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Encyclopedia > Brass

Brass is any alloy of copper, zinc and lead; the proportions of lead, zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.[1] In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin.[2] Despite this distinction, some types of brasses are called bronzes. Brass is a substitutional alloy. It is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance; for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, ammunition, and valves; for plumbing and electrical applications; and extensively in musical instruments such as horns and bells for its acoustic properties. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ...

Decorative bolt made in solid brass designed by HerBron.
Decorative bolt made in solid brass designed by HerBron.
A decorative brass paperweight, left, along with zinc and copper samples.
A decorative brass paperweight, left, along with zinc and copper samples.

Brass has a muted yellow color, somewhat similar to gold. It is relatively resistant to tarnishing, and is often used as decoration and for coins. In antiquity, polished brass was often used as a mirror. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1319x839, 135 KB)Solid brass (with a sample of the components: zinc and copper). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1319x839, 135 KB)Solid brass (with a sample of the components: zinc and copper). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Tarnish is a layer of corrosion that develops over copper, brass, silver, aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as they undergo oxidation. ...


Brass has likely been known to humans since prehistoric times, even before zinc itself was discovered. It was produced by melting copper together with calamine, a zinc ore. In the German village of Breinigerberg, an ancient Roman settlement was discovered where a calamine ore mine existed. During the melting process, the zinc is extracted from the calamine and mixes with the copper. Pure zinc, on the other hand, has too low a boiling point to have been produced by ancient metalworking techniques. The many references to 'brass' appearing throughout the King James Bible are thought to signify another bronze alloy, or copper, rather than the strict modern definition of 'brass'.[3] Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Breinigerberg is one of 17 villages belonging to the city of Stolberg (Rhineland), which is one of the major cities in the district of Aachen. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

Contents

Properties

The malleability and acoustic properties of brass have made it the metal of choice for brass musical instruments such as the trombone, tuba, trumpet, euphonium, and the French horn. Even though the saxophone is classified as a woodwind instrument and the harmonica is a free reed aerophone, both are also often made from brass. In organ pipes designed as "reed" pipes, brass strips are used as the "reeds". Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... A musical instrument is a device that has been constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ... A free reed aerophone is a musical instrument where sound is produced as air passes a reed in a chamber, causing the reed to vibrate. ... Diagram of typical reed pipe A Reed pipe is a type of pipe found in pipe organs qualified by the use of a vibrating metal strip instead of the simple vibration of air. ...


Brass has higher malleability than copper or zinc. The relatively low melting point of brass (900 to 940°C, depending on composition) and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses. The density of brass is approximately 8.4 g/cm3.


Today almost 90% of all brass alloys are recycled. Because most brass is nonmagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are heated and extruded into the desired form and size. Billet is a term used in manufacturing to refer to a cast product. ...


Aluminum makes brass stronger and more corrosion resistant. Aluminum also causes a highly beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent and self healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use especially in sea water applications (naval brasses). Combinations of iron, aluminum, silicon and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. A well known alloy used in the automotive industry is 'LDM C673', where the combination of manganese and silicon leads to a strong and resistant brass. Alumina redirects here. ...


Applications

The so called dezincification resistant (DZR) brasses, like alloy 'LDM G563' (known for its brand name 'Enkotal'), are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present or deviating water qualities (soft water) play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems. This brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. Selective leaching, also called dealloying, demetalification and parting, is a corrosion type in some solid solution alloys, when in suitable conditions a component of the alloys is preferentially leached from the material. ...


The copper in brass makes brass germicidal, via the oligodynamic effect. For example, brass doorknobs disinfect themselves of many bacteria within eight hours[4]. This effect is important in hospitals, but useful in many contexts. The oligodynamic effect (greek oligos = few, dynamis = force ) was discovered in 1893 by the Swiss KW Nägeli as a toxic effect of metal-ions on living cells, algae, moulds, spores, fungi, virus, procariotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, even in relatively low concentrations. ...


Brass door hardware is generally lacquered when new, which prevents tarnishing of the metal for a few years when located outside (and indefinitely when located indoors). After this most manufacturers recommend that the lacquer is removed (e.g. with paint stripper) and the items regularly polished to maintain a bright finish. Unlacquered brass weathers more attractively than brass with deteriorated lacquer, even if polishing is not carried out. Freshly polished brass is similar to gold in appearance, but becomes more reddish within days of exposure to the elements. A traditional polish is Brasso. Brass is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ...


Brass was used to make fan blades, fan cages and motor bearings in many antique fans that date before the 1930s. Brass can be used for fixings for use in cryogenic systems, however its use is not limited to this.[5] Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same, and is often confused with cryobiology, the study of the effect of low temperatures on organisms, or the study of cryopreservation. ...


Season cracking

Brass is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking, especially from ammonia or substances containing or releasing ammonia. The problem is sometimes known as season cracking after it was first discovered in brass cartridge cases used for rifle ammunition during the 1920s in the Indian Army. Brittle cracks could cause serious accidents if the case was too weak to resist the charge when the rifle was fired. The problem was caused by high residual stresses from cold forming of the cases during manufacture, and was cured by annealing the cases. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the unexpected sudden failure of normally ductile metals subjected to a constant tensile stress in a corrosive environment, especially at elevated temperature. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Different draw ratios for brass cartridge case Cracking in brass caused by ammonia attack The problem of season cracking is known from brass cartridge failures during the monsoon season in India in the 1920s, failures which were caused by attack of the metal by ammonia. ... The article titled casing is a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... This article is about the post-independence Indian Army. ... Residual stresses are stresses that remain after the original cause of the stresses (external forces, heat gradient) has been removed. ... Anneal may refer to: Annealing (metallurgy), a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. ...


Brass types

  • Admiralty brass contains 30% zinc and 1% tin which inhibits dezincification in most environments.
  • Alpha brasses (Prince's metal), with less than 35% zinc, are malleable, can be worked cold, and are used in pressing, forging, or similar applications. They contain only one phase, with face-centered cubic crystal structure.
  • Alpha-beta brass (Muntz metal), also called duplex brass, is 35-45% zinc and is suited for hot working. It contains both α and β' phase; the β'-phase is body-centered cubic and is harder and stronger than α. Alpha-beta brasses are usually worked hot.
  • Aluminium brass contains aluminium, which improves its corrosion resistance. Used in Euro coins (Nordic gold).
  • Arsenical brass contains an addition of arsenic and frequently aluminium and is used for boiler fireboxes.
  • Beta brasses, with 45-50% zinc content, can only be worked hot, and are harder, stronger, and suitable for casting.
  • Cartridge brass is a 30% zinc brass with good cold working properties.
  • Common brass, or rivet brass, is a 37% zinc brass, cheap and standard for cold working.
  • DZR brass is Dezincification resistant Brass with a small percentage of Arsenic.
  • Gilding metal is the softest type of brass commonly available. An alloy of 95% copper and 5% zinc, gilding metal is typically used for ammunition components.
  • High brass, contains 65% copper and 35% zinc, has a high tensile strength and is used for springs, screws, rivets.
  • Leaded brass is an alpha-beta brass with an addition of lead. It has excellent machinability.
  • Low brass is a copper-zinc alloy containing 20% zinc with a light golden color, excellent ductility and is used for flexible metal hoses and metal bellows.
  • Naval brass, similar to admiralty brass, is a 40% zinc brass and 1% tin.
  • Red brass, while not technically brass, is an American term for CuZnSn alloy known as gunmetal.
  • White brass contains more than 50% zinc and is too brittle for general use.
  • Yellow brass is an American term for 33% zinc brass.

This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Selective leaching, also called dealloying, demetalification and parting, is a corrosion type in some solid solution alloys, when in suitable conditions a component of the alloys is preferentially leached from the material. ... Princes metal or Prince Ruperts metal is a type of brass containing 75% copper and 25% zinc. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Muntz metal is a form of alpha-beta brass with about 40% zinc and 60% copper. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... Nordic gold is the alloy from which the middle three denominations of euro coins, 50 cent, 20 cent, and 10 cent coins are made. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... Section of typical British boiler and firebox. ... Gilding metal is a copper alloy, with the composition of 95% copper and 5% zinc. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Spring. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... Solid rivets Metal wheel with riveted spokes and tyre. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... For other uses, see Gunmetal (disambiguation). ...

See also

Copper alloys are alloys with Copper as their principial component. ... Orichalcum is a legendary metal mentioned in several ancient writings, most notably the story of Atlantis as recounted in the Critias dialogue, recorded by Plato. ... Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using calamine, a zinc ore, rather than metallic zinc. ... Gilding metal is a copper alloy, with the composition of 95% copper and 5% zinc. ... Of the known types of brass in classical antiquity, Corinthian brass, or æs Corinthiacum, was the most valuable—even more valuable than gold. ... Pinchbeck is a form of brass, an alloy of copper and zinc mixed in proportions so that it closely resembles gold in appearance. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and strengthening impurities, such as iron and manganese. ... Tombac is an alloy of copper and zinc. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Brass rubbing was originally a British mania for reproducing brasses -- commemorative embossed brass reliefs found in church memorials from the 14th and 15th centuries -- onto paper. ... Monumental Brass is a species of engraved sepulchral memorial which in the early part of the 13th century began to take the place of tombs and effigies carved in stone. ... Brass beds are beds in which the headboard and footboard are made of brass; the frame rails are usually made of steel. ... Latten – refers loosely to copper alloys much like brass used in the Middle Ages up through to the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, for things like decorative effect on borders, rivets or other details of metalwork (particuarly armour) and for funerary effigies. ... Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using calamine, a zinc ore, rather than metallic zinc. ... Different draw ratios for brass cartridge case Cracking in brass caused by ammonia attack The problem of season cracking is known from brass cartridge failures during the monsoon season in India in the 1920s, failures which were caused by attack of the metal by ammonia. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Engineering Designer, v 30, n 3, May-June 2004, 6-9
  2. ^ Machinery Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, Edition 24, page 501
  3. ^ Cruden's Complete Concordance p. 55
  4. ^ http://members.vol.at/schmiede/MsgverSSt.html
  5. ^ [1] Example patent referring to fixings
For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... Electrum coin of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. ... Rose gold is a gold and copper alloy widely used for specialized jewelry due to its reddish color. ... The sterling silver standard has a minimum millesimal fineness of 925. ... White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ... In chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily, and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Aventurine is used for a number of applications, including landscape stone, building stone, aquaria, monuments, and jewelry. ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl, not to be confused with beryl, is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Carnelian (disambiguation). ... Citrine Citrine, also called citrine quartz is an amber-colored gemstone. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Garnet (disambiguation). ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... For other uses, see Malachite (disambiguation). ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Moonstone is typically a potassium aluminium silicate, with the chemical formula KAlSi3O8 [1] The most common moonstone is of the mineral Adularia. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... -1... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Sodalite is a rare, rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental stone. ... Sunstone, a feldspar exhibiting in certain directions a brilliant spangled appearance, which has led to its use as an ornamental stone. ... Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite discovered in the Meralani Hills of northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha. ... Polished tigers eye gemstone Tigers eye (also Tigers eye, Tiger eye) is a chatoyant gemstone that is usually yellow- to red-brown, with a silky luster. ... This article is about the mineral or gemstone. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ...

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