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Encyclopedia > Braxton Bragg
Braxton Bragg
March 22, 1817(1817-03-22)September 27, 1876

Braxton Bragg
Place of birth Warrenton, North Carolina
Place of death Galveston, Texas
Allegiance Confederate States of America
Years of service 1837-56 (USA), 1861-65 (CSA)
Rank General
Commands Army of Mississippi
Battles/wars Second Seminole War
Mexican-American War
American Civil War

Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x789, 387 KB) TITLE: General Braxton Bragg SUMMARY: Braxton Bragg, half-length portrait, facing right CREATED/PUBLISHED: [photographed between 1861 and 1865, printed later] Source: Library of Congress. ... Warrenton is a town located in Warren County, North Carolina. ... Galveston redirects here. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... A General is a high rank in the United States military. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Contents

Early life and military career

Bragg was born in Warrenton, North Carolina,[1] the younger brother of future Confederate Attorney General Thomas Bragg. He was often ridiculed as a child because of his mother's stint in prison. He graduated fifth in a class of fifty from the U.S. Military Academy in 1837 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery. Warrenton is a town located in Warren County, North Carolina. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Categories: Stub | 1810 births | 1872 deaths | Governors of North Carolina | United States Senators ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ...


Bragg served in the Second Seminole War in Florida and took part in the occupation of Texas. He won promotions for bravery and distinguished conduct in the Mexican-American War, including a brevet promotion to major for the Battle of Monterrey and to lieutenant colonel for the Battle of Buena Vista. He gained the respect of Gen. Zachary Taylor. Osceola, Seminole leader. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


Bragg had a reputation for being a strict disciplinarian and one who adhered to regulations literally. There is a famous, perhaps apocryphal, story about him as a company commander at a frontier post where he also served as quartermaster. He submitted a requisition for supplies for his company, then as quartermaster declined to fill it. As company commander, he resubmitted the requisition, giving additional reasons for his requirements, but as the quartermaster he denied the request again. Realizing that he was at a personal impasse, he referred the matter to the post commandant, who exclaimed, "My God, Mr. Bragg, you have quarreled with every officer in the army, and now you are quarreling with yourself!" It is alleged that some of his troops attempted to assassinate him on two occasions in August and September 1847, but he was not injured either time. In the more serious of the two incidents, one of his soldiers exploded a 12-pound artillery shell underneath his cot. Although the cot was destroyed, somehow Bragg himself emerged without a scratch.[2]


In 1856, Bragg resigned from the U.S. Army to become a sugar planter in Thibodaux, Louisiana. He also served as Commissioner of Public Works for the state. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Thibodaux (pronounced TIB-uh-doe; IPA: ) is a small city located on the banks of Bayou Lafourche in northwestern Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. ...


Civil War

Early Civil War career

Before the start of the Civil War, Bragg was a colonel in the Louisiana Militia and was promoted to major general of the militia on February 20, 1861. He commanded the forces around New Orleans, Louisiana, until April 16, but his commission was transferred to be a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army on March 7, 1861. He commanded forces in Pensacola, Florida, and the Department of West Florida and was promoted to major general on September 12, 1861. His command was extended to Alabama, and then to the Army of Pensacola in October 1861. His tenure was successful and along with friend Richard Taylor he turned his men into some of the best disciplined troops in the Confederate Army. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... NOLA redirects here. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Bragg brought his forces to Corinth, Mississippi, and was charged with improving the poor discipline of the Confederate troops already assembled. He commanded a corps at the Battle of Shiloh and attacked the Hornet's Nest with piecemeal frontal assaults.[3] After the Confederate commander, General Albert Sidney Johnston, was killed at Shiloh, General P.G.T. Beauregard assumed command. On that day, April 6, 1862, Bragg was promoted to full general, one of only eight in the history of the Confederacy, and assigned to command the Army of Mississippi.[4] The next day the Confederates were driven back to Corinth. After the Siege of Corinth, Beauregard departed on account of illness, although he failed to inform President Davis of his departure and spent two weeks absent without leave. Davis was looking for someone to replace Beauregard because of his poor performance at Corinth, and the opportunity presented itself when Beauregard left without permission. Bragg was then appointed his successor as commander of the Army of Tennessee in June 1862. Corinth is a city located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Corinth I (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought from April 29, 1862 – June 10, 1862 in Corinth, Mississippi. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ...


Army of Tennessee

In August 1862, Bragg invaded Kentucky, hoping that he could arouse supporters of the Confederate cause in the border state and draw the Union forces under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, beyond the Ohio River. Bragg transported all of his infantry by railroads from Tupelo, Mississippi, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, while his cavalry and artillery moved by road. By moving his army to Chattanooga, Tennessee, he was able to challenge Buell's advance on the city. Once his forces had assembled in Chattanooga, Bragg then planned to move north into Kentucky in cooperation with Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith , who was commanding a separate force operating out of Knoxville, Tennessee. He captured over 4,000 Union soldiers at Munfordville, and then moved his army to Bardstown. On October 4, 1862, he participated in the inauguration of Richard Hawes as the provisional Confederate governor of Kentucky. The wing of Bragg's army under Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk met Buell's army at Perryville on October 8 and won a tactical victory against him. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Tupelo (IPA: [tu:pÉ™lo]) is the largest city and county seat within Lee County, Mississippi. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... Knoxville redirects here. ... Battle of Munfordville Conflict American Civil War Date September 14-17, 1862 Place Hart County, Kentucky Result Confederate victory In the 1862 Confederate offensive into Kentucky, Gen. ... Bardstown is a city located in Nelson County, Kentucky. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Kentuckys Provisinal Governor of the Confederates Richard Hawes (1797—1877) He was brother of Albert Gallatin Hawes, nephew of Aylett Hawes, and cousin of Aylett Hawes Buckner), a Representative from Kentucky. ... For the agrarian leader and North Carolinas first Commissioner of Agriculture, see Leonidas Lafayette Polk. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kirby Smith pleaded with Bragg to follow up on his success: "For God's sake, General, let us fight Buell here." Bragg replied, "I will do it, sir," but then displaying what one observer called "a perplexity and vacillation which had now become simply appalling to Smith, to Hardee, and to Polk,"[5] he ordered his army to retreat through the Cumberland Gap to Knoxville. Bragg referred to his retreat as a withdrawal, the successful culmination of a giant raid. He had multiple reasons for withdrawing. Disheartening news had arrived from North Mississippi that Earl Van Dorn and Sterling Price had failed at Corinth, just as Robert E. Lee had failed in his Maryland Campaign. He saw that his army had not much to gain from a further, isolated victory, whereas a defeat might cost not only the bountiful food and supplies yet collected, but also his army. He wrote to his wife, "With the whole southwest thus in the enemy's possession, my crime would have been unpardonable had I kept my noble little army to be ice-bound in the northern clime, without tents or shoes, and obliged to forage daily for bread, etc."[6] Knoxville redirects here. ... Earl Van Dorn Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820 – May 7, 1863) was a Confederate Major General during the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Earl Van Dorn Strength approximately 23,000 approximately 22,000 Casualties 2,359 4,838 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Corinth II was a United States Civil War battle fought from October 3 - October 4, 1862 in Corinth... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ...


The invasion of Kentucky was a strategic failure, although it had forced the Union forces out of Northern Alabama and most of Middle Tennessee; it would take the Union forces a year to regain the lost ground. Bragg was criticized by some newspapers and two of his own generals, Polk and William J. Hardee, but there was plenty of blame to spread among the Confederate high command for the failure of the invasion of Kentucky. The armies of Bragg and Kirby Smith suffered from a lack of unified command. Bragg can be faulted for moving his army away from Munfordville, out of Buell's path, a prime location for a battle to Confederate advantage. Polk can also be blamed for not following Bragg's instructions on the day before and of the battle. William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


In December, Bragg fought the Battle of Stones River, and nearly defeated Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, but withdrew his army from the field to Tullahoma, Tennessee, after the urgings of corps commanders Hardee and Polk. The attacks upon Bragg started anew and several of his supporters now turned against him. James M. McPherson wrote about the aftermath of Stones River:[7] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Tullahoma is a city in Coffee County and Franklin County, Tennessee, in the south-central part of the state. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

While Washington breathed a sigh of relief after Stones River, dissension came to a head in the Army of Tennessee. All of Bragg's corps and division commanders expressed a lack of confidence in their chief. Senior Generals William J. Hardee and Leonidas Polk asked Davis to put Johnston in command of the army. Division commander B. Franklin Cheatham vowed he would never again serve under Bragg. Breckinridge wanted to challenge Bragg to a duel. Bragg struck back, court-martialing one division commander for disobeying orders, accusing another (Cheatham) of drunkenness during the battle, and blaming Breckinridge for inept leadership. This internecine donnybrook threatened to do more damage to the army than the Yankees had done. Disheartened, Bragg told a friend that it might "be better for the President to send someone to relieve me," and wrote Davis to the same effect.

James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era

Stones River was also another in which blame can be spread beyond Bragg alone. Bragg has to be faulted for the ground on which the battle was fought, which offered few advantages to the attacking Confederate army and offered more advantages to the defending Union army. He also selected his military objective poorly, resulting in a Union defensive line that became more concentrated and stronger as Bragg's became spread out and weaker. The ill-advised assaults he ordered John C. Breckinridge to make on January 2, 1863, weakened his army without gain. But his subordinates were at various degrees of fault. The inexperienced Maj. Gen. John P. McCown was found guilty by court-martial of disobedience to Bragg's orders, which diluted the force of his division's attack and possibly cost the Confederates a victory. The charge of drunkenness pressed against division commander B. Franklin Cheatham was merited, as there were claims that he was so drunk during the battle that he fell off his horse while leading his men forward. Both Polk and Hardee can be faulted for not coordinating their attacks, but instead choosing to attack en echelon, which led to much of the confusion. Fault is also given to Jefferson Davis, who sent Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson's division to the defense of Vicksburg. The loss of these troops weakened Bragg's army and if Bragg had had these troops victory might have been possible. John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Porter McCown (1815 - 1879) was a Confederate Major General in the American Civil War. ... Benjamin F. Cheatham Benjamin Franklin Cheatham (October 20, 1820 – September 4, 1886), known also as Frank, was a Tennessee farmer, California gold miner, and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Four OS2U Kingfisher airplanes flying in right echelon formation. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Carter Littlepage Stevenson, Jr. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of...


Many members of Bragg's army sought to get him transferred after the battle, citing the failure of the Kentucky invasion and the recent defeat at Murfreesboro, as well as the lack of faith the army had in Bragg, as reasons to remove him. Polk became the ringleader and tried to influence his friend Jefferson Davis through a series of letters explaining to Davis about why Bragg needed to go as the commander of the army. Hardee became Polk's second-in-command, so to speak, as he went about trying to influence the officers in the army against Bragg, while presenting a friendly face to him. Davis was unwilling to choose between Bragg and Polk, so he empowered Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, commander of all Confederate forces in the Western Theater, to relieve Bragg of command. Johnston visited Bragg, found general morale in the army to be high, and decided to retain him. Bragg was then driven from Tullahoma to Chattanooga and into Georgia during Rosecrans's Tullahoma Campaign in late June 1863, during which he constantly outflanked the Confederate army of their positions. Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


After William S. Rosecrans had consolidated his gains and completed his hold on Chattanooga, he began moving his army into northern Georgia against Bragg's army. Bragg began to suffer from inattention to his orders on the part of his subordinates. On September 10, Maj. Gens. Thomas C. Hindman and D.H. Hill refused to attack the outnumbered Federal column under Brig. Gen. James S. Negley, as ordered. On September 13, Bragg ordered Leonidas Polk to attack Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden's corps, but Polk ignored the orders and demanded more troops, insisting that it was he who was about to be attacked. Rosecrans used the time lost in these delays to collect his scattered forces.[8] Finally, on September 19 and September 20, 1863, Bragg, reinforced by two divisions from Mississippi, one division and several brigades from the Department of East Tennessee, and two divisions under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet from Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, turned on the pursuing Rosecrans in northeastern Georgia and at high cost defeated him at the Battle of Chickamauga, the greatest Confederate victory in the Western Theater during the war. After the battle, Rosecrans's Army of the Cumberland retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where Bragg laid siege to the city. He chose to use the victory to rid himself of his enemies within the army and managed to get Polk and D.H. Hill transferred. Bragg blamed Polk for the numerous occasions on which he disobeyed instructions. Hill, one of the many generals who were allies of Polk, spoke out against Bragg so much that Jefferson Davis removed him from command and canceled his endorsement for Hill's promotion to lieutenant general. William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Carmichael Hindman (28 January 1828 - 27 September 1868) was a United States Representative from the 1st Congressional District of Arkansas and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... James Scott Negley (1896_1901) was a U.S. soldier, farmer and U.S. Congressman. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas L. Crittenden Thomas Leonidas Crittenden (May 15, 1819 – October 23, 1893) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Things came to a boil in the Confederate high command in the aftermath of Chickamauga. Some of Bragg's subordinate generals were frustrated at what they perceived to be his lack of willingness to exploit the victory by driving the Union Army from Chattanooga and pursuing them. Polk in particular was outraged to being relieved of command. The dissidents, including many of the division and corps commanders, met in secret and prepared a petition to the president. Although the author of the petition is not known, historians suspect it was Simon Buckner, whose signature was first on the list.[9] Lt. Gen. James Longstreet wrote to the Secretary of War with the prediction that "nothing but the hand of God can save us or help us as long as we have our present commander." Nathan Bedford Forrest, dissatisfied after a long association with Bragg, and bitter about his failure to pursue the defeated Union forces after Chickamauga, refused to serve under him again. He told Bragg to his face, "You have played the part of a damned scoundrel. ... If you ever again try to interfere with me or cross my path it will be at the peril of your life."[10] With the Army of Tennessee literally on the verge of mutiny, Jefferson Davis reluctantly traveled to Chattanooga to personally assess the situation and to try to stem the tide of dissent in the army. Although Bragg offered to resign to resolve the crisis,[11] Davis eventually decided to leave Bragg in command and denounced the other generals and termed their complaints "shafts of malice".[12] James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...


When finally reinforced and now commanded by Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the Union Army broke the siege by driving the Confederates from their commanding positions on Lookout Mountain (the famous "Battle Above the Clouds") on November 24, and Missionary Ridge the following day. The Battle of Chattanooga at Missionary Ridge resulted in a rout with the Confederates narrowly escaping total destruction and retreating into Georgia. The loss of their hold on Chattanooga is partially attributed to poor placement of artillery; instead of locating the guns on the military crest, they were placed on the actual crest of the ridge, allowing the approaching infantry to remain in defilade. Bragg, under advice from Davis, sent James Longstreet and his divisions, as well as Simon B. Buckner and his division, to Knoxville, Tennessee, to lay siege to Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside and his forces located in the city. While this move was gladly accepted by Longstreet, and Bragg believed he could prevent Burnside from marching to Grant's aid. Only after the Confederate collapse at Chattanooga did Davis accept Bragg's resignation and replace him with Joseph E. Johnston, who commanded the army in the Atlanta Campaign against Sherman. Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... Military crest is a term in military science that refers to the shoulder of a hill or ridge rather than its actual crest (highest point). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 1, 1823 – January 8, 1914) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, the officer who yielded to Ulysses S. Grants famous demand for unconditional surrender at the Battle of... Knoxville redirects here. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of...


Final days

In February 1864, Bragg was sent to Richmond, Virginia; his official orders read that he was "charged with the conduct of military operations of the Confederate States", but he was essentially Davis's military advisor without a direct command, a post once held by Robert E. Lee. Bragg used his organizational abilities to reduce corruption and improve the supply system. He reshaped the Confederacy's conscription process by streamlining the chain of command and reducing conscripts' avenues of appeal. Later he commanded in turn the defenses of Wilmington, North Carolina, the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, the defenses of Augusta, Georgia, the defenses of Savannah, Georgia, the defenses of Charleston, South Carolina, and in January 1865, the defenses again of Wilmington. His performance in the Second Battle of Fort Fisher caused the loss of the latter city, but he managed to escape with the bulk of the garrison and win a small victory at Kinston. Near the end of the war he served as a corps commander (although his command was less than a division in size) in the Army of Tennessee under Joseph E. Johnston in the Carolinas Campaign against Sherman and fought at the Battle of Bentonville. After Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Bragg accompanied Jefferson Davis as he fled through South Carolina and into Georgia. Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Second Battle of Fort Fisher Conflict American Civil War Date January 13-15, 1865 Place New Hanover County, North Carolina Result Union victory Sometimes referred to as the Gibraltar of the South and the last major stronghold of the Confederacy, Fort Fisher had tremendous strategic value during the American Civil... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Media:Example. ... McLean house, April 1865. ...


Postbellum

After the war Bragg served as the superintendent of the New Orleans waterworks and later became the chief engineer for Alabama, supervising harbor improvements at Mobile. He moved to Texas and became a railroad inspector. NOLA redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ...


Bragg was walking down a street with a friend in Galveston, Texas, when he suddenly fell over dead. A local legend holds that there is a mysterious light near the place of his death, which is called Bragg's light. He is buried in Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Alabama. Galveston redirects here. ... Magnolia Cemetery is a city cemetery located in Mobile, Alabama. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ...


Controversial legacy

James McPherson's reference to "the bumblers like Bragg and Pemberton and Hood who lost the West"[13] sums up the judgment of many modern historians. Bragg's shortcomings as an army commander included his unimaginative tactics, mostly his reliance on frontal assault (such as the Hornet's Nest at Shiloh, Breckinridge's assault at Stones River, and numerous instances at Chickamauga), and his lack of post-battle followup that turned tactical victories or draws into strategic disappointments (Perryville and Chickamauga). His sour disposition, penchant to blame others for defeat, and poor interpersonal relationships undoubtedly caused him to be criticized more directly than many of his unsuccessful contemporaries were. Historian Peter Cozzens wrote about his relationship with subordinates:[14] John C. Pemberton John Clifford Pemberton (August 10, 1814 – July 13, 1881), was a career U.S. Army officer and Confederate general in the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Battle of Vicksburg. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...

Even Bragg's staunchest supporters admonished him for his quick temper, general irritability, and tendency to wound innocent men with barbs thrown during his frequent fits of anger. His reluctance to praise or flatter was exceeded, we are told, only by the tenacity with which, once formed, he clung to an adverse impression of a subordinate. For such officers—and they were many in the Army of the Mississippi—Bragg's removal or their transfer were the only alternatives to an unbearable existence.

Peter Cozzens, No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River

Some counterarguments have emerged in recent years. Judith Lee Hallock called the blaming of Bragg for Confederate defeats in the west the "Bragg syndrome." While most agree he was a poor army commander, historians such as Hallock and Steven Woodworth cite his skills as an organizer and that his defeat in several battles can also be partially blamed upon bad luck and incompetent subordinates, notably Polk. Of his troublesome subordinates, Hardee was considered to be a solid soldier even by Bragg. Polk, although personally brave and charismatic, was simply an average tactician known for insubordination and piecemeal attacks.[15] Unfortunately, he was a close friend of Davis, who was unwilling to relieve him. Bragg also never got the support Davis gave to Robert E. Lee and Sidney Johnston.[16] That his abilities were only properly utilized in 1861 and 1864 also shows the inability of the Confederacy to make proper use of many of its generals.[17] Despite his faults, Bragg was able to impress on occasion his superiors, such as Taylor, Davis, Beauregard, and Sidney Johnston.


Historians Grady McWhiney and Steven Woodworth have pointed out that, contrary to popular belief, Davis and Bragg were not friends, having bitterly quarreled during the antebellum years.[18] Davis was impressed with Bragg, but was willing to relieve him in early 1863. He did not relieve him, in part because no suitable replacements could be found, a consistent problem for Davis. Even Bragg's harshest critics have generally failed to suggest a suitable replacement. áGrady McWhiney (July 15, 1928 – April 18, 2006) was a historian of the American south and the Civil War. ...


In memoriam

A few geographic features memorialize Braxton Bragg:

Troopers of the 82nd training on Fort Bragg Paratroopers in training at Fort Bragg Fort Bragg is a major United States Army installation, in Cumberland and Hoke Counties, North Carolina, USA, near Fayetteville. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Nickname: Location of Fayetteville, North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1762 Government  - Mayor Anthony G. Chavonne  - City Manager Dale E. Iman Area  - Total 60. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Pudding Creek Trestle Aerial view of the southern section of Fort Bragg and the mouth of the Noyo River. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Bragg, Texas is a ghost town that once flourished in the early 1900’s in the Big Thicket forest area in southeast Texas. ... For other uses, see Ghost town (disambiguation). ... Kountze is a city located in Hardin County, Texas. ... Hardin County is a county located in the state of Texas. ...

References

  • Cozzens, Peter, No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River, University of Illinois Press, 1990, ISBN 0-252-01652-1.
  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fort Sumter to Perryville, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
  • Hallock, Judith Lee, Braxton Bragg and Confederate Defeat, Volume 2, University of Alabama Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8173-0543-2.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • McWhiney, Grady, Braxton Bragg and Confederate Defeat, Volume 1—Field Command, Columbia University Press, 1969, ISBN 0-231-02881-4.
  • Powell, Dave, "Battle of Chickamauga", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Sword, Wiley, Shiloh: Bloody April, Morningside Books, 1974, ISBN 0-89029-770-3.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1959, ISBN 0-8071-0823-5.
  • Woodworth, Steven E., Jefferson Davis and His Generals: The Failure of Confederate Command in the West, University Press of Kansas, 1990, ISBN 0-7006-0461-8.
  • Bragg, Texas, Handbook of Texas Online

Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... áGrady McWhiney (July 15, 1928 – April 18, 2006) was a historian of the American south and the Civil War. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eicher, p. 140; Warner, p. 30; Woodworth, p. 92.
  2. ^ Woodworth, p. 92; Foote, p. 567.
  3. ^ Daniel, p. 213.
  4. ^ At Shiloh, the army was called the Army of the Mississippi, deviating from the general rule that only Union armies were named after rivers. It was also sometimes referred to as the Army of the West. Post-war, the army has been retrospectively called the Army of Mississippi.
  5. ^ Foote, p. 740.
  6. ^ Foote, p. 739.
  7. ^ McPherson, p. 583.
  8. ^ Powell, p. 427.
  9. ^ Woodworth, p. 240.
  10. ^ McPherson, p. 676.
  11. ^ Woodworth, p. 241.
  12. ^ Woodworth, p. 244.
  13. ^ McPherson, p. 857.
  14. ^ Cozzens, p. 4.
  15. ^ Woodworth, p. 29-30.
  16. ^ Woodworth, p. 309.
  17. ^ McWhiney, pp. 391-92.
  18. ^ Woodworth, pp. 92-93.

Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408...

Further reading

  • Daniel, Larry J., Soldiering in the Army of Tennessee: A Portrait of Life in a Confederate Army, University of North Carolina Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8078-5552-9.
  • Noe, Kenneth W., (2001). Perryville: This Grand Havoc of Battle. The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2209-0

External links

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Braxton Bragg
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Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Braxton Bragg (1046 words)
Bragg moved the Army of Mississippi 700 miles on a journey through Alabama and Georgia that completely astounded Don Carlos Buell and his Army of the Ohio by moving 30,000 men from Tupelo, Mississippi to Chattanooga by rail.
Bragg had won the greatest Confederate victory of the war, but refused the advice of almost all his generals, including James Longstreet and Nathan Bedford Forrest and did not attack the retreating Yankees.
Bragg was soundly defeated at the battle of Chattanooga, after which he returned to Richmond, Virginia, and served as an aide to Davis.
Braxton Bragg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1564 words)
Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War.
Bragg was born in Warrenton, North Carolina, the brother of future Confederate Attorney General Thomas Bragg.
Bragg, you have quarreled with every officer in the army, and now you are quarreling with yourself!" It is alleged that some of his troops attempted to assassinate him on two occasions in August and September 1847, but he was not injured either time.
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