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Encyclopedia > Brandenburg Gate
The Brandenburg Gate
The Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. It is located west of the city center at the intersection of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße, immediately west of the Pariser Platz. It is the only remaining gate of a series through which one formerly entered Berlin. One block to its north lies the Reichstag. The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees which formerly led directly to the city palace of the Prussian monarchs. It was commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II as a sign of peace and built by Carl Gotthard Langhans from 1788 to 1791. It is today one of Europe's most famous landmarks. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,359 × 906 pixels, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,359 × 906 pixels, file size: 716 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... Pariser Platz with the Brandenburg Gate Pariser Platz in the 1930s Pariser Platz in 1982 Pariser Platz with the new Adlon Hotel Pariser Platz is a square in the center of Berlin, Germany, situated right by the Brandenburg Gate and the German Bundestag building. ... The Reichstag building. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... Species About 30; see text A lime-lined avenue in Alexandra Park, London Tilia leaf Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest species diversity is found), Europe and eastern North America; it is absent... The Berliner Stadtschloss (or Stadtschloß) in a 19th century painting The Stadtschloss in the 1920s The Stadtschloss (German: Berliner Stadtschloss, translatable into English as Berlin City Palace), was a royal palace in the centre of Berlin, capital of Germany. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Carl Gotthard Langhans (December 15, 1732 – October 1, 1808) was a Prussian builder and architect. ...

Contents

Design and history

The Brandenburg Gate consists of twelve Doric columns, six to each side, forming five passageways. Citizens originally were allowed to use only the outermost two. On top of the gate is the Quadriga, the chariot drawn by four horses driven by Viktoria, the Roman goddess of victory. As in 1793, when it was originally installed, the Quadriga faces east. Image File history File links Ambox_?.svg‎ Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... Victoria on the reverse of this coin by Constantine II. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the personification/Goddess of victory. ...


The Gate's design is based upon the Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, Greece and is consistent with Berlin's history of architectural classicism (first, Baroque, and then neo-Palladian). The Gate was the first "Athens on the River Spree" by architect Karl Gotthard von Langhans. The capital Quadriga was sculpted by Johann Gottfried Schadow. Crowds of tourists climb the steps to the Propylaea, gateway to the Acropolis, Athens Stairs leading up to the Propylea The Propylaea, Propylea or Propylaia (Greek Προπυλαια) is the monumental gateway that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens. ... Acropolis (Gr. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Classicism door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic Teatr Wielki in Warsaw Church La Madeleine in Paris Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... Johann Gottfried Schadow (*May 20, 1764, †January 27, 1850), Sculptor, was born and died in Berlin, where his father was a poor tailor. ...

Napoleon in Berlin.
Napoleon in Berlin.

The Brandenburg Gate's design has remained essentially unchanged since its completion even as it has played different political roles in German history. After the 1806 Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon took the Quadriga to Paris. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814 and the Prussian occupation of Paris by General Ernst von Pfuel, the Quadriga was restored to Berlin and Viktoria's wreath of oak leaves was supplemented with a new symbol of Prussian power, the Iron Cross. Image File history File links Charles_Meynier_-_Napoleon_in_Berlin. ... Image File history File links Charles_Meynier_-_Napoleon_in_Berlin. ... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ernst Heinrich Adolf von Pfuel (November 3, 1779, Jahnsfelde, Brandenburg - December 3, 1866, Berlin) was a Prussian general, Governor of Berlin, Prussian Minister of War from 7 September 1848 to 2 November 1848, and Prussian Prime Minister in 1848. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ...


When the Nazis ascended to power they used the Gate as their symbol. The Gate survived World War II and was one of the few structures standing in the Pariser Platz ruins in 1945 (another being the Academy of Fine Arts). Following Germany's surrender and the end of the second world war, the governments of East Berlin and West Berlin restored it in a joint effort. Vehicles and pedestrians could again travel freely through the gate, until August 1961 when the Berlin Wall was erected. The wall and its fortified death strip ran just west of the gate, cutting off access from West Berlin and essentially rendering it off limits to East Berliners. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...


In 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy visited the Brandenburg Gate. The Soviets hung large banners across it to prevent him looking into the East. In the 1980s, decrying the existence of two German states, West Berlin mayor Richard von Weizsäcker said: The German question will remain open as long as the Brandenburg Gate is closed. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ...


On June 12, 1987, U.S. President Ronald Reagan spoke to the West Berlin populace at the Brandenburg Gate, demanding the razing of the Berlin Wall. Addressing CPSU General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, Reagan said, is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...

General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

When the Revolutions of 1989 occurred and the Berlin Wall collapsed, the Gate symbolized freedom and the desire to unify the City of Berlin. On the 22nd of December 1989, the Brandenburg Gate re-opened when Helmut Kohl, the West German Chancellor, walked through to be greeted by Hans Modrow, the East German Prime Minister. U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Hans Modrow (born January 27, 1928) served as one of the last leaders of East Germany and as of 2003 functions as honorary Chairman of the Party of Democratic Socialism. ...


On July 12, 1994, U.S. President Bill Clinton spoke at the Gate about peace in post-Cold War Europe. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


On December 21, 2000, the Brandenburg Gate was privately refurbished at a 6 million dollar cost. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


In July of 2008, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama is rumored to make a keynote address on transatlantic relations at the Brandenburg Gate, during his visit to Germany on July 24th. There has been some controversy and disagreements surrounding the details of this visit between Berlin's Mayor, Klaus Wowereit, and German Chancellor Angela Merkel. Merkel has stated that, due to the Brandenburg Gate's historical and political significance, the site should only be reserved for very special occasion addresses by politicians, and only by elected American presidents.


The Brandenburg Gate is now again closed for vehicle traffic, and much of Pariser Platz has been turned into a cobblestone pedestrian zone. A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... Venice (J.H. Crawford) Auto-free zones are also known as car-free zones and pedestrianised zones. ...


Location

Historical photographs

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,536 pixels, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

See also

View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Monuments in Berlin / Senate Department for Urban Development in Berlin (539 words)
It is the only gate which survived, because it constitutes the monumental termination of Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees which led directly to the residence of the Prussian kings until the destruction of the city castle.
The Brandenburg Gate is crowned with a quadriga depicting the goddess of victory, "who brings peace", marching into the city.
The Brandenburg Gate is not only a symbol of division and reunification; it was also the site of many other events in German history, a history characterized by so many peaks and troughs.
Brandenburg Gate - MSN Encarta (307 words)
Brandenburg Gate (German, Brandenburger Tor), an 18th-century city gateway in the historic center of the German capital, Berlin.
German sculptor Gottfried Schadow decorated the gate with a number of reliefs and with the Quadriga, a statue of Victory as a winged woman driving a chariot drawn by four horses, which was placed on the monument's flat top in 1794.
The Brandenburg Gate is located on Pariser Platz, a square at the western end of the avenue Unter den Linden, and is therefore near several public buildings and foreign embassies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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