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Encyclopedia > Branchial arch
Branchial arch
Schematic of developing fetus with first, second and third arches labeled.
Floor of pharynx of human embryo about twenty-six days old.
Gray's subject #13 65
Carnegie stage 10
MeSH A16.254.160
Dorlands/Elsevier a_57/12149648

In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. Image File history File links Gray41. ... Image File history File links Gray979. ... In embryology, Carnegie stages are a standardized system of 23 stages used to provide a unified developmental chronology of the embryo. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ... Classes and Clades See below Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... In Utero is the third and final studio album from the American grunge/punk band Nirvana. ... It has been suggested that organogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, presenting the z (up) vector and y (forward) vector, the right is defined to be the positive x vector. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ...

Contents

Development

These grow and join in the ventral midline. The first arch, as the first to form, separates the mouth pit or stomodeum from the pericardium. By differential growth the neck elongates and new arches form, so the pharynx has six arches ultimately. The first branchial arch, also called the first pharyngeal arch and mandibular arch, is the first of six branchial arches that develops in fetal life. ... The mouth is developed partly from the stomodeum, and partly from the floor of the anterior portion of the fore-gut. ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ...


Each pharyngeal arch has a cartilaginous bar, a muscle component which differentiates from the cartilagenous tissue, an artery, and a cranial nerve. Each of these is surrounded by Mesenchyme. Arches do not develop simultaneously, but instead posess a "staggered" development. Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muscular system. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ...


Relations

Pharyngeal or branchial pouches form on the endodermal side between the arches, and pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form from the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches. Pharyngeal or branchial pouches form on the endodermal side between the branchial arches, and pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form from the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches. ... It has been suggested that organogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that organogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... A human neck. ...


The pouches line up with the clefts, and these thin segments become gills in fish. gills of a Smooth Newt Gills inside of a tuna head In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ...


In mammals the endoderm and ectoderm not only remain intact, but continue to be separated by a mesoderm layer. The endoderm, sometimes refered to as entoderm, is one of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the ectoderm and the mesoderm. ... The ectoderm is outermost of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the mesoderm and the endoderm. ... The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm. ...


Specific arches

There are six pharyngeal arches, but in humans the fifth arch only exists transiently during embryologic growth and development. Since no human structures result from the fifth arch, the arches in humans are I, II, III, IV, and VI.


More is known about the fate of the first arch than the remaining four. The first three contribute to structures above the larynx, while the last three contribute to the larynx and trachea. The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Windpipe redirects here. ...

Pharyngeal arch Muscular contributions Skeletal contributions Nerve and Artery
1st (also called "mandibular arch") muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid), anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini maxilla, mandible, the incus and malleus of the middle ear, also Meckel's cartilage Trigeminal nerve (V2 and V3) Maxillary Artery
2nd (also called the "hyoid arch") Muscles of facial expression, buccinator, platysma, stapedius, stylohyoid, digastric posterior belly Stapes, styloid process, hyoid (Lesser Horn and Part of Body), Reichert's cartilage Facial nerve (VII)
3rd Stylopharyngeus Hyoid (Greater Horn and Part of Body) Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), Common carotid/Internal Carotid
4th and 6th intrinsic muscles of larynx, pharynx; levator palati thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottic cartilage, arytenoid cartilages Vagus nerve (X) Pulmonary Artery

The first branchial arch, also called the first pharyngeal arch and mandibular arch, is the first of six branchial arches that develops in fetal life. ... Mastication is a name for the process of breaking up of food and mixing it with saliva. ... The Digastric is a muscle of the human body. ... Mylohyoid can refer to: Mylohyoid muscle Mylohyoid line This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The tensor tympani muscle arises from the auditory tube and inserts onto the handle of the malleus, damping down vibration in the ossicles and so reducing the amplitude of sounds. ... The Tensor veli palatini muscle (or Tensor palati) is a muscle of the human body. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with jaw. ... This article refers to a bone in the mammalian ear. ... The malleus is hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The hyoid arch (or second branchial arch) assists in forming the side and front of the neck. ... Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne. ... Buccinator The buccinator is a muscle of which the bulk of is located in the cheeks. ... The platysma is a superficial muscle that stretches from the clavicle to the mandible overlapping the sternocleidomastoid. ... The stapedius is the smallest striated muscle in the human body. ... The Stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying in front of, and above the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. ... The Digastric is a muscle of the human body. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. ... In anatomy, the styloid process is any sharp protrusion of a bone. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The Stylopharyngeus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The levator veli palatini is a muscle of the human body. ... The cartilages of the larynx. ... The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid, is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. ... The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... The arytenoid cartilages are a pair of small pyramid-shaped cartilages, at the upper rear of the larynx, to which the vocal cords are attached. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...

See also

Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside)a Tuberculum lateraleb Tuberculum imparc Foramen cecumd Ductus thyreoglossuse Sinus cervicalis
Pattern of the branchial arches. I-IV branchial arches, 1-4 branchial pouches (inside) and/or pharyngeal grooves (outside)
a Tuberculum laterale
b Tuberculum impar
c Foramen cecum
d Ductus thyreoglossus
e Sinus cervicalis

Image File history File links Kiemenbogen. ... Image File history File links Kiemenbogen. ... Pharyngeal or branchial pouches form on the endodermal side between the branchial arches, and pharyngeal grooves (or clefts) form from the lateral ectodermal surface of the neck region to separate the arches. ... In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ... Pattern of the branchial arches. ... Foramen cecum can refer to: Foramen cecum (frontal bone) Foramen cecum (tongue) Foramen cecum (medulla oblongata) Category: ... The thyroglossal duct is an embryological anatomical structure which forms the connection between the initial area of development of the thyroid gland and its final position. ... The mandibular and hyoid arches grow more rapidly than those behind them, with the result that the latter become, to a certain extent, telescoped within the former, and a deep depression, the cervical sinus, is formed on either side of the neck. ... In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ...

References

  • 2006 - 2007 Dental Decks
  • Harris, Edward F. (2002). Craniofacial Growth and Development.
  • McMinn, R., 1994. Last's anatomy: Regional and applied (9th ed).
  • Larsen Embryology.

External links

  • The role of the endoderm in the development and evolution of the pharyngeal arches
Mammalian development of embryo and development and fetus (some dates are approximate - see Carnegie stages) - edit - discuss

Week 1: Zygote | Morula | Blastula/Blastomere/Blastosphere | Archenteron/Primitive streak | Blastopore | Allantois | Trophoblast (Cytotrophoblast | Syncytiotrophoblast | Gestational sac) Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ... A human fetus A fetus (or foetus, or fœtus – see below) is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. ... In embryology, Carnegie stages are a standardized system of 23 stages used to provide a unified developmental chronology of the embryo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Morula is a stage of embryonic development in animals, including the 16-cell phase, the 32-cell phase, and the 64-cell phase. ... Blastulation. ... A blastomere is the structure which results from the divisions of a fertilised egg during embryonic development . ... Blastulation. ... The archenteron is an indentation that forms early on in a developing blastula. ... The primitive streak is a structure that forms during the early stages of avian, reptilian and mammalian embryonic development. ... A blastopore is an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism. ... Allantois is a part of a developing animal embryo. ... The trophoblast (from Greek threphein: to feed) is considered to be the first of all embryonic annexes. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Syncytiotrophoblasts are cells found in the placenta of human embryos. ... The gestational sac is the only available intrauterine structure that can be used to determine if an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) exists, until the embryo is identified. ...


Week 2: Yolk sac | Vitelline duct | Bilaminar disc The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... At the end of the fourth week the yolk-sac presents the appearance of a small pear-shaped vesicle (umbilical vesicle) opening into the digestive tube by a long narrow tube, the vitelline duct. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Week 3: Hensen's node | Gastrula/Gastrulation | Trilaminar embryo Branchial arch (1st) | Branchial pouch | Meckel's cartilage | Somite/Somitomere | Germ layer (Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Chordamesoderm, Paraxial mesoderm, Intermediate mesoderm, Lateral plate mesoderm) Hensens Node is the organizer for gastrulation in birds. ... 1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm. ... 1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Embryogenesis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into branchial arch. ... In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ... The cartilaginous bar of the mandibular arch is formed by what are known as Meckel’s cartilages (right and left) ; above this the incus is developed. ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites are masses of mesoderm distributed along the two sides of the neural tube and that will eventually become dermis (dermatome), skeletal muscle (myotome), and vertebrae (sclerotome). ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, the somitomeres are loose masses of paraxial mesoderm derived cells that form along each side of the neural tube towards the end of the third gestational week. ... It has been suggested that organogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... The ectoderm is outermost of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the mesoderm and the endoderm. ... The endoderm, sometimes refered to as entoderm, is one of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the ectoderm and the mesoderm. ... The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm. ... Chordamesoderm is a type of mesoderm that lies along the central axis, under the neural tube. ... Paraxial mesoderm is the area of mesoderm that forms just lateral to the neural tube on both sides. ... Intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. ... Lateral plate mesoderm (or hypomere) is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo. ...

Histogenesis and Organogenesis

Circulatory system: Primitive atrium | Primitive ventricle | Bulbus cordis | Truncus arteriosus | Ostium primum | Foramen ovale | Ductus venosus | Ductus arteriosus | Aortic arches | Septum primum | Septum secundum | Cardinal veins An Introduction to Histogenesis Histogenesis is defined as the formation of tissues and organs from undifferentiated cells (Encarta Dictionary). ... Organogenesis is a stage of animal development where the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm are formed. ... Human circulatory system. ... The primitive atrium grows rapidly and partially encircles the bulbus cordis; the groove against which the bulbus cordis lies is the first indication of a division into right and left atria. ... The primitive ventricle becomes divided by a septum, the septum inferius or ventricular septum, which grows upward from the lower part of the ventricle, its position being indicated on the surface of the heart by a furrow. ... When the heart assumes its S-shaped form the bulbus cordis lies ventral to and in front of the primitive ventricle. ... For the medical condition with the same name, see Truncus arteriosus. ... In the developing heart, for a time the atria communicate with each other by an opening, the ostium primum of Born (interatrial foramen primum), below the free margin of the septum. ... In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. ... In the fetus, the ductus venosus connects the left umbilical vein with the upper inferior vena cava. ... In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows much of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus fluid-filled lungs. ... This article focuses upon the multiple aortic arches present in the embryo. ... The cavity of the primitive atrium becomes subdivided into right and left chambers by a septum, the septum primum, which grows downward into the cavity. ... The septum secundum, semilunar in shape, grows downward from the upper wall of the atrium immediately to the right of the primary septum and foramen ovale. ... During development of the veins, the first indication of a parietal system consists in the appearance of two short transverse veins, the ducts of Cuvier, which open, one on either side, into the sinus venosus. ...


Nervous system: Neural development/Neurulation | Neurula | Neural folds | Neural groove | Neural tube | Neural crest | Neuromere (Rhombomere) | Notochord | Optic vesicles | Optic stalk | Optic cup The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ... Neurulation is a part of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos. ... A Neurula is an embryo at the early stage of development in which neurulation occurs. ... In front of the primitive streak two longitudinal ridges, caused by a folding up of the ectoderm, make their appearance, one on either side of the middle line. ... Between the neural folds is a shallow median groove, the neural groove. ... In the developing vertebrate nervous system, the neural tube is the precursor of the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. ... The neural crest, a component of the ectoderm, is one of several ridgelike clusters of cells found on either side of the neural tube in vertebrate embryos. ... Neuromeres are transient segments during the early development of the human brain. ... In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a segment of the developing rhombencephalon. ... The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. ... The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain. ... The optic vesicles project toward the sides of the head, and the peripheral part of each expands to form a hollow bulb, while the proximal part remains narrow and constitutes the optic stalk. ... The outer wall of the bulb of the optic vesicles becomes thickened and invaginated, and the bulb is thus converted into a cup, the optic cup (or ophthalmic cup), consisting of two strata of cells). ...


Digestive system: Foregut | Midgut | Hindgut | Proctodeum | Rathke's pouch | Septum transversum For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... A proctoduem is the back ectodermal part of an alimentary canal. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The liver arises in the form of a diverticulum or hollow outgrowth from the ventral surface of that portion of the gut which afterward becomes the descending part of the duodenum. ...


Urinary/Reproductive system: Urogenital folds | Urethral groove | Urogenital sinus | Kidney development (Pronephros | Mesonephros | Ureteric bud | Metanephric blastema) | Fetal genital development (Wolffian duct | Müllerian duct | Gubernaculum | Labioscrotal folds) The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and carries urine. ... A reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... The urogenital folds are an embryological structure which give rise to a portion of the external genitalia. ... The urethral groove is a temporary linear indentation on the underside (ventral side) of the male penis during embryonic development. ... The urogenital sinus (also known as the persistent cloaca) is a part of the human body while it is an embryo. ... In humans, the metanephros (adult kidney) begins as an aggregate of mesenchymal cells that are detectable by the fifth gestational week as two small areas in the intermediate mesoderm close to the pelvic aorta. ... Pronephros the most primitive of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrate, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. ... The mesonephros (Latin for middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. ... The Ureteric bud is a portion of the mesonephric duct. ... The Metanephric blastema (or metanephric mesenchyme) is one of the two embryological structures that give rise to the kidney (the other is the ureteric bud. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydigs duct, and the mesonephric duct) is an paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. ... The Müllerian ducts are paired ducts of the embryo which empty into the cloaca, and which in the female develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts; in the male they disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis. ... The gubernaculum is a fold of peritoneum which attaches to the caudal end of the testes. ... The labioscrotal folds (or labioscrotal swellings) are paired embryonic structures that represent the final stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation. ...


Glands: Thyroglossal duct A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... The thyroglossal duct is an embryological anatomical structure which forms the connection between the initial area of development of the thyroid gland and its final position. ...


Uterine support: Placenta | Umbilical cord (Umbilical artery, Umbilical vein, Wharton's jelly) | Amniotic sac (Amnion, Chorion) The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ... The umbilical cord develops from, and contains, remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. ... Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... Whartons jelly is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. ... Amnion. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Chorion can refer to the following things: Chorion is the outer membrane of the amniotic sac. ...


Limb development: Limb bud | Apical Ectodermal Ridge/AER The vertebrate limb arises out of a general morphogenetic area called a limb field. ... In embryology, the limb bud is a structure formed by the developing limb, derived from lateral plate mesoderm[citation needed]. It is intimately related with the apical ectodermal ridge, which secretes factors inducing the initial differentiation of the limb bud. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Branchial Anomalies (2054 words)
Externally, the branchial apparatus is marked by 4 ectodermal branchial clefts.
The mesoderm of the first arch gives rise to: the muscles of mastication, the anterior belly of the digastric and the tensor tympani; the mandibular process, malleus, incus and sphenomandibular ligament; dentine and cementum; the tragus and crus of the helix; and the first aortic arch derivative, the facial or external maxillary artery.
Mesodermal derivatives of the third branchial arch include: muscles, comprised of the superior constrictors and stylopharyngeus; skeletal structures represented by part of the body and the greater horns of the hyoid bone; and the third aortic arch components apparently forming the common/internal carotid arteries and descending aorta.
The Congenital Neck Mass (5517 words)
The five branchial arches are numbered in a cranial to caudal fashion; however, the fifth branchial arch does not appear on the surface of the branchial apparatus and is, by convention, called the sixth arch.
The fourth and sixth arches are forerunners to the laryngeal skeleton.
Branchial fistulas, epithelial lined tracts connecting the skin to the lumen of the foregut, may arise because of persistence of the cervical sinus in addition to breakdown of the branchial plate or the closing membrane between clefts and pouches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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