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Encyclopedia > Brasserie
"A Street Cafe, Jerusalem," Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875

A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. In the United States, it does not emphasize alcoholic beverages; typically, it does not offer alcoholic beverages at all, focusing instead on coffee and perhaps tea and hot chocolate. Other food may range from baked goods to soups and sandwiches, other casual meals, and light desserts that complement their caffeine-centric fare. Street Cafe, Jerusalem, steel engraving after a drawing by Henry Fenn, in Picturesque Palestine ca 1875 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Street Cafe, Jerusalem, steel engraving after a drawing by Henry Fenn, in Picturesque Palestine ca 1875 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Categories: Stub ... A typical restaurant in uptown Manhattan A restaurant is an establishment that serves prepared food and beverages to be consumed on the premises. ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... A tea bush. ... Chocolate, ranging from dark to light, can be molded and decorated like these chickens with ribbons. ...

Contents

History

Coffeehouse in Damascus

In Persia, since the 16th century, the coffeehouse (qahveh-khaneh) has served as a social gathering place where men assemble to drink coffee or tea, listen to music, play chess and backgammon, perhaps hear a recitation from the Shahnameh. In modern Iran, coffeehouses may attract a male crowd to watch the public TV. Playing cards in a coffeehouse, Damascus. ... Playing cards in a coffeehouse, Damascus. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh The Shahnama (Book of Kings) also written Shahnameh, written by Ferdowsi around 1000 AD, is the national epic of Iran and one of the definite classics of world literature. ...


The traditional tale of the beginnings of Viennese coffeehouses from the mysterious sacks of green beans left behind when the Turks failed in their Siege of Vienna in 1683, offered to the Viennese by a knowing Turkish-speaking Pole named Kolschitzky is often retold. It has the ring of apochrypa to skeptics who find the story too pat— and the date too late. Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, 1529 The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, represented the farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


Coffeehouses first became popular in Europe upon the introduction of coffee in the 17th century. The first London coffeehouse opened in 1652. Though Charles II later tried to suppress them as "places where the disaffected met, and spread scandalous reports concerning the conduct of His Majesty and his Ministers" (a criticism that is still made), the public flocked to them. They quickly became meeting places where business could be carried on, news exchanged and the gazettes read. By 1739 there were 551 coffeehouses in London, including meeting places for Tories and Whigs, people of fashion or the "cits" of the old city center, coffeehouses known as gathering-places for the wits or for stockjobbers, merchants and lawyers, booksellers and authors. According to one French visitor, the Abbé Prévost, coffeehouses, "where you have the right to read all the papers for and against the government," were the "seats of English liberty." (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... A gazette is a newspaper. ... Events March 20 - Nadir Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne, including the Koh-i-Noor September 9 - Stono Rebellion erupts near Charleston September 18 - Treaty of Belgrade signed October 3 - Treaty of Nissa signed October 23 - Great Britain declares war... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... This article is about the British Whig party. ... Antoine François Prévost (Antoine Francois Prevost dExiles) (April 1, 1697 - December 23, 1763), usually known simply as the Abbé Prévost, was a French author and novelist. ...


Ladies were not permitted in coffeehouses. In a well-known engraving of a Parisian coffeehouse of ca 1700, the gentlemen hang their hats on pegs and sit at long communal tables strewn with papers and writing implements. Coffeepots are ranged at an open fire, with a hanging cauldron of boiling water. The only woman present presides, decently separated in a canopied booth, whence she doles out coffee in tall cups. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


In London, coffeehouses preceded the clubs of the mid-18th century, which skimmed away some of the more aristocratic clientele. Lloyd's of London started in a coffeehouse. Auctions in salesrooms attached to coffeehouses provided the start for the great auction houses of Sotheby's and Christie's. In New York the Tontine Coffeehouse at the foot of Wall Street near the docks became a central meeting place. In small cities a coffeehouse functioned as a place where messages might be left and picked up. American coffee shops are also often connected with indie, jazz and acoustic music, and will often have them playing either live or recorded in their shops. Clubs (♣) is one of the four suits found in playing cards, marked with a black trefoil; the term is translated from the Spanish basto. ... Lloyds of London is a British insurance market. ... Sothebys is a noted auction house. ... Christies is a world-famous auction house located in London. ... This article traces the history of New York City, part of present day New York State. ... View up Wall Street from Pearl Street Wall Street is the name of a narrow thoroughfare in lower Manhattan running east from Broadway downhill to the East River. ... The term indie is short for independent and refers to artistic creations outside the commercial mainstream, without the support of a major record label, major movie studio, or other source of a large budget. ... Jazz is a musical art form characterized by blue notes, syncopation, swing, call and response, polyrhythms, and improvisation. ... An acoustic guitar is a modern form of guitar descended from the Classical guitar, but generally strung with steel strings for a brighter, louder sound. ...


Contemporary Coffeehouses

The current spate of chain coffee shops such as Starbucks, Peet's, Seattle's Best Coffee, The Coffee Bean and Second Cup have a clear lineal descent from the espresso and pastry centered Italian coffeehouses of the Italian-American immigrant communities in the major US cities, notably New York City's Little Italy and Greenwich Village, Boston's North End, and San Francisco's North Beach. Both Greenwich Village and North Beach were major haunts of the Beats, who became highly identified with these coffeehouses. As the youth culture of the 1960s evolved, non-Italians consciously copied these coffeehouses. Before the rise of the Seattle-based Starbucks chain, Seattle (and other parts of the Pacific Northwest) had a thriving, largely countercultural coffeehouse scene; Starbucks cleaned up, standardized, genericized, and "mainstreamed" this model. For other meanings of the name Starbuck, see Starbuck A Starbucks coffee shop in Leeds, England Starbucks (NASDAQ: SBUX) is a large multinational chain of coffee shops, often serving desserts, with a reputation in the US as a center for socializing, particularly among students and young urban professionals. ... Seattles Best Coffee is a specialty coffee retailer and wholesaler based in Seattle, Washington, USA. It became part of Starbucks Corporation on July 14, 2003. ... Second Cup is a large Canadian-owned chain of cafés, the largest specialty coffee retailer in Canada. ... Espresso is a strong, flavorful coffee beverage brewed by forcing hot water through finely ground roasted coffee beans. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent. ... City nickname: The Big Apple Location in the state of New York Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg Area  - Land  - Water 1,214. ... Mulberry Street looking north from Canal Street, Manhattan, New York City Little Italy is a neighborhood in lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italian immigrants. ... Greenwich Village (often referred to as simply, The Village) is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... This article is about the city in California. ... Beatnik redirects here. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Darker red states are always part of the Pacific Northwest. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream. ...


The liquor laws in many areas in the United States generally prevent anyone under the age of 21 from entering bars, so coffeehouses in that country can often be important youth gathering places.


Since approximately the Beat era, the term coffeehouse has come to imply the availability of espresso drinks, and while "coffee shop" still could suggest an establishment where one would buy coffee, there has been an evolution so that it now suggests diner more than coffee-drinking hang-out per se. Beatnik redirects here. ... This article is about a type of restaurant. ...


Starting in the 1980s, a counter clerk in a coffeehouse has come to be known in English as a barista, from the Italian word for bartender. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Since approximately 1990, the term barista (the Italian word for bartender - masculine or feminine; plural: baristi) has been used in English to denote a professional maker of espresso coffee beverages. ...


The contemporary coffeehouse is just the latest example of a drinking establishment—bars, public houses, taverns and soda shops have also served this purpose—as the center for cultural exchange in a particular community, often fomenting social and political change. See, for example, the meetings of the Sons of Liberty of the American Revolution and the abortive Beer Hall Putsch by the German Nazi party in 1923. The Sons of Liberty was an association of Patriots in the United States before the American Revolution. ... Before the Revolution: The 13 colonies are in red, the pink area was claimed by Great Britain after the French and Indian War, and the orange region was claimed by Spain. ... The Beer Hall Putsch occurred in the evening of Thursday, November 8 to early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923 when the nascent Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund, unsuccessfully tried to gain power in Munich... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


Contemporary Cafés

In the United States, café (from the French word for coffee) is a small restaurant. Styles of cafés vary; some concentrate upon many styles of coffee, tea, and hot chocolate, with possibly a selection of baked goods and sandwiches, while others offer full menus. American cafés may or may not serve alcoholic beverages, and the serving of coffee may be incidental to the serving of food. Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... A typical restaurant in uptown Manhattan A restaurant is an establishment that serves prepared food and beverages to be consumed on the premises. ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... A tea bush. ... Chocolate, ranging from dark to light, can be molded and decorated like these chickens with ribbons. ... Baking is the technique of cooking food in an oven by dry heat applied evenly throughout the oven. ... This article is about the food item. ...


In France, a "café" certainly serves alcoholic beverages. French cafés also often serve simple snacks (sandwiches etc...). They may or may not have a restaurant section. A brasserie is a café that serves meals, generally single dishes, in a more relaxed setting than a restaurant. A "bistro" is a café / restaurant, especially in Paris. Bistro food is supposed to be cheap, but in recent years bistros, especially in Paris, have become increasingly expensive.

A coffee shop in Ireland. There is no outside seating due to unsuitable weather.

Cafés developed from the coffeehouses that became popular in Europe upon the introduction of coffee. Those also spawned another, completely different type of restaurant, the cafeteria. Picture of a local coffee shop for coffeehouse article. ... Picture of a local coffee shop for coffeehouse article. ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ...


There are two types of cafés: those that specialize in coffee and hot beverages, and those with a full menu, the most famous examples of which are the "French cafés," especially those in Paris. The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


Cafés, in warmer days, may have an outdoor part (terrace, pavement or sidewalk café) with seats, tables and parasols. This is especially the case with European cafés. See also public space. For the former Microsoft owned website see: Sidewalk. ... One definition of public space or a public place is a place where anyone has a right to come without paying an entrance or other fee. ...


Cafés offer a more open public space to many of the traditional pubs they have replaced, which were more male dominated, with a focus on drinking alcohol. Many people complain that traditional, local venues are being pushed out by cloned, characterless cafes controlled by big business.


The original uses of the cafe, as a place for information exchange and communication was reintroduced in the 1990s with the Internet cafe. The spread of modern style cafes to many places, urban and rural, went hand in hand with computers. Computers and Internet access in contemporary-styled venue is a youthful, modern, outward-looking place, compared to the traditional pubs, or old-fashioned diners that they replaced. In the mid 2000s, of course, many mainstream cafes offer Internet access, just as they offer telephones and newspapers. An Internet cafe or cybercafe is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. ...


Cannabis coffee shops

Some coffee shops, however, especially in the Netherlands, are places where selling of cannabis for personal consumption by the public are tolerated by the local authorities. Any establishment advertising itself as a "coffeeshop" is likely primarily in the business of selling cannabis products and possibly other substances which are tolerated under the drug policy of the Netherlands. Cannabis is a plant also known as Cannabis sativa, hemp, or marijuana. ... The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on two principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists It is a pragmatic policy. ...


They are called coffee shops because they do not have an alcohol serving licence, and most do actually serve coffee. Coffeeshops are strongly controlled by the government, and any shop selling soft drugs to minors, or selling hard drugs at all, is immediately closed. In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... Hard drugs are drugs that lead to physical addiction, opposed to soft drugs, such as marijuana and hashish, that are only psychologically addictive. ...


(In the Netherlands, an outlet called a "koffiehuis", spelt with a k (literally "coffee house") is more similar to what is called a coffee shop in the U.S., whilst a "café" or a "coffeehuis," spelt with a C, is the equivalent of a bar.) Dutch coffee shops often fly Ethiopian flags to indicate that they sell cannabis, as direct advertising of cannabis sale is illegal. Categories: Stub ...


Many municipalities have a coffee shop policy. For some this is a "zero policy", i.e. they do not allow any. Most of such municipalities are either controlled by strict Protestant parties, or are bordering Belgium and Germany and simply do not wish to receive "drug tourism" from those countries. A March 19, 2005 article in the Observer noted that the number of Dutch cannabis coffeehouses had dropped from 1,500 to 750 over the previous five years, largely due to pressure from the conservative coalition government[1] (http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2005/03/19/2003246907) and market forces. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In nearby Denmark it seems that the coffee shops in the Freetown Christiania will be abolished in 2005 or 2006, as part of the wider issues involved with Free Christiania. Christiania is also the former name of Oslo. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

This is a list of coffeehouse chains around the world. ... Categories: Stub ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ... This article is about a type of restaurant. ... Greasy spoon is a colloquial term used in Britain and America for the archetypal working class or truckers café (in England often pronounced caff). The name is used to imply a less than rigorous approach to hygiene and dishwashing, and appears to date from 1925. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of south west England A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other countries influenced by British culture. ... An Internet cafe or cybercafe is a place where one can use a computer with Internet access for a fee, usually per hour or minute; sometimes one can have unmetered access with a pass for a day or month, etc. ... A manga café or a manga kissa (as it is known in japan) is a kind of café in Japan, where people can read manga. ...

External links

  • The internet in a cup (http://www.economist.com/World/europe/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2281736)
  • Persian coffeehouses (http://www.farsinet.com/hottea/coffeehouse.html)
  • Thomas Jordan, "News from the Coffeehouse" (http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/18century/topic_1/coffeehouses.htm)
  • "Coffee: the Wine of Islam" (http://www.superluminal.com/cookbook/essay_coffee.html) Coffee's origins and history in the Sufi world.
  • "Specialty Coffee Retailer" (http://www.specialty-coffee.com) A free source of industry news for the independent coffeeshop owner.
  • Dead Cafe Society Wiki (http://www.dead-cafe-society.org.uk/)

References

  • Dutch police plan to cut `cannabusiness' in half (http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2005/03/19/2003246907), The Observer, Amsterdam, Mar. 19, 2005.

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