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Encyclopedia > Brandy
A bottle of calvados Pays D'Auge
A bottle of calvados Pays D'Auge

Brandy (derived from brandywine, from Dutch brandewijn—'burnt wine'[1]) is a general term for distilled wine, usually 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. In addition to wine, this spirit can also be made from grape, pomace, or fermented fruit juice. Unless specified otherwise, brandy is made from grape wine.[2] It is normally consumed as an after-dinner drink. Brandy made from wine is generally coloured with caramel coloring to imitate the effect of long aging in wooden casks; pomace and fruit brandies are generally drunk unaged, and are not usually coloured. Brandy may refer to: Brandy, an alcoholic beverage made from the distillation of wine, grape pomace, or fermented fruit juice. ... Image File history File links Calva_perejules. ... Image File history File links Calva_perejules. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ... Fermenting must. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Caramel coloring is caramel used as a food coloring; like caramel candy, it is made by controlled heating of sugar, generally in the presence of acids or alkalis and possibly other compounds, a process called caramelization. ...

Contents

History

The origins of brandy are clear and tied to the development of distillation. Concentrated alcoholic beverages were known in ancient Greece and Rome and may have a history going back to ancient Babylon. Brandy, as it is known today, first began to appear in the 12th century and became generally popular in the 14th century. A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Initially wine was distilled as a preservation method and as a way to make the wine easier for merchants to transport. It was also thought that wine was originally distilled to lessen the tax which was assessed by volume. The intent was to add the water removed by distillation back to the brandy shortly before consumption. It was discovered that after having been stored in wooden casks, the resulting product had improved over the original distilled spirit.[2] In addition to removing water, the distillation process leads to the formation and break-up of numerous aroma compounds, fundamentally altering the composition of the distillate from its source. Non-volatile substances such as pigments, sugars, and salts remain behind in the still. As a result, the taste of the distillate may be quite unlike that of the original source. Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... A merchant making up the account by Shiatsus Hokusai Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ...


Types of brandy

There are three primary types of brandy. The term "brandy" denotes grape brandy if the type is not otherwise specified.


Grape brandy

Grape brandy is produced by the distillation of fermented grape juice. This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ...

  • Armagnac is made from grapes of the Armagnac region in Southwest of France (Gers, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne). It is single-continuous distilled in a copper still and aged in oak casks from Gascony or Limousin. Armagnac was the first distilled spirit in France. Armagnacs have a specificity: they offer vintage qualities. Popular brands are Darroze, Baron de Sigognac, Larressingle, Delord, Laubade, Gélas and Janneau.
  • Brandy de Jerez is the brandy from the area of Jerez. As such it is an essential ingredient to Sherry, but it is also available separately. Like Sherry and Cognac it is a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO).
  • Lourinhã, located in western Portugal's Estremadura region, is one of the few brandy-making areas to receive appellation status along with Cognac and Armagnac.
  • South African South African grape brandies are, by law, made almost exactly as in Cognac, using a double-distillation process in copper pot stills followed by aging in oak barrels for a minimum of three years. Because of this, South African brandies are of a very high quality.

The European Union legally enforces Cognac as the exclusive name for brandy produced and distilled in the Cognac area of France, and Armagnac from the Gascony area of France, using traditional techniques. Since these are considered PDO, they refer not just to styles of brandy but brandies from a specific region, i.e. a brandy made in California in a manner identical to the method used to make cognac, and which tastes similar to cognac, cannot be so called as it is not from the Cognac region of France. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Korbel is known for its sparkling wine. ... For the Olympic competitor, see Paul Masson (cycling). ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the modern French region of Limousin. ... The Vintagers, after a miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire (thirteenth century)—manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels. ... Baron de Sigognac is an Armagnac brand. ... see: Jerez de la Frontera Jerez was a small independent emirate created c. ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Hine is a leading manufacturer of cognac. ... Martell is a surname that can be used to refer to: // Benny Martell, a German singer Edward Martell, former radiochemist for the National Center for Atmospheric Research Karl Hermann Martell, a German actor Piera Martell, a Swiss singer Vince Martell, the lead guitarist of the band Vanilla Fudge Martell, Italy... Rémy Martin is a cognac (a brandy from the Cognac region of France) and champagne cognac (a sparkling brandy from the tiny Champagne Cognac region of France) originally produced by Rémy Martin, a French winemaker, who founded the company in 1724. ... Bottle of Hennessy XO Cognac Hennessy is one of the oldest and most famous manufacturers of cognac, a type of French distilled wine, or brandy. ... Delamain is an independent producer of Cognac based in Jarnac, France. ... A bottle of Courvoisier VS cognac Courvoisier is a type of cognac. ... District or region Lisbon Mayor   - Party José Custódio PS Area 147. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Aguardente is a kind of Portuguese brandy. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot...

Martell Cognac served in a typical brandy snifter.
Martell Cognac served in a typical brandy snifter.

Grape brandies are best drunk from a tulip-shaped glass or a snifter, at cool room temperature.[citation needed] Often it is slightly warmed, by holding the glass in the cup of the palm or gently heating with a candle; however, such heating causes alcohol vapor to become very pungent so that the aromas are overpowered.[citation needed] Brandy, like whisky and red wine, exhibits more pleasant aromas and flavors at a lower temperature, e.g., 16 degrees Celsius (61°F). In most homes, this would imply that the brandy should in fact rather be cooled for maximum enjoyment. Furthermore, alcohol (which makes up 40% of a typical brandy) becomes thin as it is heated, (but more viscous when cooled) leading to a fuller and smoother mouthfeel with less of a burning sensation. The term Snifter might refer to: A snifter glass Snifter - a type of stemware, a short-stemmed glass whose main vessel has a wide bottom but that narrows at the top. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... In many areas related to the testing and evaluating of foodstuffs,such as wine-tasting and rheology, mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth from initial perception on the palate, to first bite, through mastication to swallowing. ...


Pomace brandy

Pomace brandy is produced from fermented grape pulp, seeds, and stems that remain after the grapes are pressed for their juice. Examples include the Italian grappa, the French marc, Bulgarian grozdova [2] and Georgian chacha. Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Chacha is a grape brandy traditionally produced in Georgia and Abkhazia, similar to pomace brandy (although it is often described as grape vodka or Georgian vodka). It can be produced either from pomace or from non-ripe or non-cultured grapes. ...


Fruit brandy

Fruit brandies are distilled from fruits other than grapes. Apple, plum, peach, cherry, eldberberry, raspberry, blackberry, and apricot are the most commonly used fruit. Fruit brandy is usually clear, 80 to 90 proof, and usually drunk chilled or over ice. Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ...


Calvados is an apple brandy from the French region of Lower Normandy.[2] Apple is pressed into cider, fermented with yeast and double distilled. A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


Eau-de-vie is a general French term for fruit brandy. Eau de vie is a French term for a colourless brandy distilled from fermented fruit juice. ...


Kirschwasser is a fruit brandy made from cherries.[2] Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ...


Pálinka is a fruit brandy traditional to Hungary.[2] It can be made from any kind of fruit - most often plum (szilva), apricot (barack), grape (törköly), elderberry (bodza), pear (vilmoskörte) and cherry (cseresznye). Less common pálinka-types include apple, peach and even walnut (dió). Mixed pálinka (vegyes) is also popular. Pálinka is a traditional type of brandy that is produced in Hungary and Transylvania (region of Romania). ... A bottle of Barack brandy Barack is a Hungarian brandy (Palinka) flavored with apricots. ... Species See text Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5–30 species of shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. ...


Slivovitz is a fruit brandy made from plums[2], traditional to Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia and Croatia. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Slivovice is a strong 52% vol. (and more - law sets 52% vol. as standart) fruit brandy made from plums, in Slovakia, the East mountains of the Czech republic (region Valachia - exactly Vizovice) and Southern mountain region of Poland. Slivovitz (Serbian: шљивовица or šljivovica, Slovenian: slivovka, Croatian: šljivovica, Bosnian: šljivovica, Macedonian: slivova, Polish: śliwowica ; Romanian: ţuică, pălincă or şliboviţă; Bulgarian: сливова (slivova); Slovak: slivovica; Czech: slivovice) is a strong, colourless alcoholic beverage made of distilled fermented plum juice. ...


Certain varieties of Schnapps or Snaps, light-bodied spirits that are drunk along with a meal in Germanic or Scandinavian countries. Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ...


Tuica (tzuika) is the clear Romanian brandy, made mainly from plums, apples, pears, apricots, mulberries, peaches, quinces or mixes of them. Other regional names as turţ, tura, horinca apply. As wine producers, Romania and Moldova have also a production of cognac-style brandy, named vinars or divin. Ţuică is the traditional Romanian drink, usually made from plums, apples or mirabelles (corcoduşe). ...


Brandy and the European Union

The European Union has established a different definition of the term brandy:[3]


5. Brandy or Weinbrand (a) Brandy or Weinbrand is a spirit drink: 1) produced from wine spirit, whether or not .….wine distillate has been added, distilled at less than 94,8% vol., provided that that distillate does not exceed a maximum of 50% of the alcoholic content of the finished product, 2) matured for at least one year in oak receptacles or for at least six months in oak casks with a capacity of less than 1 000 litres, 3) containing a quantity of volatile substances equal to or exceeding 125 grams per hectolitre of 100% vol. alcohol, and derived exclusively from the distillation or redistillation of the raw materials used, 4) having a maximum methanol content of 200 grams per hectolitre of 100% vol. alcohol. (b) The minimum alcoholic strength by volume of brandy or Weinbrand shall be 36%. (c) No addition of alcohol as defined in Annex I(5), diluted or not, shall take place. (d) Brandy or Weinbrand shall not be flavoured. This shall not exclude traditional production methods. (e) Brandy or Weinbrand may only contain added caramel as a means to adapt colour.


This definition formally excludes pomace brandy, fruit brandy and even unaged grape brandy. The same EU regulation defines the names of these excluded spirits as grape marc spirit , fruit spirit and wine spirit. The German term Weinbrand is equivalent to the English term brandy, however, outside the German speaking countries, it is only used for brandies from Austria and Germany. In Poland brandy is sometimes called (together with loan word "brandy) "Winiak" (from "wino" - a wine). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into German language. ...


Brandi is also a big B I T C H at mias school;; ST TRINiANS.., hahah shes a fat lump o C R AP and i hope u love her btw


kailene when i tell you me and mia rote this you might not believe us so here is the truth KAILENE S EXY BELLY BUTTON BABES there lol.. cya at school


Variations

Pot vs. tower stills

Cognac and South African pot still brandy are examples of brandy produced in batches using pot stills (batch distillation). Many American brandies use fractional distillation in tower stills to perform their distillation. Special pot stills with a fractionation section on top are used for Armagnac. Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... The hilly Armagnac region in the foothills of the Pyrenées, between the Adour and Garonne rivers is a historic comté of the Duchy of Gascony (Gascogne), established in 601 CE in the southwest of Aquitaine (now France). ...


Aging

Brandy is produced using one of three predominant aging methods:

  • No aging: Many pomace and fruit brandies (cf. eau de vie) are not aged after distillation. The resulting product is typically a clear liquid.
  • Single barrel aging: Brandies that have a golden or brown color have been aged in oak casks.
  • Solera process: Some brandies are aged using the solera system. Brandies from Spain are typical of this variation.

Eau de vie is a French term for a colourless brandy distilled from fermented fruit juice. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... Sherry solera A solera is a series of barrels or other containers used for aging liquids such as sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Mavrodafni (a dark-red fortified dessert wine from Greece), muscat, muscadelle, and balsamic vinegar. ...

Brandy Labels

Brandy has a rating system to describe its quality and condition, these indicators can usually be found near the brand name on the label.
A.C.  : aged 2 years in wood.
V.S.  : "Very Special" or 3-Star, aged at least 3 years in wood.
V.S.O.P.  : "Very Special Old Pale" or 5-Star, aged at least 5 years in wood.
X.O.  : "Extra Old", Napoleon or Vieille Reserve, aged at least 6 years, Napoleon at least 4 years.
Vintage  : Stored in the cask until the time it is bottled with the label showing the vintage date.
Hors D'age: : These are too old to determine the age, although 10 years plus is typical, and are usually of great quality.


Distillation

A batch distillation typically works as follows: Wine with an alcohol concentration of 8% to 12% v/v and high acidity is boiled in a pot still. Vapours of ethanol, water, and the numerous aroma components rise upward and are collected in a condenser coil where it becomes a liquid again. Because ethanol and various aroma components vaporize at a lower temperature than does water, the concentration of alcohol in the condensed product (the distillate) is higher than in the original wine. Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ...


After one distillation, the distillate, called "low wine," will contain roughly 30% alcohol (ethanol) by volume. The low wine is then distilled a second time. The first 1% or so of distillate that's produced, called the "head," has an alcohol concentration of about 83% and an unpleasant odor, so it is discarded (generally, mixed in with another batch of low wine for future use). The distillation process continues, yielding a distillate of approximately 70% alcohol (called the "heart"), which is what will be consumed as brandy. The portion of low wine that remains after distillation, called the "tail," will be mixed into another batch of low wine for future use.


Distillation does not simply enhance the alcohol content of wine. The heat under which the product is distilled and the material of the still (usually copper) cause chemical reactions to take place during distillation. This leads to the formation of numerous new volatile aroma components, changes in relative amounts of aroma components in the wine, and the hydrolysis of components such as esters. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Chemical reactions are also known as chemical changes. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...


Historical production

As described in the 1728 edition of Cyclopaedia, the following method was used to distill brandy: A cucurbit was filled half full of the liquor from which brandy was to be drawn and then raised with a little fire until about one sixth part was distilled, or until that which falls into the receiver was entirely flammable. This liquor, distilled only once, was called spirit of wine or brandy. Purified by another distillation (or several more), this was then called spirit of wine rectified. The second distillation was made in balneo mariae and in a glass cucurbit, and the liquor was distilled to about one half the quantity. This was further rectified—as long as the operator thought necessary—to produce brandy.[4] 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ...


To abridge these several distillations, which were long and troublesome, a chemical instrument was invented, whereby the rectification of spirit of wine was performed in a single distillation. To test the purity of the rectified spirit of wine, a portion was ignited. If the entire contents were consumed without leaving any impurity behind, then the liquor was good. Another, better test involved putting a little gunpowder in the bottom of the spirit. If the gunpowder took fire when the spirit was consumed, then the liquor was good.[4] A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


Brandies follow Distillation Technology - Wherever the Grape


As most brandies are distilled from grapes, the regions of the world producing excellent brandies have roughly paralleled those areas producing grapes for viniculture. At the end of the 19th Century, the western European market—and by extension their overseas empires—was dominated by French and Spanish brandies, and eastern Europe was dominated by brandies from the Black Sea region, including Bulgaria, the Crimea, and Georgia. In 1880, David Saradjishvili founded his Cognac Factory in Tbilisi, Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire) which was a crossroads for Turkish, Central Asian, and Persian traderoutes. Armenian and Georgian brandies (always called cognacs in the era) were considered some of the best in the world, often beating their French competitors at the International Expositions in Paris and Brussels in the early 1900s. The storehouses of the Romanov Court in St. Petersburg were regarded as the largest collections of cognacs and wines in the world—much of it from the Transcaucasus region of Georgia. During the October Revolution of 1917, upon the storming of the Winter Palace, the Bolshevik Revolution actually paused for a week or so as the rioters engorged on the substantial stores of cognac and wines. The Russian market was always a huge brandy-consuming region, and while much of it was homegrown, much was imported. The patterns of bottles follow that of western European norm. Throughout the Soviet era, the production of brandy remained a source of pride for the communist regime, and they continued to produce some excellent varieties - most famously the Jubilee Brandies of 1967, 1977, and 1987. Remaining bottles of these productions are highly sought after, not simply for their quality, but for their historical significance.


See also

For other uses, see Applejack. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bold textBold textBatch distillation[1] refers to the use of distillation, the separation of components in a system by volatilities, in batches. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Chacha is a grape brandy traditionally produced in Georgia and Abkhazia, similar to pomace brandy (although it is often described as grape vodka or Georgian vodka). It can be produced either from pomace or from non-ripe or non-cultured grapes. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Cut brandy is a liquor made of brandy and hard grain liquor. ... Eau de vie is a French term for a colourless brandy distilled from fermented fruit juice. ... Fine (French word meaning fine, as in high quality) is a term for some high quality French brandy (generally AOC), not including Cognac and Armagnac. ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

References

  1. ^ (1989) Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i (2007) Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 
  3. ^ European Parliament legislative resolution of 19 June 2007 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the definition, description, presentation and labelling of spirit drinks
  4. ^ a b This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain.
Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiÇ”, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white, when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Å¢uică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiÇ”), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... ShōchÅ« ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Flanders, from which gin has evolved. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...

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Brandy (Norwood) Fansite, Lyrics, Wallpapers, Photos, Music and Forums (392 words)
Brandy has also allowed her wholesome image to help her career instead of presenting a false persona for the sake of record sales or street credibility.
As a result of being true to herself and her music, Brandy has been described as a performer who's stardom will always be on the rise.
Brandy's dream of stardom began when she was 4 years old.
Rock On The Net: Brandy (1213 words)
Brandy (Norwood) was born on February 11, 1979, in Mississippi, and raised in California.
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Brandy was involved in a car crash in Los Angeles that resulted in the death of another motorist.
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