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Encyclopedia > Brassica napus
Rapeseed

Rapeseed in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. napus
Binomial name
Brassica napus
L.

Rapeseed Brassica napus, also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae. The name is derived through Old English from a term for turnip, rapum. Some botanists include the closely related Brassica campestris within B. napus. (See Triangle of U) Photo taken by the Swedish ministry of agriculture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families See text The Brassicales are an order of flowering plants, belonging to the rosid group of dicotyledons. ... Genera See text The flowering plant family Brassicaceae, known as the mustard/cabbage family, provides much of the worlds winter vegetables. ... Species See text Brassica is a plant genus, in the cabbage family Brassicaceae (formerly the Cruciferae). ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... A painting of Carolus Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, and who wrote under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish scientist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms (flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... Genera See text The flowering plant family Brassicaceae, known as the mustard/cabbage family, provides much of the worlds winter vegetables. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Triangle of U is a theory which describes the evolution and relationships between members of the plant species Brassica. ...

Contents

Cultivation and uses

It is very widely cultivated throughout the world for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel; leading producers include the European Union, Canada, the United States, Australia, China and India. In India, it is grown on 13% of cropped land. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, rapeseed was the third leading source of vegetable oil in the world in 2000, after soybean and oil palm, and also the world's second leading source of protein meal, although only one-fifth of the production of the leading soybean meal. The FAO reports that 33 million tonnes of rapeseed was produced in 2002. In Europe, rapeseed is primarily cultivated for animal feed (due to its very high lipid and medium protein content), and is a leading option for Europeans to avoid importation of GMO products. In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ... Bus running on soybean biodiesel. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Bilateria Acoelomorpha Orthonectida Rhombozoa Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia    Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...

Rapeseed seed

Natural rapeseed oil contains erucic acid, which is mildly toxic to humans in large doses but is used as a food additive in smaller doses. Canola is one of many selected cultivars of rapeseed bred to have a low erucic acid content. Canola was developed in Canada and its name is a contraction of "Canadian oil, low acid". The name was also chosen partly for marketing reasons, so successfully that the name is sometimes mis-applied to other cultivars of rapeseed. Canola seed File links The following pages link to this file: Rapeseed Categories: Department of Agriculture images ... Canola seed File links The following pages link to this file: Rapeseed Categories: Department of Agriculture images ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Carboxylic acids ... For the figure in Celtic mythology see agriculture, canola are certain varieties of plants from which we get rapeseed oil, or the oil produced from those varieties. ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ...


The rapeseed is the valuable, harvested component of the crop. The crop is also grown as a winter-cover crop. It provides good coverage of the soil in winter, and limits nitrogen run-off. The plant is ploughed back in the soil or used as bedding. In many parts of the world, winter is associated with snow. ... In agriculture, a cover crop is grown to protect land from soil erosion and leaching of nutrients. ... For the heavy metal band see Soil (band) Soil is the layer of minerals and organic matter, in thickness from centimetres to a metre or more, on the land surface. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 2, p Density 1. ...


Processing of rapeseed for oil production provides rapeseed animal meal as a by-product. The by-product is a high-protein animal feed, competitive with soya. The feed is mostly employed for cattle feeding, but also for pigs and chickens (though less valuable for these). The meal has a very low content of the glucosinolates responsible for metabolism disruption in cattle and pigs. Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) A chicken is a type of domesticated bird which is usually raised as a type of poultry. ...


Rapeseed leaves are also edible, similar to those of the related kale. Some varieties of rapeseed are sold as greens, primarily in Asian groceries. In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Kale is the name of several things: Kale (the name has one syllable) is a kind of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) which is unusual in that the central leaves do not form a head. ...


Rapeseed and health

Rapeseed (flower)

Rapeseed has been linked with adverse effects in asthma and hay fever sufferers. Some suggest that oilseed pollen is the cause of increased breathing difficulties. This is unlikely however, as rapeseed is an entomophilous crop, with pollen transfer primarily by insects. Others suggest that it is the inhalation of oilseed rape dust that causes this, and that allergies to the pollen are relatively rare. There may also be a another effect at work; since rapeseed in flower has a distinctive and pungent smell, hayfever sufferers may wrongly jump to the conclusion that it is the rapeseed that is to blame simply because they can smell it. There is also some recent evidence that the extensive use of this and similar vegetable oils in food is leading to a significant increase in cases of macular degeneration of the eye. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 24 KB)Brassica napus2. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 24 KB)Brassica napus2. ... Pollen grains from a variety of common plants can cause hay fever. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomea purpurea),hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose(Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... An allergy or Type I hypersensitivity is a immune malfunction whereby a persons body is hypersensitised to react immunologically to typically nonimmunogenic substances. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... An eye is an organ that detects light. ...


Rapeseed is a heavy nectar producer, and honeybees produce a light colored, but peppery honey from it. It must be extracted immediately after processing is finished, as it will quickly granulate in the honeycomb and will be impossible to extract. The honey is usually blended with milder honeys, if used for table use, or sold as bakery grade. Rapeseed growers contract with beekeepers for the pollination of the crop. In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... for the 2003 movie starring Jessica Alba, see Honey (movie). ... Honeycomb on a Langstroth frame A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honeybees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. ... Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ... A contract is any legally-enforceable promise or set of promises made by one party to another. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ...


Controversy

Monsanto has genetically engineered new cultivars of Rapeseed that are resistant to the effects of the herbicide Roundup. They have been vigorously prosecuting farmers found to have the Roundup Ready gene in Canola in their fields without paying a license fee. These farmers have claimed the Roundup Ready gene was blown into their fields and crossed with unaltered Canola. Other farmers claim that after spraying Roundup in non-Canola fields to kill weeds before planting, Roundup Ready volunteers are left behind, causing extra expense to rid their fields of the weeds. There is also major concern that the extensive use of herbicide leads to significant loss of biodiversity as wildflowers ("weeds") are killed, leaving other wildlife dependent on the wildflowers unable to survive. Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this 1986 autoluminograph of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of fireflys strikingly demonstrates the power and potential of genetic manipulation. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Roundup is the brand name of a family of herbicides produced by the American chemical manufacturer Monsanto. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of and in living nature. ... Categories: Stub | Flowers ... Dandelions, shown here in proliferation, are commonly thought of as weeds. ... Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ...


Production

Worldwide production of rapeseed rose to 36 million tonnes in 2003 (source FAO). 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ...

Main rapeseed-producing nations (2003)
Area planted Yield Production
millions of hectares kg per hectare millions of tonnes
World 23.69 1516 35.93
China 7.20 1597 11.50
EU (15) 3.10 3060 9.49
Canada 4.69 1422 6.67
India 4.80 760 3.65
Germany 1.27 2866 3.64
France 1.08 3084 3.32
UK 0.46 3994 1.84
Australia 1.50 947 1.42
Poland 0.43 1767 0.75
USA 0.43 1586 0.69

Pests and diseases affecting canola

Insect pests

  • Flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.),
  • Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella),
  • Bertha armyworms (Mamestra configurata),
  • Root maggots (Delia sp.)
  • Grasshoppers
  • Lygus bugs (Lygus)
  • Bronzed field beetle larvae
  • Snails and slugs

Families Acrididae Charilaidae Dericorythidae Eumastacidae Euschmidtiidae Lathiceridae Lentulidae Lithidiidae Ommexechidae Pamphagidae Pneumoridae Pyrgacrididae Pyrgomorphidae Romaleidae Tanaoceridae Tetrigidae Thericleidae Tridactylidae Tristiridae Caelifera is a suborder of herbivorous insects of the order Orthoptera, commonly known as grasshoppers. ... Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Slugs are gastropods without or with very small shells, in contrast with snails from which they evolved, which have a prominent shell. ...

Diseases

  • Beet Western Yellows virus
  • Blackleg, caused by the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans
  • Clubroot, caused by protist Plasmodiophora brassicae
  • Sclerotinia white stem rot

Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists are a heterogeneous group of living things, comprising those eukaryotes which are neither animals, plants, or fungi. ...

See also

For the figure in Celtic mythology see agriculture, canola are certain varieties of plants from which we get rapeseed oil, or the oil produced from those varieties. ... Biosafety: prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. ... Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered using recombinant DNA techniques to make plants with new characteristics. ... The Triangle of U is a theory which describes the evolution and relationships between members of the plant species Brassica. ...

Reference

FAO. December 2004 oilcrops market assessment (http://www.fao.org/es/esc/en/20953/21017/highlight_27527en.html), 2004


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Plant Biosafety Office - The Biology of Brassica napus L. (Canola/Rapeseed) (4423 words)
napus, a cool-season crop, is not as drought-tolerant as the cereals.
Brassica kaber), stinkweed (Thlapsia arvense), shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), flixweed (Discurainia sophia), wormseed mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides), hare's-ear mustard (Conringia orientalis) and common peppergrass (Lepidium densiflorum)) are often problematic.
napus is an understanding of the possible development of hybrids through interspecific and intergeneric crosses with the crop and related species.
Brassica - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (345 words)
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
Brassica species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species - see List of Lepidoptera which feed on Brassicas.
There is some disagreement among botanists on the classification and status of Brassica species and subspecies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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