The finance minister, Guido Mantega, and the president of the Supreme Federal Tribunal, Ellen Gracie Northfleet.

Brazilian Law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions.[31] Thus, civil law concepts prevail over common law practices. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part of the system, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretation guidelines; however, they are not binding towards other specific cases except in a few situations. Doctrinal works and comments of legal academic pundits have strong influence in law creation and in legal cases. Brazilian law derives from Portuguese civil law and is based on statutes and, partly and more recently, stare decisis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2407 × 1772 pixel, file size: 669 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2407 × 1772 pixel, file size: 669 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Guido Mantega, March 2006. ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Justice Gracie at her affirmation as President of the SFT. Ellen Gracie Northfleet (born February 16, 1948, Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian judge, and the first female to be appointed to the Brazilian Supreme Federal Tribunal and its first female president. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject. ...


The Federal Constitution, promulgated on October 5, 1988, is the fundamental law of Brazil and it rules the system. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.[32] As of April 2007, it has been through 53 Amendments. States also adopt their own Constitutions, but they must also not contradict the Federal Constitution.[33] Municipalities and the Federal District do not have their own Constitutions; instead, they adopt "organic laws" (leis orgânicas).[2][34] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may also enact legal norms.[2] For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare cases, the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments.[2] There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.[2] The highest court is the Supreme Federal Tribunal. This system has met criticism over the last decades in relation to the slow pace at which final decisions are issued. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade to see definitive rulings.[35] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ...


Foreign relations and the military

Brazilian Army troops before boarding for MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission in Haiti.
Brazilian Army troops before boarding for MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission in Haiti.

Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America.[36][37] However, social and economic problems prevent it from becoming an effective global power.[38] Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.[39] Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[40] Brazilian foreign policy has generally reflected multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries.[41] The Brazilian Constitution also determines the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.[2][42][43][44] Lula da Silva and George W. Bush Brazil is a significant political and economical power in Latin America, but deep-seated social and economic problems have kept it from realizing its goal of becoming a truly global leader. ... Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary) Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (compulsory) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 47,732,285 (2000 est. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1654 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1654 pixel, file size: 982 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Economic integration is a term used to describe how different aspects between economies are integrated. ...


The Armed forces of Brazil comprise the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force.[2] The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by constitution, but under the control of each state's governor.[2] The Brazilian armed forces are the largest in Latin America. The Brazilian Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, being the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.[45] The Brazilian Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian Armed forces and the only navy in Latin America that operates an aircraft carrier, the NAeL São Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy).[46] Finally, the Brazilian Army is responsible for land-based military operations, with a strength of approximately 190,000 soldiers. Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary) Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (compulsory) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 47,732,285 (2000 est. ... The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. ... The Brazilian Navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is the navy of Brazil. ... The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces and one of the three national uniformed services. ... A group of Polícia Militar troops from São Paulo In Brazil, the Military Police (Portuguese: Polícia Militar, or PM) is the name of the preventive state police forces in Brazil. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The NAeL São Paulo is a Clemenceau-class aircraft carrier of the Brazilian Navy, formerly the French Foch. ... The Foch (R 99) was the sister-ship of the Clémenceau. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ...


Administrative divisions

Brazil is currently divided in five regions, by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE). ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Central-West Region

Politically, Brazil is a Federation of twenty-six states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal). The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Image:Brasil Norte vincent harley rocks maploc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Center-West region is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazils national capital, Brasília, is situated. ... The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. ... The South Region is highlighted in yellow. ... Flag of Acre See other Brazilian States Capital Rio Branco Largest City Rio Branco Area 152 522 km² Population   - Total   - Density 557 526 3. ... Capital (and largest city) Manaus Demonym Amazonense Government  -  Governor Eduardo Braga  -  Vice Governor Omar José Abdel Aziz Area  -  Total 1. ... Capital (and largest city) Belém Demonym Paraense Government  -  Governor Ana Júlia Carepa  -  Vice Governor Odair Santos Corrêa Area  -  Total 1. ... Flag of Roraima See other Brazilian States Capital Boa Vista Largest City Boa Vista Area 225,116. ... Flag of Amapá See other Brazilian States Capital Macapá Largest City Macapá Area 142 816 km² Population   - Total   - Density 477 032 3. ... Flag of Rondônia See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Velho Largest City Porto Velho Area 238,512. ... Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil. ... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... Capital (and largest city) Teresina Demonym Piauiense Government  -  Governor Wellington Dias  -  Vice Governor Wilson Martins Area  -  Total 251. ... Flag of Ceará See other Brazilian States Capital Fortaleza Largest City Fortaleza Area 148,016 km² Population   - Total   - Density 6,500,000 43. ... Capital (and largest city) Natal Demonym Potiguar or Norte-rio-grandense Government  -  Governor Wilma de Faria  -  Vice Governor Iberê Paiva Ferreira de Souza Area  -  Total 52. ... Flag of Paraíba See other Brazilian States Capital João Pessoa Largest City João Pessoa Area 56. ... Capital (and largest city) Recife Demonym Pernambucano Government  -  Governor Eduardo Campos  -  Vice Governor João Lyra Neto Area  -  Total 98. ... Capital (and largest city) Maceió Demonym Alagoano Government  -  Governor Teotônio Vilela Filho  -  Vice Governor José Wanderley Neto Area  -  Total 27. ... Flag of Sergipe See other Brazilian States Capital Aracaju Largest City Aracaju Area 21,994 km² Population   - Total   - Density 1. ... Capital (and largest city) Cuiabá Demonym Mato-grossense Government  -  Governor Blairo Maggi  -  Vice Governor Silval da Cunha Barbosa Area  -  Total 903. ... Capital (and largest city) Campo Grande Demonym Sul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul Government  -  Governor André Puccinelli  -  Vice Governor Murilo Zauith Area  -  Total 357. ... The Brazilian Federal District (in Portuguese, Distrito Federal) is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Goiânia Demonym Goiano Government  -  Governor Alcides Rodrigues  -  Vice Governor Ademir Menezes Area  -  Total 340. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... Motto Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia (Latin) For Brazil Great Things Are Done Anthem Bandeirantes Anthem Capital (and largest city) São Paulo Demonym Paulista Government  -  Governor José Serra  -  Vice Governor Alberto Goldman Area  -  Total 248. ... Flag of Rio de Janeiro See other Brazilian States Capital Rio de Janeiro Largest City Rio de Janeiro Area 43,696. ... Motto Trabalha e Confia (Portuguese) Work and Trust [in God] Capital Vitória Largest city Vila Velha Demonym Capixaba or Espiritossantense Government  -  Governor Paulo Hartung  -  Vice Governor Ricardo Ferraço Area  -  Total 46. ... Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym Catarinense or Barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ... Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... For other uses, see Argentina (disambiguation). ... Bold text For other uses, see Bolivia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chile (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Columbia. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Guyane Arrondissements 2 Cantons 19 Communes 22 Statistics Land area1 83,534 km² Population (Ranked 26th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... This article is about the South American country formerly known as British Guiana. ... For other uses, see Paraguay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Peru (disambiguation). ... Motto: Justitia - Pietas - Fides Justice - Piety - Loyalty Anthem: God zij met ons Suriname Capital (and largest city) Paramaribo Official languages Dutch Demonym Surinamese Government Constitutional democracy  -  President Ronald Venetiaan Independence from the Netherlands   -  Date November 25, 1975  Area  -  Total 163,820 km² (91st) 63,251 sq mi   -  Water (%) 1. ... Motto Libertad o muerte Freedom or death Anthem Himno Nacional Uruguayo Capital (and largest city) Montevideo Official languages Spanish Demonym Uruguayan, Oriental Government Republic (presidential system)  -  President Tabaré Vázquez Rosas  -  Vice President Rodolfo Nin Independence from Brazil   -  Oriental Revolution 25 August 1825   -  Declared 28 August 1828  Area  -  Total 176. ... For other uses, see Venezuela (disambiguation). ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... The Brazilian Federal District (in Portuguese, Distrito Federal) is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. ...


The national territory was divided in 1969 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), for demographic and statistical purposes, into five main regions: North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics or IBGE (Portuguese: ), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ... Image:Brasil Norte vincent harley rocks maploc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Center-West region is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazils national capital, Brasília, is situated. ... The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. ... The Southern Region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ...


The North region covers 45.27% of the surface of Brazil, and has the lowest number of inhabitants. With the exception of Manaus, which hosts a tax-free industrial zone, and Belém, the biggest metropolitan area of the region, it is fairly unindustrialized and undeveloped. It accommodates most of the rainforest vegetation of the world and many indigenous tribes. There are 27 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. ... There are 26 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. ... Location in Brazil Country Region State Amazonas Founded 1669 Government  - Mayor Serafim Corrêa (PSB) Area  - City 11. ... Nickname: Local da cidade de Belém, no estado do Pará State Pará County Belém Government  - Mayor Duciomar Gomes da Costa Area  - City 1,070 km²  (413. ...


The Northeast region is inhabited by about 30% of Brazil's population.[47] It is culturally diverse, with roots set in the Portuguese colonial period, and in Amerindian and Afro-Brazilian elements. It is also the poorest region of Brazil,[48] and suffers from long periods of dry climate.[49] The largest cities are Salvador, Recife and Fortaleza. Nickname: Motto: Sic illa ad arcam reversa est, portuguese E Assim a Pomba Voltou à Arca Location of Salvador Country Region State Bahia Founded 29 March 1549 Government  - Mayor João Henrique Carneiro (PMDB) Area  - Total 706 km² (272. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ... For the fortress and governors mansion in Puerto Rico, see La Fortaleza. ...


The Central-West region has low demographic density when compared to the other regions,[50] mostly because a part of its territory is covered by the world's largest marshlands area, the Pantanal[51] as well as a small part of the Amazon Rainforest in the northwest. However, much of the region is also covered by Cerrado, the largest savanna in the world. The central-west region contributes significantly towards agriculture.[52] The largest cities of this region are: Brasília (the capital), Goiânia, Campo Grande, Cuiabá. The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Country Region State Brazilian Federal District Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Goiás. ... Nickname: Motto: Poder, prosperidade e altruísmo(Portuguese) Power, prosperity and altruism Location in Brazil Country Region State Mato Grosso do Sul Founded 1899 Government  - Mayor Nelson Trad Filho (PMDB) Area  - City 8,110 km²  (3,131. ... Coordinates: , Country Region State Mato Grosso Government  - Mayor Wilson Santos PSDB Area  - City 3,538 km²  (1,366 sq mi) Elevation 165 m (541 ft) Population (2000)  - City 542,861  - Density 153. ...


The Southeast region is the richest and most densely populated.[50] It has more inhabitants than any other South American country, and hosts one of the largest megalopolises of the world, whereof the main cities are the country's two largest; São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The region is very diverse, including the major business center of São Paulo, the historical cities of Minas Gerais and its capital Belo Horizonte, the third-largest metropolitan area in Brazil, the beaches of Rio de Janeiro, and the coast of Espírito Santo. A megalopolis is defined as an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas. ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1701 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ...


The South region is the wealthiest by GDP per capita,[48] and has the highest standard of living in the country.[53] It is also the coldest region of Brazil,[54] with occasional occurrences of frost and snow in some of the higher altitude areas.[55] It has been settled by European immigrants, mainly of Italian, German, Portuguese, Slavic and Japanese ancestry, being clearly influenced by these cultures. The largest cities in this region are: Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Florianópolis, Londrina, Caxias do Sul and Joinville. The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Nickname: Motto: A cidade sorriso (The smiley city) Location of Curitiba Country Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Santa Catarina Founded March 23, 1726 Government  - Mayor Dario Elias Berger (PMDB) Area  - City 436. ... Londrina is a city located in the northern region of the state of the Paraná, Brazil, and is the 369 km away from the capital, Curitiba. ... Called Monumento ao Imigrante, was made with stones in 1950 to commemorate the 75º anniversary of the italian colonization São Pelegrinos Church has the most important masterworks of the italian painter Aldo Locatelli. ... For other uses, see Joinville (disambiguation). ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Brazil

Brazilian topography is diverse, including hills, mountains, plains, highlands, scrublands, savannas, rainforests, and a long coastline. The extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforest covers most of Brazil’s terrain in the North, whereas small hills and low mountains occupy the South. Along the Atlantic coast there are several mountain ranges, with a highest altitude of roughly 2,900 meters (9,500 ft). The highest peak is the 3,014 meter (9,735 ft) Pico da Neblina (Misty Peak) in Guiana's highlands.[56][57] Major rivers include the Amazon, the largest river in terms of volume of water, and the second-longest in the world; the Paraná and its major tributary, the Iguaçu River, where the Iguaçu Falls are located; the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and the Tapajós rivers. Several small islands and atolls in the Atlantic Ocean are part of Brazil: Abrolhos, Atol das Rocas, Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. The country of Brazil occupies roughly half of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1400, 1821 KB) Imagen de la Selva Amazónica tomada desde satélite. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1400, 1821 KB) Imagen de la Selva Amazónica tomada desde satélite. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil. ... Guiana (also known as the Guiana highlands or the Guiana shield) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... The term highland is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. ... This article is about the river. ... The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ... Iguaçu WaterFalls Photo by: Daniel Spillere Andrade The Iguazu River (Portuguese:Rio Iguaçu, Spanish:Río Iguazú) is born in Sierra do Mar in the Brazilian state of Paraná to finish over a thousand kilometers southeast at the Paraná River, in the triple border with Paraguay and Argentina. ... Iguaçu Falls Iguazu Falls (Portuguese: Cataratas do Iguaçu, Spanish: Cataratas del Iguazú IPA ) are waterfalls of the Iguaçu River located on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná (in the Southern Region) and the Argentinian Province of Misiones. ... The Negro (Spanish: black) River, the great northern tributary of the Amazon River and the largest blackwater river in the world, has its sources along the watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon basins, and also connects with the Orinoco by way of the Casiquiare canal. ... The São Francisco River is a river in Brazil with a length of 3,160 kilometres. ... The Xingu River in Brazil is a tributary of the Amazon River. ... The Madeira River is a major waterway in South America. ... The Tapajós, a Brazilian river running through a humid and hot valley, pours into the Amazon River 500 miles above Pará and is about 1200 miles long. ... The Abrolhos Marine National Park (Parque Nacional Marinho de Abrolhos) is located on the southern coast of Bahia state in the northeast of Brazil, between 17º25’—18º09’ S and 38º33’—39º05’ W. External links Satellite photo (Google) See also List of national parks of Brazil Categories...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Brazil

Brazil's climate has little seasonal variation since most of the country is located within the tropics. However, although 90% of the country is located within the tropical zone, year-long climate varies considerably from the mostly tropical North (the equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zones below the Tropic of Capricorn (23°27' S latitude), which crosses the country at the latitude of the city of São Paulo. Brazil has five climatic regions: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, and subtropical. Max. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1373, 3504 KB) Description = Iguaçu, Brasilien/Argentinien Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1373, 3504 KB) Description = Iguaçu, Brasilien/Argentinien Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created March 1984 Author = Reinhard Jahn, Mannheim nanosmile Wikipedia account please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Devils throat from the Brazilian side. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Temperatures along the equator are high, with averages above 25 °C (77 °F), and occasionally reaching the summer extremes of up to 40 °C (104 °F) in the temperate zones.[58] Southern Brazil has a subtropical temperate weather, normally experiencing frost in the winter (June-August), and occasional snow in the mountainous areas, such as Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Temperatures in the cities of São Paulo,[59] Belo Horizonte,[60] and Brasília[61] are moderate, usually ranging between 10 °C (50 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F), because of their altitude of approximately 1,000 m (3,280 ft 10 in). Rio de Janeiro,[62][63] Recife[64] and Salvador,[65] located in the coast, have warm climates, with average temperatures ranging from 23 °C (73.4 °F) to 27 °C (80.6 °F). The southern cities of Porto Alegre and Curitiba have a subtropical climate similar to that in parts of the United States and Europe,[66][67] and temperatures can fall under 0 °C (32 °F) in the winter. Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym Catarinense or Barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ...


Precipitation levels vary widely. They are higher in the humid Amazon Basin, and lower in the somewhat arid landscapes of the northeast. Most of Brazil has moderate rainfall of 1,000 to 1,500 millimeters a year, with most of the rain falling in the summer (between December and April), south of the Equator. The Amazon region is notoriously humid, with rainfall generally of more than 2,000 millimeters per year, getting as high as 3,000 millimeters in parts of the western Amazon and near Belém. Despite high annual precipitation, the Amazon rain forest has a three-to-five-month dry season, the timing of which varies according to location north or south of the equator. Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ...


Environment

Main article: Environment of Brazil
The Toco Toucan is a typical animal of the Brazilian rain forests.
The Toco Toucan is a typical animal of the Brazilian rain forests.

Brazil's large area comprises different ecosystems, which together sustain some of the world's greatest biodiversity. Because of the country's intense economic and demographic growth, Brazil's ability to protect its environmental habitats has increasingly come under threat. Extensive logging in the nation's forests, particularly the Amazon, both official and unofficial, destroys areas the size of a small country each year, and potentially a diverse variety of plants and animals.[68] Between 2002 and 2006, an area of the Amazon Rainforest equivalent in size to the State of South Carolina was completely deforested for the purposes of raising cattle and woodlogging.[69] By 2020, at least 50% of the species resident in Brazil may become extinct.[69] The majority of biodiversity on the planet Earth, approximately two thirds of all species, are found in tropical areas, which is often where developing contries are. ... my own photo, by Daph Chloe Toucan Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco File links The following pages link to this file: Toucan Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Birds User:Daph Chloe Image:Ramphastos toco. ... my own photo, by Daph Chloe Toucan Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco File links The following pages link to this file: Toucan Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Animals/Birds User:Daph Chloe Image:Ramphastos toco. ... Binomial name Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776 The Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco is the best known and largest member of the toucan family and is commonly found in zoos. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


There is a general consensus that Brazil has the highest number of both terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates of any single country in the world.[70] Also, Brazil has the highest primate diversity,[70] the highest number of mammals,[70] the second highest number of amphibian and butterflies,[70] the third highest number of birds,[70] and fifth highest number of reptiles.[70] There is a high number of endangered species,[71] many of them living in threatened habitats such as the Atlantic Forest. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Araucaria moist forest in Curitiba, Paraná The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica in Portuguese) is a region of tropical and subtropical moist forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannas, and mangrove forests which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio...


Economy

São Paulo is the largest financial center of the country.

Brazil's GDP (PPP and Nominal) is the highest of Latin America with large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing,[72] and service sectors, as well as a large labour pool. The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is regarded as one of the group of four emerging economies called BRIC. Major export products include aircraft, coffee, automobiles, soybean, iron ore, orange juice, steel, ethanol, textiles, footwear, corned beef and electrical equipment.[73] According to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Brazil has the ninth largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity (PPP)[74][75] and tenth largest at market exchange rates.[76][77] Brazil has a diversified middle income economy with wide variations in development levels. Most large industry is agglomerated in the Southern and South East states. The Northeast is the poorest region of Brazil, but it has attracted new investments in infrastructure for the tourism sector and intensive agricultural schemes.[78][79][80][81] Brazil has a free market and export-oriented economy. ... The Economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy of the course of the history of Brazil From Portugals discovery of Brazil in 1500 until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the city. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Information on pump, California. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ... Corned beef is a cut of beef (usually brisket, but sometimes round or silverside) cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. ... A piece of electrical equipment is a machine, powered by electricity and usually consists of an enclosure, a variety of electrical components and often a power switch. ... IMF redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... The Southern Region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ... The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Brazil is currently divided in five regions, by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE). ...


Brazil had pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[82] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Brazilian central bank has temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[83] Brazil received an IMF rescue package in mid-2002 in the amount of USD 30.4 billion,[84][85] a record sum at that time. The IMF loan was paid off early by Brazil's central bank in 2005 (the due date was scheduled for 2006).[86] ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... The East Asian Financial Crisis was a period of economic unrest (or financial contagion) that started in July 1997 in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai Baht, and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in a number of Asian countries. ...


Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated service industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector amounted to as much as 16% of GDP, and has attracted foreign financial institutions and firms by issuing and trading Brazilian Depositary Receipts (BDRs).[87] One of the issues the Brazilian central bank is currently dealing with is the excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country in the past few months, which might explain in part the recent downfall of the U.S. dollar against the real in the period.[88] Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be USD 193.8bn for 2007.[89] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major role in Brazil's Central Bank activity in setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[90] The IPCA index, measured and calculated by the IBGE on a monthly basis, is the most commonly used index for inflation, although other indices such as the IPC-Fipe and IGP-M (FGV) are also widely used. The Brazilian Central Bank (in Portuguese: Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazils highest monetary authority in and the countrys governing body in finances and economics. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... This article is about economics. ... IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ...


Energy policy

Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation.
Itaipu Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation.

Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in Latin America. At the same time it is also a large oil and gas producer in the region and the world's largest ethanol producer. Because of its ethanol fuel production Brazil has been sometimes described as a bio-energy superpower.[91] Brazil's ethanol fuel is produced from sugar cane, the world's largest crop in both production and export tonnage. Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in South America. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Brazil’s 29-year-old ethanol fuel program uses cheap sugar cane, mainly bagasse (cane-waste) for process heat and power, and modern equipment, and provides a ~22% ethanol blend used nationwide, plus 100% hydrous ethanol... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 570 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 570 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Itaipu Dam Itaipu (Portuguese: Itaipu; SAMPA [itajpu]) is a dam that includes the largest hydroelectric power plant in the world. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Synthetic motor oil For other uses, see Oil (disambiguation). ... Gas phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions) move around freely Gas is one of the four major states of matter, consisting of freely moving atoms or molecules without a definite shape and without a definite volume. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Information on pump, California. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


With the 1973 oil crisis the Brazilian government initiated in 1975 the Pró-Álcool program. The Pró-Álcool or Programa Nacional do Álcool (National Alcohol Program) was a nation-wide program financed by the government to replace automobile fuels derived from fossil fuels in favor of ethanol. The program successfully reduced the number of cars running on gasoline in Brazil by 10 million, thereby reducing the country's dependence on oil imports. Brazil's production and consumption of biodiesel relative to its energy matrix is expected to reach to 2% of diesel fuel in 2008 and 5% in 2013.[92] Brazil is the third largest hydroelectricity producer in the world after China and Canada. In 2004 hydropower accounted 83% of Brazil power production.[92] The gross theoretical capability exceeds 3,000 TWh per annum, of which 800 TWh per annum is economically exploitable.[93] Also in 2004, Brazil produced 321TWh of hydropower, which was the third largest hydropower production in the world.[94] The installed capacity is 69 GW.[94] Brazil co-owns Itaipu hydroelectric power plant on the Paraná River which is the world largest hydroelectric power plant by energy generation with the installed generation capacity of 14 GW by 20 generating units of 700 MW each.[95] The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... Part of the Itaipu Dam Itaipu (Guarani: Itaipu, Portuguese: Itaipu, Spanish: Itaipú; pronounced ) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. ... The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ...


Science and technology

An Embraer E-175 jet airliner, produced in Brazil and used by airlines around the world.
An Embraer E-175 jet airliner, produced in Brazil and used by airlines around the world.

Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes. Despite governmental regulations and incentives, investment in research and development has been growing in private universities and companies as well since the 1990s. Nonetheless, more than 73% of funding for basic research still comes from governmental sources.[96] Some of Brazil's most notables technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The National Institute for Space Research (INPE) is a search unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), whose main goals lie in fostering scientific research and technological applications and in qualifying personnel in the fields of Space and Atmospheric Sciences, Applications, Space Engineering and Space Technology. While INPE is the civilian research center for aerospace activities, the Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology is the research military arm. Brazilian science and technology has achieved in the last decades a significant position in the international arena. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Embraer E-Jets are a series of narrowbody, twin-engined, medium range, jet airliners, produced in Brazil. ... The de Havilland Comet 1, G-ALYP - The first production Comet. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Instituto Oswaldo Cruz is a scientific institution for research and development in biomedical sciences located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... Instituto Butantan is a Brazilian biomedical research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health. ... The Brazilian General Command for Aerospace Technology (Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aerospacial - CTA) is the national military research center for aviation and space flight of the Federative Republic of Brazil and subordinated to the Brazilian Air Force. ... The Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Brazilian Enterprise of Agropecuary Research) is a state-owned company affiliated to the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, which is devoted to pure and applied research on agriculture. ... The National Institute for Space Research (INPE) is a search unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), whose main goals lie in fostering scientific research and technological applications and in qualifying personnel in the fields of Space and Atmospheric Sciences and Applications and Space Engineering and Space... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...


Brazilian information technology is comparable in quality and positioning to those of India and China, though because of Brazil's larger internal market, software exports are limited.[97] Catering for the internal market, Brazilian IT is particularly efficient in providing solutions to financial services, defense, CRM, eGovernment, and healthcare. The Brazilian government as an institution has plans to switch its operating systems, replacing the current proprietary software scheme for the free software scheme.[98] Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... The defense industry refers primarily to: Defense contractors: business organizations or individuals that provide products or services to a defense department of a government. ... CRM may stand for: In information technology Customer Relationship Management CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Compensating Resource Manager Clean Room Model, reverse engineering and recreating of a design without infringing copyrights and trade secrets, see Clean room design Cluster Resources Manager CRM114, a spam filter Communication Resource Manager, part of the... e-Government (from electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government or in a certain context transformational government) refers to government’s use of information and communication technology (ICT) to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Demographics

Brazil's population comprises many races and ethnic groups. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) classifies the Brazilian population in five categories: black, white, pardo (brown), yellow (Asian) or Indigenous, based on skin color or race. The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 93,096 million White people (49.7%), 79,782 million Pardo people (42.6%), 12,908 million Black people (6.9%), 919 thousand Asian people (0.5%) and 519 thousand Amerindian people (0.4%). [99] The ethnic composition of Brazilians is not uniform across the country. Because of its large influx of European immigrants in the 19th century, the Southern Region has a White majority, consisting of 79.6% of its population.[100] The Northeastern Region, as a result of the large numbers of African slaves working in the sugar cane engenhos, has a majority of brown and black peoples, respectively 62.5% and 7.8%.[101] Northern Brazil, largely covered by the Amazon Rainforest, is 69.2% brown, because of its strong Amerindian component.[102] Southeastern Brazil and Central-Western Brazil have a more balanced ratio among different ethnic groups. Map of Brazilian states by population. ... Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences, such as culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. ... Portuguese is the only official language of Brazil and is spoken the indigenous peoples. ... Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil in Portuguese) is a group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple of million Brazilian emigrants, mainly in the United States, United Kingdom, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 190 KB) [edit] Sumário pt - Praia de Boa Viagem, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 190 KB) [edit] Sumário pt - Praia de Boa Viagem, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km² (84. ... São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brazil has a relatively high reported level of urbanization, with 8 out of 10 Brazilians living in cities (144 million out of 180 million). ... For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... ... IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica), is the agency responsible for statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In Brazil, the Pardos are a mixture of Europeans, Blacks and Amerindians, varying from light to dark complexion, as used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in censuses since 1950. ... Brown people is a term used in political, racial, ethnic, societal, and cultural classifications, similar to black people and white people. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Human skin color can range from very dark brown to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... White Brazilians make up 49. ... In Brazil, the Pardos are a mixture of Europeans, Blacks and Amerindians, varying from light to dark complexion, as used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in censuses since 1950. ... Afro-Brazilian or African Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or part-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... Asian Brazilian is a Brazilian-born person of Asian descent. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (provoke indía gnas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Engenho is a colonial-era Portuguese term for a sugar mill and the associated facilities. ...


The largest ethnic group in Brazil is Portuguese (10.46%), followed by Italian (10.41%), Black or African (7.15%), Amerindian (6.64%), Spanish (4.40%), German (3.54%) and Japanese (1.34%). 38.66% of respondents identified their ethnicity as only Brazilian and 86.09% identified themselves as being also ethnically Brazilians.[103] Afro-Brazilian or African Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or part-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (provoke indía gnas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ...


The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, respectively with 19.7, 11.4, and 5.4 million inhabitants.[104] Almost all capitals are the largest city in their corresponding state, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley), and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley). São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brazil has a relatively high reported level of urbanization, with 8 out of 10 Brazilians living in cities (144 million out of 180 million). ... For other uses, see Vitoria (disambiguation). ... Motto Trabalha e Confia (Portuguese) Work and Trust [in God] Capital Vitória Largest city Vila Velha Demonym Capixaba or Espiritossantense Government  -  Governor Paulo Hartung  -  Vice Governor Ricardo Ferraço Area  -  Total 46. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Santa Catarina Founded March 23, 1726 Government  - Mayor Dario Elias Berger (PMDB) Area  - City 436. ... Nickname: Motto: Labore virtute civitas floret(Latin) Labour and virtue make the city blossom Location of Campinas Country Brazil State São Paulo Government  - Mayor Hélio de Oliveira Santos (Democrat Labour Party (Brazil)) Area  - City 797. ... Santos, originally Portuguese or Spanish for Saints (singular Santo), may mean a great number of different things: // Santos is a common surname in Spanish, as well as Portuguese. ... The Paraíba Valley (Portuguese: Vale do Paraíba) is a microregião of the eastern part of the state of São Paulo. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... Vale do Aço means steel valley in Portuguese. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Vale do Itajaí also known as Vale Europeu (or European Valley) is a region located in the Northeastern part of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. ...


Portuguese is the only official language of Brazil.[105] It is spoken by nearly the entire population and is virtually the only language used in schools, newspapers, radio, TV and for all business and administrative purposes. Moreover, Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity. 180 Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas.[106] There are important communities of speakers of German (mostly the Hunsrückisch, part of the High German languages) and Italian (mostly the Talian dialect, of Venetian origin) in the south of the country, both largely influenced by the Portuguese language.[107][108] World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Hunsrückisch is a German dialect spoken in the Hunsrück region of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Talian (Brazils Italian/o italiano do Brasil) is a variety of Italian spoken mainly in the wine-producing area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... A sign in Venetian reading Here we also speak Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over five million people,[1] mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ...


Education and health

The Federal Constitution and the 1996 General Law of Education in Brazil (LDB) determine the Federal Government, States, Federal District, and Municipalities will manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as mechanisms and sources for financial resources. The new Constitution reserves 25% of state and municipal taxes and 18% of federal taxes for education.[109] Private school programs are available to complement the public school system. In 2003, the literacy rate was at 88 percent of the population, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15–19) was 93.2 percent.[109] However, according to UNESCO Brazil's education still shows very low levels of efficiency by 15-year-old students, particularly in the public school network.[110] Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different specialization choices such as academic or vocational paths. Depending on the choice, students may improve their educational background with Stricto Sensu or Lato Sensu postgraduate courses.[111] The 1988 Brazilian Constitution said about education that it is, a right for all, duty of the State and of the family, and is to be promoted with the collaboration of society, with the objective of fully developing the person, preparing the individual for the exercise of citizenship and qualifying... According to Brazilian Government, the most serious health problems are:[1] Childhood mortality: about 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 823 KB) Information Description: Universidade Federal do Paraná(UFPR, Federal University of Parana). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 823 KB) Information Description: Universidade Federal do Paraná(UFPR, Federal University of Parana). ... UFPR - Campus Santos Andrade The Universidade Federal do Paraná (Federal University of Paraná) was founded in 19 December of 1912, in Curitiba. ... Nickname: Motto: A cidade sorriso (The smiley city) Location of Curitiba Country Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ...


The public health system is managed and provided by all levels of government, whilst private healthcare fulfills a complementary role.[2] Several problems hamper the Brazilian system. In 2006, the most notable health issues were infant mortality, child mortality, maternal mortality, mortality by non-transmissible illness and mortality caused by external causes (transportation, violence and suicide).[112] is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Child mortality is the death of children in their first 5 years of life. ...


Social issues

Main article: Social issues in Brazil
Located between some of the richest areas of Rio de Janeiro, the Rocinha favela is testimony to high economic inequality within Brazil.

Brazil has been unable to reflect its recent economic achievements into social development. Poverty, urban violence, growing social security debts, inefficient public services, and the low value of the minimum wage are some of the main social issues that currently challenge the Brazilian government. The rate of poverty is in part attributed to the country's economic inequality. Brazil ranks among the world's highest nations in the Gini coefficient index of inequality assessment. According to Fundação Getúlio Vargas, in 2006 the rate of people living below the poverty line based on labour income was of 19.31% of the population[113] — a 33% reduction considering the previous three years.[114] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Vidigal, a favela similar to Rocinha Rocinha (literally, Portuguese for small ranch) is a favela located within the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro, between the districts of São Conrado and Gávea. ... Vidigal, a Rio de Janeiro favela A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... Fundação Getúlio Vargas (brazilian site) (Getúlio Vargas Foundation) is a prestigious Brazilian Think Tank focused on academic research, courses, consulting, and public services. ...


Poverty in Brazil is most visually represented by the various favelas, slums in the country's metropolitan areas and remote upcountry regions that suffer with economic underdevelopment and below-par standards of living. There are also great differences in wealth and welfare between regions. While the Northeast region has the worst economic indicators nationwide, many cities in the South and Southeast enjoy First World socioeconomic standards,[115] with roughly 23.8 homicides per 100,000 residents.[116] The level of violence in some large urban centers is comparable to that of a war zone.[117][118] Analysts generally suggest the alarming social inequality as the major reason behind this problem. Muggings, robberies, kidnappings[119] and gang violence[120] are common in the largest cities. Police brutality and corruption are widespread.[121][122] Innefficient public services,[123][124][125] especially those related to security, education and health, severely affect quality of life. Minimum wages fail in fulfilling the constitutional requirements set in article 7, IV, regarding living standards. Brazil currently ranks 70th in the Human Development Index list, with a high HDI (0,800). The social security system is considered unreliable and has been historically submerged in large debts and graft, which have been steadily increasing along the 1990s.[126] Vidigal, a Rio de Janeiro favela A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city. ... An economic indicator (or business indicator) is a statistic about the economy. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Brazil

A wide variety of elements influenced Brazilian culture. Its major early influence derived from Portuguese culture, because of strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other inheritances, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, the Roman-Germanic legal system, and the colonial architectural styles. Other aspects of Brazilian culture are contributions of European and Asian immigrants, Native South American people (such as the Tupi), and African slaves. Thus, Brazil is a multicultural and multiethnic society.[127] Italian, German and other European immigrants came in large numbers and their influences are felt closer to the Southeast and South of Brazil.[128] Amerindian peoples influenced Brazil's language and cuisine and the Africans, brought to Brazil as slaves, influenced Brazil's music, dance, cuisine, religion and language.[129] Brazilian culture is a Latin American culture of a very diverse nature. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Mangueira samba school parades in Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: ) is an annual festival in Brazil held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... The Tupi people are one of the main ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guaraní. They first inhabited the Amazon rainforest, then spread southward and gradually occupied the Atlantic coast. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The indigenous peoples of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... The cuisine of Brazil, like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. ... Afro-Brazilian or African Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or part-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... Strong influences on the music of Brazil come from many parts of the world, but there are very popular regional music styles influenced by African and European forms. ...


In the 1950s, Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinícius de Moraes, Baden Powell de Aquino, and João Gilberto popularized the Bossa Nova style in music. Later Elis Regina, Milton Nascimento, Chico Buarque and Nara Leão had an important role in shaping Música Popular Brasileira (literally translated as "Brazilian Popular Music," often abbreviated to MPB). In the late 1960s, tropicalismo was popularized by Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation... Vinicius de Moraes (October 19, 1913 - July 9, 1980), born as Marcus Vinícius da Cruz de Melo Morais in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was a seminal figure in contemporary Brazilian music. ... For the founder of the world scouting movement, see Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell Baden Powell de Aquino (August 6, 1937 - September 26, 2000) widely known simply as Baden Powell, was a Brazilian bossa nova guitarist. ... João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Elis Regina Carvalho Costa, known simply as Elis Regina (March 17, 1945 – January 19, 1982) was a singer of Brazilian popular music who achieved great success and recognition during her lifetime. ... Milton Nascimento (born 26 October 1942) is a singer-songwriter who is considered one of the icons of Brazilian Music. ... Chico Buarque (full name: Francisco Buarque de Hollanda; born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian singer, composer, dramatist and writer. ... Nara Loffego Leão (January 19, 1942 – June 7, 1989) was a Brazilian bossa nova singer and occasional actress. ... Música Popular Brasileira, or MPB, literally Brazilian Popular Music, designating a trend in post-Bossa Nova urban popular music. ... Tropicalismo, also known as Tropicália, is a Brazilian art movement that arose in the late 1960s and encompassed theatre, poetry and music, among other forms. ... Caetano Emanuel Viana Teles Veloso (born 7 August 1942), known as Caetano Veloso, is a Grammy Award-winning Brazilian composer and singer. ... Gilberto Passos Gil Moreira (born June 26, 1942) is a Grammy Award-winning Brazilian singer, guitarist and songwriter. ...


Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: Carnaval) is an annual celebration held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. Brazilian Carnival has distinct regional characteristics. Other regional festivals include the Boi Bumbá and Festa Junina (June Festivals). Mangueira samba school parades in Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: ) is an annual festival in Brazil held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... Boi is a style of Central Amazonian folk music now moving into the mainstream in Brazil. ... Festa Junina, typically termed São João (Saint John) as it is centered on that saints day, is the name of annual Brazilian celebrations (historically related to the Midsummer festivities in Europe) which take place in the beginning of the Brazilian winter, consequently during the European summer. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Brazil

The most popular religion in Brazil is Roman Catholicism and the country has the largest Roman Catholic population in the world. Adepts of Protestantism are rising in number. Until 1970, the majority of Brazilian Protestants were members of "traditional churches", mostly Lutherans, Presbyterians and Baptists. Since then, numbers of Pentecostal and Neopentecostal members have increased significantly. Islam in Brazil was first practiced by African slaves.[130] Today, the Muslim population in Brazil is made up mostly of Arab immigrants. A recent trend has been the increase in conversions to Islam among non-Arab citizens.[131] Only 27,000 Muslims live in Brazil as of 2000.[132] The largest population of Buddhists in Latin America lives in Brazil, mostly because the country has the largest Japanese population outside Japan.[133] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,950 × 1,977 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,950 × 1,977 pixels, file size: 2. ... Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro Christ the Redeemer (Portuguese: ), is a statue of Jesus Christ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... For the song by Antonio Carlos Jobim, see Corcovado (Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars). ... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... According to the official 2000 census for Islam in Brazil, there were 27,239 Muslims living in the country, primarily concentrated in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. The United States Department of State, however, claims that the census probably undercounts the actual total. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Languages Japanese Religions Shinto, Buddhism, large secular groups      The Japanese people ) is the ethnic group that identifies as Japanese by culture or ancestry, or both. ...


The latest IBGE census presents the following numbers: 74% of the population is Roman Catholic (about 139 million); 15.4% is Protestant (about 28 million), including Jehovah's Witnesses (1,100,000) and the Latter-day Saints (600,000),[134] ; 7.4% considers itself agnostics or atheists or without a religion (about 12 million); 1.3% follows Spiritism (about 2.2 million); 0.3% follows African traditional religions such as Candomblé and Umbanda and 1.7% are members of other religions. Some of these are Buddhists (215,000), Jews (150,000), Islamic (27,000) and some practice a mixture of different religions.[132] For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... “Atheist” redirects here. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Ilê Axé Iya Nassô Oká - Terreiro da Casa Branca Candomblé is an African-inspired or Afro-Brazilian religion or cult, practiced chiefly in Brazil. ... Umbanda is a religion that blends Catholicism, Kardecist Spiritualism, and Afro-Brazilian religions . ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... According to the official 2000 census for Islam in Brazil, there were 27,239 Muslims living in the country, primarily concentrated in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. The United States Department of State, however, claims that the census probably undercounts the actual total. ...


Sports

Main article: Sports in Brazil

Football is the most popular sport in Brazil.[135] The Brazilian national football team (Seleção) is currently ranked second in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings. They have been victorious in the World Cup tournament a record five times, in 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Basketball, volleyball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Though not as regularly followed or practiced as the previously mentioned sports, tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. In auto racing, Brazilian drivers have won the Formula 1 world championship eight times: Emerson Fittipaldi (1972 and 1974), Nelson Piquet (1981, 1983 and 1987) and Ayrton Senna (1988, 1990 and 1991). The circuit located in São Paulo, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.[136] Capoeira (a Brazilian martial art) Gracie Jiu Jitsu- Known by the wonderfull fighters in the Gracie family. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Maracanã stadium (official name: Estádio Mário Filho, Maracanã being its neighborhoods name) in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is one of the biggest football stadiums of the world, and it is home of the four biggest football teams of Rio: Flamengo, Botafogo, Vasco da Gama and Fluminense. ... The 2007 Pan American Games were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First International Argentina 3 - 0 Brazil (Buenos Aires, Argentina; August 20, 1914) Largest win Brazil 9 - 0 Colombia (Lima, Peru; 23 March 1957) Worst defeat Argentina 6 - 1 Brazil (Buenos Aires, Argentina; 5 March 1940) World Cup Appearances 17 (First in 1930) Best result Winners, 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002... For the club competition, see FIFA Club World Cup. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... A Peugeot 206 World Rally Car Motor racing and Motorsports redirect here. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... Emerson Fittipaldi (born December 12, 1946, São Paulo, Brazil) is a highly successful open-wheel racing series driver, winning world championships in both Formula One and CART, and the Indianapolis 500 twice. ... Nelson Piquet Souto Maior (born August 17, 1952), more commonly known as Nelson Piquet, is a Brazilian racing driver who was Formula One world champion in 1981, 1983, and 1987. ... Ayrton Senna da Silva (pronounced / /, March 21, 1960 – May 1, 1994) was a Brazilian three-times Formula One world champion. ... This article is about the city. ... Autódromo José Carlos Pace is the venue of the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix, located in a suburb of the city of São Paulo, named after José Carlos Pace, a Brazilian Formula One driver, who had died prior to its naming. ... The Brazilian Grand Prix (Portuguese: Grande Prêmio do Brasil) is a Formula One championship race which occurs at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos, Brazil. ...


In basketball, Brazil’s men’s team has won the Basketball World Championship twice, in 1959 and 1963. The women’s team has won the FIBA World Championship for Women only once, in 1994. Currently though, both national teams have become less competitive; as of June, 2007, FIBA ranks the men's team 17th in the world [137] and the women's team as 4th.[138] In volleyball, the country didn’t enjoy much success until the early 1990s, but as of 2006, Brazil’s men’s national team is on top of the FIVB rank, winning multiple titles.[139] The women’s team also won several competitions and is currently ranked second in the world by FIVB.[140] Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil. Beach football, futsal (official version of indoor football) and footvolley emerged in the country as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians have developed Capoeira,[141] Vale tudo,[142] and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.[143] The Basketball World Championship (official name: FIBA World Championship) is a world basketball tournament for mens national teams held quadrennially. ... // Like the mens event, the Women’s World Championship was created by the International Basketball Federation (FIBA). ... The International Basketball Federation (French Fédération Internationale de Basketball) is an association of national organizations which governs international competitition in the sport. ... FIVB Logo Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for the sport of volleyball. ... Beach Soccer is a variant of the sport of association football. ... Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... Footvolley is a sport which combines field rules that are based on those of volleyball with ball-touch rules taken from football. ... Capoeira (IPA: ) is an Afro-Brazilian martial art, game, and culture created by enslaved Africans in Brazil during the 17th Century. ... Vale-tudo (Portuguese for anything goes - vale - is allowed, tudo - everything) describes competitions in unarmed combat having minimal rules[1]. It is sometimes considered a combat sport. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The Brazilian athletes at the 2007 Pan American Games.
The Brazilian athletes at the 2007 Pan American Games.

Brazil has had disappointing results in the Olympic Summer Games, considering the size of its population and economy. It currently ranks 39th in the all-time medal table, having won only 17 gold medals in all events. In Athens 2004, Brazil finished 16th in the rank with 5 gold medals[144] Brazil’s poor Olympic record relates to a lack of heavy governmental investments in sport and to a general overemphasis on team sports. The government, through its Ministry of Sport, has established a number of programs to try and revert the situation, such as "Programa Bolsa-Atleta",[145] "Projetos Esportivos Sociais",[146] and "Descoberta de Talento Esportivo",[147] albeit effective improvements remain to be seen. Due to its tropical nature, Brazil usually does not take part in the Olympic Winter Games, although ten athletes were sent to 2006 Winter Olympics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (3035 × 1772 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (3035 × 1772 pixel, file size: 1. ... The 2007 Pan American Games were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... An all-time medal count for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2006, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games and a combined total of both, is tabulated below. ... The Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, commonly known as the 2004 Summer Olympics were the 28th Summer Olympic Games. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ...


Brazil has undertaken the organization of large-scale sporting events: the country organized and hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup[148] and is chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup event.[149] São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963[150] and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.[151] Brazil also tries for the fourth time to host the Summer Olympics with Rio de Janeiro in 2016.[152] Qualifying countries The 1950 FIFA World Cup was the only one not decided by a knockout final. ... The 2014 FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil[1] and will be the 20th FIFA World Cup. ... The 4th Pan American Games were held in São Paulo, Brazil. ... The 2007 Pan American Games were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... The Rio 2016 Olympic bid is the attempt by the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to be chosen by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the host city for the 2016 Summer Olympics. ...


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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Central plaza at USPs main campus at São Paulo City, showing the Clock Tower The University of São Paulo (in Portuguese Universidade de São Paulo; USP) is one of the three public universities funded by the State of São Paulo. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The University of Brasília (in Portuguese: Universidade de Brasília, known simply as UnB), is one of the largest and one of the most respected public Federally-sponsored universities in Brazil, located in the countrys capital Brasília. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are 26 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The letters INPE may refer to the: the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais) located in São José dos Campos, Brazil. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... There are 27 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are 26 States of Brazil, or Estados in Portuguese, which are the federal states of Brazil, plus the Federal District which holds the capital city, Brasília. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USDA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Bovespa - São Paulo Stock Exchange (Portuguese: Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA) or Institute of Applied Economic Research is a Brazilian government-led research organization dedicated to generation of macroeconomical, sectorial and thematic studies in order to base government planning and policy making. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... IEA can stand for several different things, such as those listed here: Idaho Education Association Illinois Education Association Illuminating Engineering Society Industrial Environmental Association Information Exchange Agreements Information Exchange Annex Institute for Economic Analysis Institute of Economic Affairs Instituto de Economia Agrícola Instituto de Estadística de Andalucía... The World Energy Outlook (WEO) is an annual publication containing medium- to long-term energy projections and analysis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IEA Logo Map of members The International Energy Agency (IEA, or AIE in Romance languages) is a Paris-based intergovernmental organization founded by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the oil crisis. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gilberto Freyre (1900-1987) was a Brazilian author, known for his 1933 sociological treatise Casa-Grande & Senzala (The Masters and the Slaves). ... The UNESCO Courier is a monthly online magazine published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO. The magazine is written journalistically and each issue looks into a single subject from different angles. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  1. Background Note: Brazil. US Department of State.
  2. The World Factbook: Brazil. Central Intelligence Agency.
  3. Wagley, Charles (1963). An Introduction to Brazil. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. 
  4. (2006) The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil. New York, NY: World Almanac Books. 
  5. Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  6. Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  7. Furtado, Celso. The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 
  8. Leal, Victor Nunes (1977). Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  9. Prado Júnior, Caio (1967). The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  10. Schneider, Ronald (1995). Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse. Boulder Westview. 
  11. Bethell, Leslie (1991). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge: CUP. 
  12. Alves, Maria Helena Moreira (1985). State and Opposition in Military Brazil. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 
  13. Amann, Edmund (1990). The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso. World Development (pp. 1805-1819). 
  14. Martinez-Lara, Javier (1995). Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change. Macmillan. 
  15. Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 
  16. Skidmore, Thomas E. (1974). Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  17. Malathronas, John (2003). Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul. Chichester: Summersdale. 
  18. Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol: The Brazilian Way Of Life. London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc. 

External links

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Government and administration Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

  • Brazilian Federal Government
  • Presidency of Brazil
  • Chamber of Deputies
  • (Portuguese) Federal Senate

Information and statistics

  • Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
  • (Portuguese) Institute of Applied Economics Research
  • U.S. Library of Congress
  • National Bank for Social and Economical Development

Economy and business

  • Brazilian Central Bank
  • São Paulo Stock Exchange
  • Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce
  • Britcham in Brazil

Tourism and sports

  • Brazil travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Tourism in Brazil
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Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brazil - Introduction (0 words)
Brazil shares a border with almost every other country in South America--only Chile and Ecuador are untouched--and covers almost half the continent.
Despite its vast expanse of territory, Brazil's population is concentrated in the major cities of its coast.
Almost half of Brazil's territory is covered by the basin of the Amazon River and its tributaries, a region that is one of the world's largest rainforest ecologies.
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