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Encyclopedia > Brand
Key concepts

Product / Price / Promotion
Placement / Service / Retail
Market research
Marketing strategy
Marketing management
Market dominance
Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up brand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Brand may mean: Brand, the symbolic embodiment a product or service branding as in Livestock branding, a mark used to identify livestock Brand, an anarchist magazine published since 1898 Brand (play), a play written in 1865 by Henrik Ibsen Brand Brewery, a... Next big thing redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Market research is the process of systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about customers, competitors and the market. ... A marketing strategy[1] [2] is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ... Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings. ...

Promotional content

Advertising / Branding
Direct marketing / Personal Sales
Product placement / Public relations
Publicity / Sales promotion
Underwriting // Advert redirects here. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... // Dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. ... An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ...

Promotional media

Printing / Publication / Broadcasting
Out-of-home / Internet marketing
Point of sale / Novelty items
Digital marketing / In-game
Word of mouth
For other uses, see Print. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Internet marketing, also referred to as online marketing, Internet advertising, eMarketing (or e-Marketing), is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Promotional items or promotional products refers to articles of merchandise that are used in marketing and communication programs. ... Digital Marketing refers to the practice of marketing services, products and other items using digital tools and techniques that have appeared relatively recently since the rise of the Internet as a mainstream communications platform. ... In-game advertising (IGA) refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising. ... Word-of-mouth marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities that companies undertake to generate personal recommendations as well as referrals for brand names, products and services. ...

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Brands were originally developed as labels of ownership: name, term, design, symbol. However, today it is what they do for people that matters much more, how they reflect and engage them, how they define their aspiration and enable them to do more. Powerful brands can drive success in competitive and financial markets, and indeed become the organization's most valuable assets. For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... The word term refers to either a word unit or a time unit with specified boundaries or limits. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...



Brand, along with many modern-language lexemes such as English burn and brandy, German brennen, and those in many European languages based on the root therm-, are all ultimately related to the ideas of warmth, heat, burning, etc., and descend from an Indo-European root that has been reconstructed as /gwher/.[1]

In the Old English language, the noun brond is first attested from the epic poem Beowulf (circa 1000) meaning "destruction by fire."[2][3] Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... This article is about the epic poem. ...

In Old Viking language, that is still preserved in Icelandic, brand comes from 'brenndur' or brennimerktur, meaning branded with a warm iron. Actually the word brennimerktur means: 'brenni' : burned and 'merktur' : marked. i. e. marked with a symbol burned on.

Throughout the ages, brand had been used in figurative and transferred senses to mean "a person delivered from imminent danger," "the torches of Cupid and the Furies," and "Jove's or God's or Phoebus' brand."[4]

Brand had also been figuratively applied since the late 16th century to criminalize people (as in disgrace, a stigma, or mark of infamy) and in the sense of firebrand since the 17th century.[5]

The idea of marking things, people, or animals by burning identifying marks onto them is clearly an ancient one.

While described as a physical impression of ownership on livestock by way of hot-iron branding since the mid-17th century, modern senses of brand as used in business began to arise in the early 19th century when the term was figuratively extended to trademarks and logos. During this time, brands were imprinted on casks of wine, timber, and other goods except textile fabrics.[6] “(TM)” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Logo (disambiguation). ...

During the 19th century in primarily the United States, hot irons used for marking livestock and cauterizing wounds were called brands, and later cattle and other livestock were also referred to as brands. A brand blotter was a thief who stole, and removed marks of ownership from, cattle.[7]


Some of the most famous brands in the world today

In the field of marketing, brands originated in the nineteenth century with the advent of packaged goods. The first registered brand was the red triangle registered by Bass beer, as the British were the first to introduce a law for trade mark registration[1]. Industrialization moved the production of household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would brand their logotype insignia on the shipping barrels. These factories, generating mass-produced goods, needed to sell their products to a wider range of customers, to a customer base familiar only with local goods, and it turned out that a generic package of soap had difficulty competing with familiar, local products. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Good (accounting) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Bass is the name of a former brewery and the brand name for several English beers originally but no longer brewed in Burton upon Trent. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A ranch worker brands a young steer using an electric branding iron while another makes an earmark. ...

The fortunes of many of that era's brands, such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal, illustrate the problem. The packaged goods manufacturers needed to convince buyers that they could trust in the non-local, factory product. Campbell soup, Coca-Cola, Juicy Fruit gum, Aunt Jemima, and Quaker Oats, were the first American products to be branded to increase the customer's familiarity with the products. Uncle Ben’s is a brand name for parboiled (“converted”) rice and related food products. ... Kellogg Company (often referred to as simply Kellogg or Kelloggs) is an American multinational producer of breakfast foods, snack foods, cookies, and crackers, with corporate headquarters in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Kellogg trades under the ticker symbol NYSE: K. Revenues in 2006 were $10. ... Campbell Soup Company (NYSE: CPB) (also known as Campbells) is undeniably the most well-known producer of canned soups and related products in the United States (and possibly the world). ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Juicy Fruit is a flavor and brand of chewing gum made by Wrigleys. ... Aunt Jemima is a trademark for pancake flour, syrup, and other breakfast foods. ... Quaker Oats Company makes many types and flavors of oatmeal. ...

In 1879, the U.S. Congress passed a federal trademark statute that was aimed at protecting established trademarks and thus to prevent the defrauding of consumers[8]. The Congress' actions were struck down by the Supreme Court which cited that trademark protection would unnecessarily interfere with intrastate commerce [9]. In was not until 1917 with the case, Aunt Jemima Mills Co. v. Rigney Co., that American courts solidified trademark protection[10]. Around 1900, James Walter Thompson published a house advert explaining trademark advertising, in an early commercial description of what now is known as 'branding'. Soon, companies adopted slogans, mascots, and jingles that were heard on radio and seen in early television. By the 1940s, Mildred Pierce manufacturers recognized how customers were developing relationships with their brands in the social, psychological, and anthropological senses. From that, manufacturers quickly learned to associate other kinds of brand values, such as youthfulness, fun, and luxury, with their products. Thus began the practice of 'branding', wherein the customer buys the brand rather than the product. This trend arose in the 1980s 'brand equity mania'.[11] In 1988, Phillip Morris bought Kraft for six times its paper worth. It is believed the purchase was made because the Phillip Morris company actually wanted the Kraft brand rather than the company and its products. James Walter Thompson (1847-1928) was the founder of the JWT advertising agency and a pioneer of many advertising techniques. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... A jingle is a memorable advertising slogan set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... Kraft has more than one meaning: Kraft Foods, the worlds second largest food and beverage company Kraft process, a paper pulp production method Kraft (Mega Man Zero), a video game character Kraft (Catch-22), a character in Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22 Team Kraft, Toyota semi-works Super...

April 2, 1993, labeled Marlboro Friday, is described by Klein (2000) as the death day of the brand.[11] On that day, Phillip Morris declared a 20 per cent price cut of Marlboro cigarettes in order to compete with cheaper price cigarettes. At the time, Marlboro cigarettes were notorious for their heavy advertising campaigns, and nuanced brand image. On that day, the prices of many branded companies Wall street stocks fell: [11] Heinz, Coca Cola, Quaker Oats, PepsiCo; seemingly the signal of the beginning 'brand blindness'(Klein 13). is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Marlboro Friday happened on April 2, 1993 when Philip Morris announced a 20% price cut to their Marlboro cigarettes to fight back against the competitors who were increasingly eating into their market share. ... Marlboro logo Marlboro is a brand of cigarette made by Altria. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Quaker Oats Company makes many types and flavors of oatmeal. ... PepsiCo, Incorporated (NYSE: PEP) is the largest global American beverage and snack company. ...


Marketers engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand image, a concept introduced in 1955 by Burleigh B. Gardner and Sidney J. Levy[12], may be developed by attributing a "personality" to or associating an "image" with a product or service, whereby the personality or image is "branded" into the consciousness of consumers. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. // Advert redirects here. ... The discipline of brand management was started at Procter & Gamble PLC as a result of a famous memo by Neil H. McElroy. ...

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present. For example, Disney has been successful at branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it used in the logo for go.com. Disney redirects here. ... Go. ...

"DNA" refers to the unique attributes, essence, purpose, or profile of a brand and, therefore, a company. The term is borrowed from the biological DNA, the molecular "blueprint" or genetic profile of an organism which determines its unique characteristics. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer clothes. In non-commercial contexts, the marketing of entities which supply ideas or promises rather than product and services (e.g. political parties or religious organizations) may also be known as "branding". Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Designer is a broad term for a person who designs any of a variety of things. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...

The ultimate accolade for a brand is to be at the top of its category. Once this has happened, however, it risks becoming generic and being unable to act as a brand - the ability to distinguish goods from different producers.

Brand equity

Brand equity measures the total value of the brand to the brand owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise. Brand name is often used interchangeably with brand, although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of a brand. In this context a brand name constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration. This article is about the marketing concept. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... Proprietary indicates that a party, or proprietor, exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ...

Attitude branding

Attitude branding is the choice to represent a feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Marketing labeled as attitude branding includes that of Apple, Nike, Safeway, Starbucks, and The Body Shop.[11] Apple Inc. ... Nike, Inc. ... {{This article is about the US-based corporation|Safeway}} Safeway Inc. ... For other uses of Starbuck, see Starbuck. ... The Body Shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ...

Brand monopoly

In economic terms the "brand" is a device to create a monopoly—or at least some form of "imperfect competition"—so that the brand owner can obtain some of the benefits which accrue to a monopoly, particularly those related to decreased price competition. For example, the Coca Cola corporation will probably never have a monopoly on cola-flavored soda pop, but it can have a monopoly on its own brand of cola-flavored soda pop. In this context, most "branding" is established by promotional means. There is also a legal dimension, for it is essential that the brand names and trademarks are protected by all means available. The monopoly may also be extended, or even created, by patent, copyright, trade secret (e.g. secret recipe), and other sui generis intellectual property regimes (e.g.: Plant Varieties Act, Design Act). This article is about the economic term. ...

In all these contexts, retailers' "own label" brands can be just as powerful. The "brand", whatever its derivation, is a very important investment for any organization. RHM (Rank Hovis McDougall), for example, have valued their international brands at anything up to twenty times their annual earnings. Often, especially in the industrial sector, it is just the company's name which is promoted (leading to one of the most powerful statements of "branding"; the saying, before the company's downgrading, "No-one ever got fired for buying IBM"). RHM, know more fully as Rank Hovis McDougall was a United Kingdom food business until its purchase by Premier Foods in March 2007. ...

Brand extension

Main article: brand extension

An existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products; for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-) glasses, furniture, hotels, etc. Mars extended its brand to ice cream, Caterpillar to shoes and watches, Michelin to a restaurant guide, Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene. Dunlop extended its brand from tires to many other rubber products such as shoes, golf balls, tennis racquets and adhesives. Brand extension is a marketing strategy in which a firm that markets a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name but in a different product category. ... Mars, Incorporated is a world-wide manufacturer of confectionery, pet food and other food products with US$18 billion in annual sales in 2005. ... Caterpillar Inc. ... Michelin (full name: Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) (Euronext: ML) based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France, is primarily a tyre manufacturer. ... This article is about the company. ... For other uses, see Puma (disambiguation). ...

There is a difference between brand extension and line extension. When Coca-Cola launched "Diet Coke" and "Cherry Coke" they stayed within the originating product category: non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. Procter & Gamble (P&G) did likewise extending its strong lines (such as Fairy Soap) into neighboring products (Fairy Liquid and Fairy Automatic) within the same category, dish washing detergents. These are examples of line, not brand extensions. The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Two bottles of Fairy. ...

Brand orientation

Brand orientation is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. A product’s superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are looking for other, more enduring, competitive tools – such as brands. Brand Orientation refers to "the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities” (Bridson & Evans, 2004) Brand Orientation is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. ... The product lifecycle goes though many phases and involves many professional disciplines and requires many skills, tools and processes. ... Competitive advantage (CA) is a position that a firm occupies in its competitive landscape. ...

Multiple brands

In a market fragmented with many brands, a supplier can choose to launch new brands apparently competing with its own, extant strong brand (and often with an identical product), simply to obtain a greater share of the market that would go to minor brands. The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will give garner a greater, overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if much of the share of these new brands is taken from the existing one). In its most extreme manifestation, a supplier pioneering a new market which it believes will be particularly attractive may choose immediately to launch a second brand in competition with its first, in order to pre-empt others entering the market.

Individual brand names naturally allow greater flexibility by permitting a variety of different products, of differing quality, to be sold without confusing the consumer's perception of what business the company is in or diluting higher quality products.

Once again, Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy, running as many as ten detergent brands in the US market. This also increases the total number of "facings" it receives on supermarket shelves. Sara Lee, on the other hand, uses it to keep the very different parts of the business separate—from Sara Lee cakes through Kiwi polishes to L'Eggs pantyhose. In the hotel business, Marriott uses the name Fairfield Inns for its budget chain (and Ramada uses Rodeway for its own cheaper hotels). Sara Lee Corporation (NYSE: SLE) is a global consumer-goods company based in Downers Grove, Illinois, USA. It has operations in more than 40 countries and sells its products in over 180 nations worldwide. ... Marriott International, Inc. ... From top to bottom: Original Ramada Inn logo, Ramada Worldwide (Cendant) logo, current 2005 logo, and Ramada International logo. ...

Cannibalization is a particular problem of a "multi-brand" approach, in which the new brand takes business away from an established one which the organization also owns. This may be acceptable (indeed to be expected) if there is a net gain overall. Alternatively, it may be the price the organization is willing to pay for shifting its position in the market; the new product being one stage in this process. In marketing In marketing, cannibalization refers to a reduction in the sales volume, sales revenue, or market share of one product as a result of the introduction of a new product by the same producer. ...

Abercrombie & Fitch is a multi-brands company, with brands Abercrombie Kids, Gilly Hicks, Hollister Co., and Ruehl No.925. Abercrombie & Fitch (IPA: ) (NYSE: ANF) (A&F) is an American clothing company. ... abercrombie (spelled all lowercase, and in advertisement form), or more specifically abercrombie kids, is a moderately priced American lifestyle brand from Abercrombie & Fitch Co. ... The Abercrombie moose. ... Hollister Co. ... RUEHL No. ...

Generic and private-label brands

With the emergence of strong retailers, the "own brand", the retailer's own branded product (or service), emerged as a major factor in the marketplace. Where the retailer has a particularly strong identity, such as, in the UK, Marks & Spencer in clothing, this "own brand" may be able to compete against even the strongest brand leaders, and may dominate those markets which are not otherwise strongly branded. There was a fear that such "own brands" might displace all other brands (as they have done in Marks & Spencer outlets), but the evidence is that—at least in supermarkets and department stores—consumers generally expect to see on display something over 50 per cent (and preferably over 60 per cent) of brands other than those of the retailer. Indeed, even the strongest own brands in the United Kingdom rarely achieve better than third place in the overall market. In the US, Target has "own" brands of "Market Pantry" and "Archer Farms" each with unique packaging and placement.

The strength of the retailers has, perhaps, been seen more in the pressure they have been able to exert on the owners of even the strongest brands (and in particular on the owners of the weaker third and fourth brands). Relationship marketing has been applied most often to meet the wishes of such large customers (and indeed has been demanded by them as recognition of their buying power). Some of the more active marketers have now also switched to 'category marketing'—in which they take into account all the needs of a retailer in a product category rather than more narrowly focusing on their own brand. Relationship marketing is a form of marketing that evolved from direct response marketing in the 1960s and emerged in the 1980s, in which emphasis is placed on building longer term relationships with customers rather than on individual transactions. ...

At the same time, generic (that is, effectively unbranded goods) have also emerged. These made a positive virtue of saving the cost of almost all marketing activities; emphasizing the lack of advertising and, especially, the plain packaging (which was, however, often simply a vehicle for a different kind of image). It would appear that the penetration of such generic products peaked in the early 1980s, and most consumers still seem to be looking for the qualities that the conventional brand provides. A generic brand product is one made by a manufacturer the customer doesnt know much about who may or may not put thier name on the product. ...


Co-branding uses multiple brand names to market a single product or service. For example, Betty Crocker brownie mix incorporates Hershy's chocolate syrup.

Brand Protection

There are many ways in which marketeers choose to promote their brands or fight competing brands. Many choose to register their brand as trademarks adding statutory protection to their brands. The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ...

Branding and the Internet

With the internet as the primary source of new business for many companies, a new curve has been thrown at marketers and executives in charge of development and protection of corporate branding.

Many computer savvy students have registered all names they assumed would hold future value. This includes virtually all dictionary terms and before the courts had rules, many corporate names were registered. Some companies have purchased a domain name that matched their brand in the domain aftermarket at a premium price in excess of the cost of registration.

Fortunately domain squatting has not hurt companies that have clearly distinguishable brands that have been victims of this. Courts will rule in favor of clear cases. However many cases are not as clear and in cases of a generic term or terms, the person that originally registered the name, although it may be someones brand, may keep it. For instance had Amazon not owned the domain name, a person would have the right to own it and post a picture of a rain forest if they so wished. This is because a company cannot restrict use of common words when trademarking. It must be within a limited scope. For a reverse of the domain ownership, it would have to be proven the user was infringing on a trademark, and that is not always the case. The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the Internet. ...

The internet has honored the right to register a domain name of a generic term to an individual or company and to use it for what it is best suited. While a person cannot hope to keep the name "BurgerKing.com" from being given to a national brand if it were to be a court case, Burger King cannot expect to be entitled to Burgers.com

Similarly while Dominos Pizza can expect to obtain rights to a nationally know Dominos Pizza domain name, it cannot prevent a man name Domino who owns a Pizza place from registering it and using it. If the purpose is to dilute a brand and confuse a customer on a trademark, the chance is the domain name will go to the holder of the trademark. However if a Mr. Domino of Kansas wants to register DominosPizza.com, before Dominos the national chain does or did, then it would fairly belong to Dominos Pizza of Kansas. A national company is no more entitled to the domain name than is a small business. There are also other extensions such as .net, .org, .us, .info, .biz and more. No one is entitled to a commonly used phrase with a dot com extension. Therefore a brand is now subject to making a deal with a domain owner if they wish to have the domain name that they are not entitled to.

For new companies, creating a brand now must include first checking to see if the domain name will be available or can be purchased before investing heavily and building upon the name. A company would not spend millions of dollars in advertising on "Fast Computers" if it could not register the domain name. It would be better to pick a brand that could be matched with an available domain name. The term domain name has multiple related meanings: A name that identifies a computer or computers on the Internet. ...

By synchronizing a brand with a domain name, it is easy to market, gain and keep customers. Therefore the use of a domain name should be carefully considered prior to development of any new brand.

Branding and the new open era

Many companies have realized different dynamics with their consumers in the internet era. The consumers do not simply consume products and brands, but are actively engaged in creating and building brands of their interest online. For example, YouTube is used to upload individual online user-created commercials of products. Companies and management need to learn, embrace, and engage these new consumers (or newly defined as iCitizens by Kelly Mooney, the author of The Open Brand and The Ten Demandments) in order to sustain and strengthen their brand.

See also

In consumer marketing, an aspirational brand is one that a large segment of consumers wish to own, but cannot. ... Individual branding is the marketing strategy of giving each product in a product portfolio its own unique brand name. ... Personal branding is the process of creating or enhancing a personal brand: an individuals total perceived value, relative to competitors, as viewed by their target audience. ... Brand architecture is the structure of brands within an organizational entity. ... A brand community is a community on the basis of attachment to a product or marque. ... In marketing, brand management is the application of a range of efforts seeking to increase a product/services perceived value to the customer and thereby increase brand franchise and brand equity. ... Brand implementation refers to the physical application of brand identity across visual identity carriers. ... Brand loyalty has been proclaimed by some to be the ultimate goal of marketing. ... The discipline of brand management was started at Procter & Gamble PLC as a result of a famous memo by Neil H. McElroy. ... This article is about brands in marketing. ... Brand Orientation is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. ... The Tommy Hilfiger brand is an example of a designer label. ... Employer branding is a concept in marketing which defines a company as a preferred employer and promotes the benefits of working for the company to future and current employees. ... A generic brand product is one made by a manufacturer the customer doesnt know much about who may or may not put thier name on the product. ... Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC), according to The American Marketing Association, is “a planning process designed to assure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time. ... 3rd Edition of the Retail Alphabet Game. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


  • Birkin, Michael (1994). "Assessing Brand Value," in Brand Power. ISBN 0-8147-7965-4
  • Gregory, James (2003). Best of Branding. ISBN 0-07-140329-9
  • Klein, Naomi (2000) No logo, Canada: Random House, ISBN 0-676-97282-9
  • Fan, Y. (2002) “The National Image of Global Brands”, Journal of Brand Management, 9:3, 180-192, available at http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/1289
  • Kotler, Philip and Pfoertsch, Waldemar (2006). B2B Brand Management, ISBN 3-540-25360-2.
  • Miller & Muir (2004). The Business of Brands, ISBN 0-470-86259-9.
  • Olins, Wally (2003). On Brand, London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-51145-4.
  • Schmidt, Klaus and Chris Ludlow (2002). Inclusive Branding: The Why and How of a Holistic approach to Brands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-98079-4
  • Wernick, Andrew (1991). Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression (Theory, Culture & Society S.), London: Sage Publications, ISBN 0-8039-8390-5

Naomi Klein (b. ... No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is a book by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein. ... Philip Kotler (born 27 May 1932 in Chicago) is the S.C. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. ...

External links


  1. ^ Houghton Mifflin (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, page 2031. ISBN 978-0-395-82517-4. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  8. ^ Robert A Peterson, Karen H Smith, Philip C Zerrillo. Academy of Marketing Science. Greenvale: Spring 1999. Vol. 27, Iss. 2; p. 255
  9. ^ Robert A Peterson, Karen H Smith, Philip C Zerrillo. Academy of Marketing Science. Greenvale: Spring 1999. Vol. 27, Iss. 2; p. 255
  10. ^ Muller, Kimberly M. 1993. "Dilution Law: At a Crossroad? A Position of Advocacy in Support of Adoption of a Preemptive Federal Antidilution Statute." The Trademark Reporter 83 (March-April): 173-185
  11. ^ a b c d Klein, Naomi (2000) No logo, Canada: Random House, ISBN 0-676-97282-9
  12. ^ Gardner, Burleigh B., and Sidney J. Levy. 1955. The Product and the Brand. Harvard Business Review (March): 33-39.
Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Naomi Klein (b. ... No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is a book by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein. ...

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