FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Brainwashing" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Brainwashing

Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the person's prior beliefs and knowledge.[1] Thought reform is the alteration of a persons basic attitudes and beliefs by outside manipulation. ... Re-education is to educate again or anew so as to rehabilitate or adapt to new situations. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ...


The American Psychological Association (APA) has neither officially accepted the concept nor officially rejected it (see below), but brainwashing has received more attention from the APA in recent years.[2] The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or re-education) consists of any systematic effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person against his/her will, usually beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Terminology

Origins of the term "brainwashing"

The term brainwashing first appeared in the English language relatively recently. Author John Marks writes that a journalist later revealed to have worked undercover for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[3] first coined the term in 1950. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... John R. Marks, III is the mayor of the city of Tallahassee, Florida. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Earlier forms of coercive persuasion occurred during the Inquisition and in the course of show trials against "enemies of the state" in the Soviet Union, etc.; but no specific term emerged until the methodologies of these earlier movements became systematized during the early decades of the People's Republic of China for use in struggles against internal class enemies and foreign invaders. Until that time, presentations of the phenomenon described only concrete specific techniques. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... The term show trial serves most commonly to label a type of public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the accused: the actual trial has as its only goal to present the accusation and the verdict to the public as an impressive example and... Enemy of the State is a 1998 film written by David Marconi, directed by Tony Scott, and starring Will Smith, Gene Hackman, Jon Voight, Lisa Bonet and Regina King. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method... Systematic was a hard rock band from California, USA. The band was one of the first signings to Metallica drummer Lars Ulrichs record label, The Music Company (via Elektra Records). ... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ...


The term xǐ năo (洗腦, the Chinese term literally translated as "to wash the brain") originally referred to methodologies of coercive persuasion used in the "reconstruction" (改造 gǎi zào) of the so-called feudal (封建 fēng jiàn) thought-patterns of Chinese citizens raised under pre-revolutionary régimes; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing/washing the heart" (洗心 xǐ xīn) prior to conducting certain ceremonies or entering certain holy places, and in Chinese, the word "心" xīn also refers to the soul or the mind, contrasting with the brain. The term first came into use in the United States in the 1950s during the Korean War (1950-1953) to describe those same methods as applied by the Chinese communists to attempt deep and permanent behavioral changes in foreign prisoners, and especially during the Korean War to disrupt the ability of captured United Nations troops to effectively organize and resist their imprisonment. For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ...


The word brainwashing consequently came into use in the United States to explain why, compared to earlier wars, a relatively high percentage of American GIs defected to the Communists after becoming prisoners of war in Korea. Later analysis determined that some of the primary methodologies employed on them during their imprisonment included sleep deprivation and other intense psychological manipulations designed to break down the autonomy of individuals. American alarm at the new phenomenon of substantial numbers of U.S. troops switching their allegiance to the enemy lessened after the repatriation of prisoners and it emerged that few of them retained allegiance to the Marxist and "anti-American" doctrines inculcated during their incarcerations. The key finding revealed that when rigid control of information ceased and the former prisoners' natural methods of reality testing could resume functioning, the superimposed values and judgments rapidly decreased. GI or G.I. is a term describing a member of the US armed forces or an item of their equipment. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... The word manipulation can refer to: Joint manipulation Social influence Sleight of hand tricks in magic or XCM. Abuse Advertising Brainwashing Charisma Fraud Indoctrination Love bombing Machiavellianism Media manipulation Mind control Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Propaganda Social psychology Puppeteer Photo manipulation Categories: | | ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Superimposition is a graphics term meaning the placement of an image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, usually to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to conceal something (such as when a different face is superimposed over the original face in a...


Although the use of brainwashing on United Nations prisoners during the Korean War produced some propaganda-benefits to the forces opposing the United Nations, its main utility to the Chinese lay in the fact that it significantly increased the maximum number of prisoners that one guard could control, thus freeing other Chinese soldiers to go to the battlefield[citation needed]. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


After the Korean War the term "brainwashing" came to apply to other methods of coercive persuasion and even to the effective use of ordinary propaganda and indoctrination. Formal discourses of the Chinese Communist Party came to prefer the more clinical-sounding term sī xǐang gǎi zào 思想改造 ("thought reform"). Metaphorical uses of "brainwashing" extended as far as the memes of fashion-following. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... For other uses, see Meme (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ...


"Brainwashing" and related concepts

Some people have come to use the terms "brainwashing" or "mind control" to explain the otherwise intuitively puzzling success of some fast-acting episodes of religious conversion or of recruitment of inductees into groups known variously as new religious movements or as cults. [4] Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


Compare the article on social influence for generic sociological/psychological approaches to the exercise of power. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ...


See also:

One of the first published uses of the term thought reform occurred in the title of the book by Robert Jay Lifton (a professor of psychology and psychiatry at John Jay College and at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York): Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of 'Brainwashing' in China (1961). (Lifton also testified on behavioral-change methodologies at the 1976 trial of Patty Hearst.) In his book Lifton used the term "thought reform" as a synonym for "brainwashing", though he preferred the first term. The elements of thought reform as published in that book sometimes serve as a basis for cult checklists, and read as follows:[5] For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... An attitude is a psychological tendency that expresses like or dislike for an entity. ... For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Capture-bonding. ... Robert Jay Lifton (born May 16, 1926) is a prominent American psychiatrist and author, chiefly known for his studies of the psychological causes and effects of war and political violence. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... The John Jay College of Criminal Justice is a criminal justice college in New York City which has nearly 11,000 students, including traditional, pre-career undergraduate students and those pursuing master’s degrees in several disciplines. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: ), is the public university system of New York City. ... Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress and occasional actress. ... A cult checklist is a group of factors proposed to identify objectively which groups, cults, or new religious movements are spurious, or likely to abuse or exploit or otherwise harm its members. ...

Benjamin Zablocki sees brainwashing as a "term for a concept that stands for a form of influence manifested in a deliberately and systematically applied traumatizing and obedience-producing process of ideological resocializations" and states this same concept historically also bore the names "thought reform" and "coercive persuasion". Milieu control is a neologism for the control of human communication through the use of a group language that may include dogma, protocols, slang, and pronunciation, which enables group members to identify other members. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Loaded words are words or phrases which have strong emotional overtones or connotations and which evoke strongly positive (or negative) reactions far beyond the specific meaning of the word which is listed in the dictionary. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... Benjamin Zablocki (b. ... Influence Science and Practice (ISBN 0321188950) is a Psychology book examining the key ways people can be influenced by Compliance Professionals. The books authors is Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. ... Thought reform is the alteration of a persons basic attitudes and beliefs by outside manipulation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ...


Political brainwashing

Studies of the Korean War (1950-1953)

The Communist Party of China used the phrase "xǐ nǎo" ("wash brain", 洗脑) to describe its methods of persuading into orthodoxy those members who did not conform to the Party message. The phrase played on "xǐ xīn", (洗心"wash heart") a monition — found in many Daoist temples — which exhorted the faithful to cleanse their hearts of impure desires before entering. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


In September 1950, the Miami Daily News published an article by Edward Hunter (1902-1978) titled "'Brain-Washing' Tactics Force Chinese into Ranks of Communist Party". It contained the first printed use of the English-language term "brainwashing," which quickly became a stock phrase in Cold War headlines. Hunter, a CIA propaganda operator [1] who worked under-cover as a journalist, turned out a steady stream of books and articles on the subject. An additional article by Hunter on the same subject appeared in New Leader magazine in 1951. In 1953 Allen Welsh Dulles, the CIA director at that time, explained that "the brain under [Communist influence] becomes a phonograph playing a disc put on its spindle by an outside genius over which it has no control." Edward Hunter is the name of the following persons: Edward Hunter (also known as Billy Banjo) (1885—1959), a Scottish born socialist active in both Scotland and New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Allen W. Dulles Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was the first civilian and the longest serving (1953-1961) Director of Central Intelligence (de-facto head of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) and a member of the Warren Commission. ...


In his 1956 book "Brain-Washing: The Story of the Men Who Defied It", Edward Hunter described "a system of befogging the brain so a person can be seduced into acceptance of what otherwise would be abhorrent to him". According to Hunter, the process became so destructive of physical and mental health that many of his interviewees had not fully recovered after several years of freedom from Chinese captivity.


Later, two studies[citation needed] of the Korean War defections by Robert Lifton and Edgar Schein concluded that brainwashing had a transient effect when used on prisoners of war. Lifton and Schein found that the Chinese did not engage in any systematic re-education of prisoners, but generally used their techniques of coercive persuasion to disrupt the ability of the prisoners to organize to maintain their morale and to try to escape. The Chinese did, however, succeed in getting some of the prisoners to make anti-American statements by placing the prisoners under harsh conditions of physical and social deprivation and disruption, and then by offering them more comfortable situations such as better sleeping quarters, quality food, warmer clothes or blankets. Nevertheless, the psychiatrists noted that even these measures of coercion proved quite ineffective at changing basic attitudes for most people. In essence, the prisoners did not actually adopt Communist beliefs. Rather, many of them behaved as though they did in order to avoid the plausible threat of extreme physical abuse. Moreover, the few prisoners influenced by Communist indoctrination apparently succumbed as a result of the confluence of the coercive persuasion, and of the motives and personality characteristics of the prisoners that already existed before imprisonment. In particular, individuals with very rigid systems of belief tended to snap and realign, whereas individuals with more flexible systems of belief tended to bend under pressure and then restore themselves when the external pressures were removed. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Edgar H. Schein (born 1928), a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management has had a notable mark on the field of organizational development in many areas, including career development, group process consultation, and organizational culture. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Deprivation may refer to: Poverty Sleep deprivation This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Two researchers working individually, Lifton and Schein, discussed coercive persuasion in their analysis of the treatment of Korean War POWs. They defined coercive persuasion as a mixture of social, psychological and physical pressures applied to produce changes in an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Lifton and Schein both concluded that such coercive persuasion can succeed in the presence of a physical element of confinement, "forcing the individual into a situation in which he must, in order to survive physically and psychologically, expose himself to persuasive attempts". They also concluded that such coercive persuasion succeeded only on a minority of POWs, and that the end-result of such coercion remained very unstable, as most of the individuals reverted to their previous condition soon after they left the coercive environment.


The use of coercive persuasion techniques in China

Following the armistice that interrupted hostilities in the Korean War, a large group of intelligence-officers, psychiatrists, and psychologists received assignments to debrief United Nations soldiers in the process of repatriation. The government of the United States wanted to understand the unprecedented level of collaboration, the breakdown of trust among prisoners, and other such indications that the Chinese were doing something new and effective in their handling of prisoners of war. Formal studies in academic journals began to appear in the mid-1950s, as well as some first-person reports from former prisoners. In 1961, two specialists in the field published books which synthesized these studies for the non-specialists concerned with issues of national security and social policy. Edgar H. Schein wrote on Coercive Persuasion, and Robert J. Lifton wrote on Thought Control and the Psychology of Totalism. Both books focussed primarily on the techniques called "xǐ nǎo" or, more formally "sī xiǎng gǎi zào" (reconstructing or remodeling thought). The following discussion largely builds on their studies.


Although American attention came to bear on thought reconstruction or brainwashing as one result of the Korean War (1950 - 1953), the techniques had operated on ordinary Chinese citizens after the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in October 1949. The PRC had refined and extended techniques earlier used in the Soviet Union to prepare prisoners for show-trials, and they in turn had learned much from the Inquisition[citation needed]. In the Chinese context, these techniques had multiple goals that went far beyond the simple control of subjects in the prison camps of North Korea. They aimed to produce confessions, to convince the accused that they had indeed perpetrated anti-social acts, to make them feel guilty of these crimes against the state, to make them desirous of a fundamental change in outlook toward the institutions of the new communist society, and, finally, to actually accomplish these desired changes in the recipients of the brainwashing/thought-reform. To that end, brainwashers desired techniques that would break down the psychic integrity of the individual with regard to information processing, with regard to information retained in the mind, and with regard to values. Chosen techniques included: dehumanizing of individuals by keeping them in filth, sleep deprivation, partial sensory deprivation, psychological harassment, inculcation of guilt, group social pressure, etc. The ultimate goal that drove these extreme efforts consisted of the transformation of an individual with a "feudal" or capitalist mindset into a "right thinking" member of the new social system, or, in other words, to transform what the state regarded as a criminal mind into what the state could regard as a non-criminal mind. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... Sensory deprivation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ...


The methods of thought-control proved extremely useful when deployed for gaining the compliance of prisoners of war. Key elements in their success included tight control of the information available to the individual and tight control over the behavior of the individual. When, after repatriation, close control of information ceased and reality testing could resume, former prisoners fairly quickly regained a close approximation of their original picture of the world and of the societies from which they had come. Furthermore, prisoners subject to thought control often had simply behaved in ways that pleased their captors, without changing their fundamental beliefs. So the fear of brainwashed sleeper agents, such as that dramatized in the novel and the films The Manchurian Candidate, never materialized. Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... The Manchurian Candidate is a film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon. ...


Terrible though the process frequently seemed to individuals imprisoned by the Chinese Communist Party, these attempts at extreme coercive persuasion ended with a reassuring result: they showed that the human mind has enormous ability to adapt to stress (not a recognized term in common use with reference to psychology in the early 1950s) and also a powerful homeostatic capacity. John Clifford, S.J. gives an account of one man's adamant resistance to brainwashing in In the Presence of My Enemies[6] that substantiates the picture drawn from studies of large groups reported by Lifton and Schein. Allyn and Adele Rickett wrote a more penitent account of their imprisonment (Allyn Rickett had by his own admission broken PRC laws against espionage) in "Prisoners of the Liberation",[7] but it too details techniques such as the “struggle groups” described in other accounts. Between these opposite reactions to attempts by the state to reform them, experience showed that most people would change under pressure and would change back following the removal of that pressure.[original research?] Interestingly, some individuals derived benefit from these coercive procedures due to the fact that the interactions, perhaps as an unintended side effect,[original research?] actually promoted insight into dysfunctional behaviors that the subjects then abandoned.[citation needed] In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... The Society of Jesus — also known by its Latin name Societas Iesu or its English variant Jesuit Order — is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church in direct service to the Pope. ...


Criticism of claims of political brainwashing

According to research and forensic psychologist Dick Anthony, the CIA invented the concept of "brainwashing" as a propaganda strategy to undercut communist claims that American POWs in Korean communist camps had voluntarily expressed sympathy for communism. Anthony stated that definitive research demonstrated that collaboration by western POWs had been caused by fear and duress, and not by brainwashing. He argued that the books of Edward Hunter (a secret CIA "psychological warfare specialist" passing as a journalist) pushed the CIA brainwashing-theory onto the general public. He further asserts that for twenty years starting in the early 1950s, the CIA and the Defense Department conducted secret research (notably including Project MKULTRA) in an attempt to develop practical brainwashing techniques (possibly to counteract the brainwashing efforts of the Chinese), and that their attempt failed. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... “MKULTRA” redirects here. ...


Brainwashing in the context of new religious movements and cults

Frequent disputes regarding brainwashing take place in discussion of cults and of new religious movements (NRMs). The controversy about the existence of cultic brainwashing has become one of the most polarizing issues among cult-followers, academic researchers of cults, and cult-critics. Parties disagree about the existence of a social process attempting coercive influence, and also disagree about the existence of the social outcome — that people become influenced against their will. This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ...


The issue gets even more complicated due to the existence of several definitions of the term "brainwashing" (some of them almost strawman-caricature metaphors of the original Korean War era concept[8] ) and through the introduction of the similarly controversial concept of "mind control" in the 1990s. (In some usages "mind control" and "brainwashing" serve as exact synonyms; others usages differentiate the two terms.) Additionally, some authors refer to brainwashing as a recruitment method (Barker) while others refer to brainwashing as a method of retaining existing members (Kent 1997; Zablocki 2001). A straw man argument is a logical fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponents position. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Recruitment refers to the process of finding possible candidates for a job or function, usually undertaken by recruiters. ...


Theories on brainwashing have also become the subject of discussions in legal courts, where experts have had to pronounce their views before juries in simpler terms than those used in academic publications and where the issue became presented in rather black-and-white terms in order to make a point in a case. The media have taken up some such cases — including their black and white colorings.


In 1984, the British sociologist Eileen Barker wrote in her book The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? (based on her first-hand studies of British members of the Unification Church) that she had found no extraordinary persuasion techniques used to recruit or retain members. Eileen Barker is a professor in sociology and is an emeritus member of the London School of Economics, and a consultant to that institutions Centre for the Study of Human Rights at. ... The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? is a November 1984 sociology book written by Eileen Barker , Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, United Kingdom, ISBN 0631132465. ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ...


Charlotte Allen reported that "[i]n his article in Nova Religio, Zablocki was worried less about those academics who may stretch the brainwashing concept than about those, like Bromley, who reject it altogether. And in advancing his case, he took a hard look at such scholars’ intentions and tactics. (His title is deliberately provocative: 'The Blacklisting of a Concept: The Strange History of the Brainwashing Conjecture in the Sociology of Religion.')"[9] In his book Combatting Cult Mind Control American psychologist Steven Hassan describes the extraordinary persuasion technique that (in his opinion) members of the Unification Church used to accomplish his own recruitment and retention. Benjamin Zablocki (b. ... David G. Bromley, is a professor of sociology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. His primary area of teaching and research is sociology of religion, with a specialization in religious movements. ... Combatting Cult Mind Control: The #1 Best-selling Guide to Protection, Rescue, and Recovery from Destructive Cults is an non-fiction by Steven Hassan. ... Steven Alan Hassan (1954 - ) is a licensed mental health counselor and an exit counselor. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ...


Philip Zimbardo writes that "[m]ind control is the process by which individual or collective freedom of choice and action is compromised by agents or agencies that modify or distort perception, motivation, affect, cognition and/or behavioral outcomes. It is neither magical nor mystical, but a process that involves a set of basic social psychological principles."(Zimbardo, 2002) Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ...


The APA, DIMPAC, and theories of brainwashing

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
DIMPAC

In the early 1980s some U.S. mental-health professionals became prominent figures due to their involvement as expert witnesses in court-cases involving new religious movements. In their testimony they presented certain theories involving brainwashing, mind control, or coercive persuasion as concepts generally accepted within the scientific community. The American Psychological Association (APA) in 1983 asked Margaret Singer, one of the leading proponents of coercive persuasion theories, to chair a taskforce called the APA taskforce on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC) to investigate whether brainwashing or "coercive persuasion" did indeed play a role in recruitment by such movements. Before the taskforce had submitted its final report, the APA submitted on February 10, 1987 an amicus curiæ brief in an ongoing case. The brief stated that: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, profession, publication or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his or her subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ... A new religious movement or NRM appears as a religious, ethical or spiritual grouping that has not (yet) become recognised as a standard denomination, church, or body, especially when it has a novel belief system and when it is not a sect. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Brainwashing. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... Taskforce are on the forefront of British underground hip hop. ... The APA Task Force on Deceptive and Indirect Techniques of Persuasion and Control (DIMPAC) was formed at the request of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1983. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Amicus curiæ (Latin for friend of the court; plural amici curiarum) briefs are legal documents filed by non-litigants in appellate court cases, which include additional information or arguments that those outside parties wish to have considered in that particular case. ...

[t]he methodology of Drs. Singer and Benson has been repudiated by the scientific community, that the hypotheses advanced by Singer were little more than uninformed speculation, based on skewed data and that "[t]he coercive persuasion theory ... is not a meaningful scientific concept. [...] The theories of Drs. Singer and Benson are not new to the scientific community. After searching scrutiny, the scientific community has repudiated the assumptions, methodologies, and conclusions of Drs. Singer and Benson. The validity of the claim that, absent physical force or threats, "systematic manipulation of the social influences" can coercively deprive individuals of free will lacks any empirical foundation and has never been confirmed by other research. The specific methods by which Drs. Singer and Benson have arrived at their conclusions have also been rejected by all serious scholars in the field.[10]

The brief characterized the theory of brainwashing as not scientifically proven and suggested the hypothesis that cult recruitment techniques might prove coercive for certain sub-groups, while not affecting others coercively. On March 24, 1987, the APA filed a motion to withdraw its signature from this brief, as it considered the conclusion premature, in view of the ongoing work of the DIMPAC taskforce.[11] The amicus as such remained, as only the APA withdraw the signature, but not the co-signed scholars (including Jeffrey Hadden, Eileen Barker, David Bromley and J. Gordon Melton). On May 11, 1987, the APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility for Psychology (BSERP) rejected the DIMPAC report because the brainwashing theory espoused "lacks the scientific rigor and evenhanded critical approach necessary for APA imprimatur", and concluded "Finally, after much consideration, BSERP does not believe that we have sufficient information available to guide us in taking a position on this issue." is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Jeffrey K. Hadden (1937 - 2003) was a Professor of Sociology who began teaching at the University of Virginia in 1972. ... Eileen Barker is a professor in sociology and is an emeritus member of the London School of Economics, and a consultant to that institutions Centre for the Study of Human Rights at. ... David G. Bromley, is a professor of sociology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. His primary area of teaching and research is sociology of religion, with a specialization in religious movements. ... Dr. John Gordon Melton is the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is a research specialist with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


With the rejection-memo came two letters from external advisers to the APA who reviewed the report. One of the letters, from Professor Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi of the University of Haifa, stated amongst other comments that "lacking psychological theory, the report resorts to sensationalism in the style of certain tabloids" and that "the term 'brainwashing' is not a recognized theoretical concept, and is just a sensationalist 'explanation' more suitable to 'cultists' and revival preachers. It should not be used by psychologists, since it does not explain anything". Professor Beit-Hallahmi asked that the report not be made public. The second letter, from Professor of Psychology Jeffrey D. Fisher, Ph.D., said that the report "[...] seems to be unscientific in tone, and biased in nature. It draws conclusions, which in many cases do not mesh well with the evidence presented. At times, the reasoning seems flawed to the point of being almost ridiculous. In fact, the report sometimes seems to be characterized by the use of deceptive, indirect techniques of persuasion and control — the very thing it is investigating".[12] Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi is a professor of psychology at the University of Haifa, Israel. ... The University of Haifa (אוניברסיטת חיפה) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ...


When the APA's BSERP rejected her findings, Singer sued the APA in 1992 for "defamation, frauds, aiding and abetting and conspiracy"; and lost in 1994.[13]


Some scholars sympathetic to NRMs have since interpreted these events to imply that the APA had rejected the brainwashing theories and that Singer's ideas lacked scientific support (for example: Introvigne, 1998[citation needed]; Bromley and Hadden in their 1993 Handbook of Cults and Sects in America.) A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ...


Zablocki (1997) and Amitrani (2001) cite APA boards and scholars on the subject and conclude that the APA has made no unanimous decision regarding this issue. They also write that Margaret Singer, despite the rejection of the DIMPAC report, continued her work and retained respect in the psychological community, which they corroborate by mentioning that in the 1987 edition of the peer-reviewed Merck's Manual, Margaret Singer wrote the article "Group Psychodynamics and Cults" (Singer, 1987).


Benjamin Zablocki, professor of sociology and one of the reviewers of the rejected DIMPAC report, wrote in 1997: Benjamin Zablocki (b. ...

"Many people have been misled about the true position of the APA and the ASA with regard to brainwashing. Like so many other theories in the behavioral sciences, the jury is still out on this one. The APA and the ASA acknowledge that some scholars believe that brainwashing exists but others believe that it does not exist. The ASA and the APA acknowledge that nobody is currently in a position to make a Solomonic decision as to which group is right and which group is wrong. Instead they urge scholars to do further research to throw more light on this matter. I think this is a reasonable position to take."[citation needed]

APA Division 36 (then "Psychologists Interested in Religious Issues", today "Psychology of Religion") in its 1990 annual convention approved the following resolution: 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"The Executive Committee of the Division of Psychologists Interested in Religious Issues supports the conclusion that, at this time, there is no consensus that sufficient psychological research exists to scientifically equate undue non-physical persuasion (otherwise known as "coercive persuasion", "mind control", or "brainwashing") with techniques of influence as typically practiced by one or more religious groups. Further, the Executive Committee invites those with research on this topic to submit proposals to present their work at Divisional programs." (PIRI Executive Committee Adopts Position on Non-Physical Persuasion Winter, 1991, in Amitrano and Di Marzio, 2001)

In 2002, APA's then president, Philip Zimbardo wrote in Psychology Monitor: Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ...

"A body of social science evidence shows that when systematically practiced by state-sanctioned police, military or destructive cults, mind control can induce false confessions, create converts who willingly torture or kill "invented enemies," engage indoctrinated members to work tirelessly, give up their money—and even their lives—for "the cause." (Zimbardo, 2002)

Other viewpoints

Two months after her kidnap in 1974, Patty Hearst, an American newspaper heiress, participated in a bank-robbery with her kidnappers. In her trial, the defense postulated a concerted brainwashing program as central. Despite this claim, the court convicted her of bank-robbery. Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress and occasional actress. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ...


In the 1990 U.S. v. Fishman Case, Steven Fishman offered a "brainwashing" defense to charges of embezzlement. Margaret Singer and Richard Ofshe would have appeared as expert witnesses for him. The court disallowed the introduction of Singer and Ofshe's testimony:[14] The Fishman Affidavit is a set of court documents submitted by ex-Scientologist Steven Fishman in 1994 containing criticisms of the Church of Scientology and, controversially, substantial portions of the Operating Thetan course materials. ... Margaret Thaler Singer (1921 - 2003) was a clinical psychologist and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Dr. Singer was born in Denver and received her bachelors, masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver. ... Richard Ofshe is a Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. ...

"The evidence before the Court, which is detailed below, shows that neither the APA nor the ASA has endorsed the views of Dr. Singer and Dr. Ofshe on thought reform ... At best, the evidence establishes that psychiatrists, psychologists and sociologists disagree as to whether or not there is agreement regarding the Singer-Ofshe thesis. The Court therefore excludes defendants' proffered testimony (U.S. vs. Fishman, 1989)."

Social scientists who study new religious movements, such as Jeffrey K. Hadden (see References), understand the general proposition that religious groups can have considerable influence over their members, and that that influence may have come about through deception and indoctrination. Indeed, many sociologists observe that "influence" occurs ubiquitously in human cultures, and some argue that the influence exerted in "cults" or new religious movements does not differ greatly from the influence present in practically every domain of human action and of human endeavor. Jeffrey K. Hadden (1937 - 2003) was a Professor of Sociology who began teaching at the University of Virginia in 1972. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


The Association of World Academics for Religious Education states that "... without the legitimating umbrella of brainwashing ideology, deprogramming — the practice of kidnapping members of NRMs and destroying their religious faith — cannot be justified, either legally or morally."[citation needed]F.A.C.T.net states that "Forced deprogramming was sometimes successful and sometimes unsuccessful, but is not considered an acceptable, legal, or ethical method of rescuing a person from a cult."[15] Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... The Fight Against Coercive Tactics Network, or FACTNet, is a Colorado-based organization committed to educating and facilitating communication about destructive mind control. ...


The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) published a statement in 1977 related to brainwashing and mind control. In this statement the ACLU opposed certain methods "depriving people of the free exercise of religion". The ACLU also rejected (under certain conditions) the idea that claims of the use of "brainwashing" or of "mind control" should overcome the free exercise of religion. (See quote) The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is the common name for an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ...


In the 1960s, after coming into contact with new religious movements (NRMs, a subset of which have gained the popular designation of "cults"), some young people suddenly adopted faiths, beliefs, and behavior that differed markedly from their previous lifestyles and seemed at variance with their upbringings. In some cases, these people neglected or even broke contact with their families. All of these changes appeared very strange and upsetting to their families. To explain these phenomena, some postulated brainwashing on the part of new religious movements. Observers quoted practices such as isolating recruits from their family and friends (inviting them to an end-of-term camp after university for example), arranging a sleep-deprivation program (3 a.m. prayer meetings) and exposing them to loud and repetitive chanting. Another alleged technique of religious brainwashing involved love bombing rather than torture. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Love bombing is the deliberate show of affection or friendship by an individual or a group of people toward another individual. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


James T. (Jim) Richardson, a Professor of Sociology and Judicial Studies at the University of Nevada, states that if the NRMs had access to powerful brainwashing techniques, one would expect that NRMs would have high growth-rates, while in fact most have not had notable success in recruitment, most adherents participate for only a short time, and such groups have limited success in retaining members. Langone has rejected this claim, comparing the figures of various movements, some of which do (by common consent) not use brainwashing and others of which some authors report as using brainwashing. (Langone, 1993) James T. Richardson, Ph. ... The University of Nevada, Reno (Nevada or UNR) is a university located in Reno, Nevada, USA, and is known for its programs in agricultural research, animal biotechnology, and mining-related engineering and natural sciences. ...


In their Handbook of Cults and Sects in America, Bromley and Hadden present one possible ideological foundation of brainwashing theories that they state demonstrates the lack of scientific support: they argue that a simplistic perspective (one they see as inherent in the brainwashing metaphor) appeals to those attempting to locate an effective social weapon to use against disfavored groups, and that any relative success of such efforts at social control should not detract from any lack of scientific basis for such opinions.


Philip Zimbardo, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Stanford University, writes: "Whatever any member of a cult has done, you and I could be recruited or seduced into doing — under the right or wrong conditions. The majority of 'normal, average, intelligent' individuals can be led to engage in immoral, illegal, irrational, aggressive and self destructive actions that are contrary to their values or personality — when manipulated situational conditions exert their power over individual dispositions."(Zimbardo, 1997) Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ... Stanford redirects here. ...


Some religious groups, especially those of Hindu and Buddhist origin, openly state that they seek to improve what they call the "natural" human mind by spiritual exercises. Intense spiritual exercises have an effect on the mind, for example by leading to an altered state of consciousness. These groups also state that they do not [condone the] use [of] coercive techniques to acquire or to retain converts. [citation needed] Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ...


On the other hand, several scholars in sociology and psychology have in recent years stated that many scholars of NRMs express a bias to deny any possibility of brainwashing and to disregard actual evidence. (Zablocki 1997, Amitrani 1998, Kent 1998, Beit-Hallahmi 2001) 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Psychologist Steven Hassan, author of the book Combatting Cult Mind Control, has suggested that the influence of sincere but misled people can provide a significant factor in the process of thought-reform. Many scholars in the field of new religious movements do not accept Hassan's BITE model for understanding cults. Steven Alan Hassan (1954 - ) is a licensed mental health counselor and an exit counselor. ... Combatting Cult Mind Control: The #1 Best-selling Guide to Protection, Rescue, and Recovery from Destructive Cults is an non-fiction by Steven Hassan. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ...


Brainwashing in fiction

Print media

  • In George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, the fictional totalitarian government of Oceania uses brainwashing to erase nonconformist thought and rebellious personalities.
  • In the novel Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, Huxley portrays a process of brain-washing newly-produced babies called "conditioning".
  • In the novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess (film adaptation by Stanley Kubrick), the protagonist undergoes a re-education process called the "Ludovico technique" in an attempt to remove his violent tendencies.
  • Max Ehrlich's novel The Cult (1978) (Bantam Books) deals with the fictional brainwashing and attempted deprogramming (counter-brainwashing) of a cult-member that goes horribly wrong.
  • Vernor Vinge speculates on the application of technology to achieve brainwashing in Rainbows End (ISBN 0-312-85684-9), portraying separately the dangers of JITT (Just-in-time training) and the specter of YGBM (You gotta believe me). This picks up on themes of "mindrot" and controlled "Focus" in Vinge's earlier novel A Deepness in the Sky.

Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Oceania is red on the fictitious 1984 world map Note: At the end of the novel, there are news reports that Oceania has captured all of Africa, though as propaganda, the credibility of the reports are uncertain. ... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Clockwork Orange redirects here. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... This article is about the film. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... // The Ludovico technique is a fictitious drug-assisted aversion therapy from the novel and film A Clockwork Orange. ... Vernor Steffen Vinge (IPA: ) (born February 10, 1944) is a mathematician, computer scientist and science fiction author who is best known for his Hugo award-winning novels A Fire Upon the Deep and A Deepness in the Sky, as well as for his 1993 essay The Technological Singularity, in which... Rainbows End is a 2006 science fiction novel by Vernor Vinge. ... Hyperfocus describes an intense form of mental concentration or visualization that focuses consciousness on a narrow subject, or beyond objective reality and onto subjective mental planes, daydreams, concepts, fiction, the imagination, and other objects of the mind. ... In 1999 Vernor Vinge published his science fiction novel, A Deepness in the Sky, a loose prequel (set 30,000 years earlier) to his novel A Fire Upon the Deep (1992). ...

Video media

  • In the television drama 24, Bob Warner wishes that his daughter, Marie Warner, engaged in terrorism not willingly but only due to brainwashing.
  • In the 1962 movie The Manchurian Candidate, the concept of brainwashing became a central theme. Specifically, Communist brainwashers turn a soldier into an assassin through something akin to hypnosis.
  • In the anime series Fruits Basket, Akito Sohma uses brainwashing to change the feelings of various family members.
  • The Charles Bronson movie Telefon has a similar plot to The Manchurian Candidate, featuring water-supply tampering as a brainwashing technique.
  • In The Ipcress File, Michael Caine's character tries to resist his reprogramming.
  • In Superman: The Animated Series, the two-part finale "Legacy" featured a story where Granny Goodness (under the orders of Darkseid) captures and brainwashes Superman into seeing himself as Darkseid's son.
  • In the first film in the The Naked Gun trilogy, Reggie Jackson and others become tools in an effort to kill Queen Elizabeth II.
  • In the NBC miniseries V, the alien Visitors use a "conversion chamber" to turn humans into obedient allies.
  • The comedy Zoolander depicts male model Derek Zoolander (Ben Stiller) becoming brainwashed/hypnotized into trying to kill a fictional Prime Minister of Malaysia.
  • In the 1978-81 BBC series Blake's 7, former freedom-fighter Roj Blake undergoes brainwashing therapy (referred to as "the treatment") to eradicate his revolutionary ideals and turn him into a model-citizen exhibit.
  • In the Stargate SG-1 episode Enemies, the character Teal'c gets brainwashed by his former god, Apophis.
  • In the Lost episode "Not in Portland", "the Others" brainwash the character Karl using drum-and-bass music and visuals
  • In the film The Parallax View, an organization recruits sociopathic personalities and brainwashes them to commit assassinations.
  • The movie The Confession by Costa Gavras portrays the very detailed brainwashing of a Czech politician to make him confess his "crimes"
  • In one episode of The Simpsons, after Homer fixes a toaster and messes the past around, he says something against Ned Flanders and gets sent to a Re-Ned-ucation camp
  • In Power Rangers in Space, cybernetic implants brainwash Astronema to revert to evil
  • In The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy, Mandy often uses a form of brainwashing to get what she wants
  • In an episode of Chip 'n Dale Rescue Rangers, the Cola Cult brainwashes Gadget
  • In the popular lonelygirl15 online video series, the Hymn of One cult brainwashes the main character, Bree
  • In the first-season episode "Employee of the Month" from 6teen, The Clones (Chrissy, Kirsten, and Kristen) brainwash Nikki Wong into becoming less individualistic
  • In the first-season episode "Jade's Dream" from Bratz, Burdine Maxwell brainwashes people into pink zombies
  • In Operation: D.A.T.E. from Codename: Kids Next Door, the Delightful Children from Down the Lane brainwash people taking a picture into delightful zombies using a camera replaced with a delightfulization ray
  • In Avatar: The Last Airbender, the Dai Li and Long Feng use brainwashing to stop people from talking about the war with the Fire Nation.

For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ... Bob Warner was a fictional character that featured prominently in the second season of 24. ... Marie Warner is a fictional character in the television series 24, and is played by the actress Laura Harris. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Manchurian Candidate is a film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... For the novel by Lucas Hyde, see Hypnosis (novel). ... This article is about the manga and anime franchise. ... Akito Sohma ) is a character in the manga and anime series entitled Fruits Basket. ... For other persons named Charles Bronson, see Charles Bronson (disambiguation). ... Telefon is a 1975 novel by Walter Wager with a mind control theme. ... The Ipcress File is a 1965 film adaptation of Len Deightons novel the The IPCRESS File. ... This article is about the English actor. ... Superman: The Animated Series is the unofficial title given to Warner Bros. ... Granny Goodness is a follower of Darkseid in Jack Kirbys Fourth World meta-series published by DC Comics. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! is the first film in a series of comedy movies starring Leslie Nielsen, Priscilla Presley, George Kennedy, and O.J. Simpson. ... Reginald Martinez Reggie Jackson (born May 18, 1946), nicknamed Mr. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... V is a science fiction TV franchise created by American producer and director Kenneth Johnson concerning aliens known as The Visitors trying to take over Earth. ... Zoolander is a 2001 comedy film based on a pair of short films directed by Ben Stiller and written by Drake Sather and Ben Stiller for the VH1 Fashion Awards television show in 1996 and 1997. ... Benjamin Edward Stiller (born November 30, 1965) is an Emmy-winning American comedian, actor, film producer and director. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Blakes 7 is a British science fiction television series made by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for their BBC 1 channel. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... Enemies (Part 2 of 3) is the Season 5 premiere episode of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. ... Tealc [ˈtiːəlk] (born c. ... This article is about the Egyptian demon. ... “LOST” redirects here. ... List of Lost episodes Not in Portland is the seventh episode of the third season of Lost. ... Drum and bass (commonly abbreviated to d&b, DnB, dnb, dnb, drum n bass and drum & bass) is a type of electronic dance music also known as jungle. ... The Parallax View is a 1974 movie directed by Alan J. Pakula and starring Warren Beatty (who was also a producer), adapted from the novel by Loren Singer. ... LAveu (English title: The Confession) is a 1970 french-italian film directed by Costa Gavras and starred by Yves Montand and Simone Signoret. ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Power Rangers in Space (often abbreviated as PRiS or referred to as simply In Space) was a television show, in the Power Rangers franchise. ... Astronema is a fictional character of the Power Rangers universe. ... The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, created by Maxwell Atoms, is an American animated television series that currently airs on Cartoon Network and Teletoon. ... Chip n Dale Rescue Rangers was an American animated television series produced by Walt Disney Television Animation and created by Tad Stones and Alan Zaslove. ... Gadget Hackwrench is a fictional cartoon mouse in the Disney animated television series Chip n Dale Rescue Rangers. ... lonelygirl15 is an interactive web-based video series, centering on the life of a fictional teenage girl named Bree, whose YouTube username is the eponymous lonelygirl15. ... 6teen is an animated Canadian sitcom created by Jennifer Pertsch and Tom McGillis for Teletoon as one of its original productions. ... Nikki Wong is fictional character in the television show, 6teen. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Bratz was a computer-animated television series, based on a line of toy dolls of the same name. ... The Codename: Kids Next Door logo. ... The Delightful Children From Down The Lane (also referred to as the DCFDTL and the Delightful Children) are five fictional children, from the animated series Codename: Kids Next Door. ...

In video games

  • In the video game Psychonauts, Boyd Cooper, the security-guard at Thorney Towers, undergoes hypnosis and has a second personality (dubbed "The Milkman") implanted into his mind, which certain actions or commands can trigger.
  • In Half-Life 2, the Combine race uses brainwashing on humans to produce soldiers and CP units. They extract organs (brainwashed brains) from humans to create synths.
  • In Quake 4, the Strogg race "brainwashes" the humans by activating the neutrocyte (mind-control chip), thus fully "Stroggifying" them.

This article for the video game; for other uses, see Psychonaut (disambiguation). ... A security officer guards a construction site. ... Half-Life 2 (HL2) is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game that is the sequel to Half-Life. ... Quake 4 is the fourth title in the series of Quake FPS computer games. ...

References

  • Amitrani, Alberto et al.: Blind, or just don't want to see? "Brainwashing", mystification and suspicion, 1998,
  • Amitrani, Alberto et al.: Blind, or just don't want to see? ""Mind Control" in New Religious Movements and the American Psychological Association, 2001, Cultic Studies Review [2]
  • Anthony, Dick. 1990. "Religious Movements and 'Brainwashing' Litigation" in Dick Anthony and Thomas Robbins, In Gods We Trust. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Excerpt
  • APA Amicus curiae, February 11, 1987 [3]
  • APA Motion to withdraw amicus curiae March 27, 1987[4]
  • APA Board of Social and Ethical Responsibility for Psychology, Memorandum on Brainwashing: Final Report of the Task Force, May 11, 1987 [5]
  • Bardin, David, "Mind Control ("Brainwashing") Exists, in Psychological Coercion & Human Rights, April 1994, [6]
  • Benjamin Beith-Hallahmi: Dear Colleagues: Integrity and Suspicion in NRM Research, 2001 http://www.apologeticsindex.org/c59.html
  • David Bromley, "A Tale of Two Theories: Brainwashing and Conversion as Competing Political Narratives" in Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins (editors), Misunderstanding Cults, 2001, ISBN 0-8020-8188-6
  • Hadden, Jeffrey K., "The Brainwashing Controversy", November 2000
  • Hadden, Jeffery K., and Bromley, David, eds. (1993), The Handbook of Cults and Sects in America. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., pp. 75-97
  • Hassan, Steven Releasing The Bonds: Empowering People to Think for Themselves, 2000. ISBN 0-9670688-0-0.
  • Hindery, Roderick, Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Thought? Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 2001. ISBN 0773474072
  • Huxley, Aldous, Brave New World Revisited. Perennial (2000); ISBN 0-06-095551-1
  • Introvigne, Massimo, “Liar, Liar”: Brainwashing, CESNUR and APA, 1998 [7]
  • Kent, Stephen A., Brainwashing in Scientology's Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF)", November 7, 1997
  • Stephen A. Kent and Theresa Krebs: "When Scholars Know Sin", Skeptic Magazine (Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998).
  • Kent, Stephen A.: Brainwashing Programs in The Family/Children of God and Scientology , in Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins (ed.), Misunderstanding Cults, 2001, ISBN 0-8020-8188-6
  • Langone, Michael D, ed.: Recovery from cults : help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse. New York: W.W. Norton, 1993. ISBN 0393701646 , ISBN 0-393-31321-2
  • Robert J. Lifton, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (1961), ISBN 0-8078-4253-2
  • Marks, John , "The Search for the Manchurian Candidate", 1978 [8]
  • Richardson, James T., "Brainwashing Claims and Minority Religions Outside the United States: Cultural Diffusion of a Questionable Concept in the Legal Arena", Brigham Young University Law Review circa 1994
  • Scheflin, Alan W and Opton, Edward M. Jr., The Mind Manipulators. A Non-Fiction Account. New York: Paddington Press, 1978, p. 437. ISBN 0448229773
  • Schein, Edgar H. et al., Coercive persuasion;: A socio-psychological analysis of the "brainwashing" of American civilian prisoners by the Chinese Communists New York: W. W. Norton, 1961
  • Shapiro, K. A. et al, "Grammatical distinctions in the left frontal cortex", J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13, pp. 713-720 (2001). [9]
  • Singer, Margaret "Group Psychodynamics", in Merck's Manual, 1987.
  • Wakefield, Hollida, M.A. and Underwager, Ralph, Ph.D., Coerced or Nonvoluntary Confessions, Institute for Psychological Therapies, 1998
  • West, Louis J., "Persuasive Techniques in Religious Cults, 1989
  • Zablocki, Benjamin: The Blacklisting of a Concept: The Strange History of the Brainwashing Conjecture in the Sociology of Religion. Nova Religio, October 1997, Vol. 1, No. 1: 96-121.
  • Zablocki, Benjamin, Towards a Demystified and Disinterested Scientific Theory of Brainwashing, in Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins (ed.), Misunderstanding Cults, 2001, ISBN 0-8020-8188-6
  • Zablocki, Benjamin, "Methodological Fallacies in Anthony's Critique of Exit Cost Analysis", ca. 2002,
  • Zimbardo, Philip, What messages are behind today's cults? in Monitor on Psychology, May 1997
  • Zimbardo, Philip, Mind Control: Psychological Reality or Mindless Rhetoric? in Monitor on Psychology, November 2002

is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi is a professor of psychology at the University of Haifa, Israel. ... David G. Bromley, is a professor of sociology at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. His primary area of teaching and research is sociology of religion, with a specialization in religious movements. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen A. Kent, Ph. ... Michael Langone, Ph. ... Recovery from Cults a 1995 book edited by Michael Langone, director of the International Cultic Studies Association (formerly the American Family Foundation), an anti-cult organization, published by W. W. Norton & Company, treats the theories of mind control as related to cults. ... John R. Marks, III is the mayor of the city of Tallahassee, Florida. ... James T. Richardson, Ph. ... Benjamin Zablocki (b. ... Nova Religio (subtitled The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions) is a religious studies journal published by University of California Press, in Berkeley, California. ...

Bibliography / Further Reading

  • Anthony, Dick, Brainwashing and Totalitarian Influence. An Exploration of Admissibility Criteria for Testimony in Brainwashing Trials, Ph.D. Diss., Berkeley (California): Graduate Theological Union, 1996, p. 165.
  • Barker, Eileen, The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing, Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishers, 1984 ISBN 0-631-13246-5
  • Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), Communist Psychological Warfare (Brainwashing), United States House of Representatives, Washington, D. C., Tuesday, March 13, 1958
  • Hassan, Steven. Releasing The Bonds: Empowering People to Think for Themselves, 2000. ISBN 0-9670688-0-0.
  • Hunter, Edward, Brain-Washing in Red China. The Calculated Destruction of Men’s Minds, New York: The Vanguard Press, 1951; 2nd expanded ed.: New York: The Vanguard Press, 1953
  • Robert J. Lifton, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism (1961), ISBN 0-8078-4253-2
  • Sargant, William, Battle for the Mind: A Physiology of Conversion and Brainwashing, 1996, ISBN 1-883536-06-5
  • Streatfeild, Dominic, Brainwash: The Secret History of Mind Control, 2006, ISBN 0-340-92103-X
  • Taylor, Kathleen, Brainwashing: The Science Of Thought Control, 2005, ISBN 0-19-280496-0
  • Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins (editors), Misunderstanding Cults, 2001, ISBN 0-8020-8188-6
  • Philip Zimbardo, "Mind control: psychological reality or mindless rhetoric?" Monitor on Psychology, Volume 33, No. 10 November 2002

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Massimo Introvigne (b. ... CESNUR is a center for studies on new religions, based in Turin, Italy. ... “NSA” redirects here. ...

See also

‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... Émile Coué (February 26, 1857 – July 2, 1926) was a French psychologist and pharmacist who introduced a method of psychotherapy, healing, and self-improvement based on optimistic autosuggestion. ... Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... Aversion therapy is a form of psychiatric or psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort. ... Clockwork Orange redirects here. ... Conditioning is a psychological term for what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior. ... MRI scan displaying cross-section of the human brain Cognotechnology is an emerging field that is technology applied to the cognitive domain, and is the result of a convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology, according to Gerald Yonas, vice president and principal scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... For the novel by Lucas Hyde, see Hypnosis (novel). ... Since the discovery of ionizing radiation, a number of human radiation experiments have been performed to understand the effects of ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body. ... Indoctrination is the process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology. ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Opposition to cults and new religious movements (NRMs) comes from several sources with diverse concerns. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Capture-bonding. ... Synbot is short for synthesis bot. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Compare: Dorland, Newman W. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 29th. edition. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2000.
  2. ^ Dittmann, Melisa, Cults of Hatred: Panelists at a convention session on hatred asked APA to form a task force to investigate mind control among destructive cults., Volume 33, No. 10, November 2002, Melissa Dittmann, pg. 30, American Psychological Association, Monitor, "Available online"
  3. ^ Marks, John. The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.
  4. ^ Eileen Barker explains the attractions for observers of explaining — using the concept of "brainwashing" — the behavior of those who join new religious movements. See Barker, Eileen: New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction. London: Her Majesty's Stationery office, 1989.
  5. ^ http://www.reveal.org/library/psych/lifton.html http://www.rickross.com/reference/brainwashing/brainwashing19.html
  6. ^ Clifford, John W, In the Presence of My Enemies. New York: Norton, 1963.
  7. ^ W Allyn Rickett and Adele Rickett: Prisoners of liberation. New York, Cameron Associates, 1957.
  8. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition ( 2000), for example, records advertising as an example of a type of brainwashing. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/61/1/B0450100.html, retrieved 2007-09-02.
  9. ^ Charlotte Allen, "Brainwashed! Scholars of Cults Accuse Each Other of Bad Faith", Lingua Franca, December 1998. Online at http://www.rickross.com/reference/apologist/apologist29.html - retrieved 2007-03-25
  10. ^ http://www.cesnur.org/testi/molko_brief.htm
  11. ^ http://www.rickross.com/reference/apologist/apologist25.html
  12. ^ APA memo and two enclosures
  13. ^ Case No. 730012-8 Margaret Singer v. American Psychological Association
  14. ^ Brainwashed! Scholars of Cults Accuse Each Other of Bad Faith, Lingua Franca, December 1998.
  15. ^ Use of Forced Deprogramming F.A.C.T.net
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Brainwashing

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Religious Movements Page: Conceptualizing Cults and Sects (1530 words)
This section on the Brainwashing Controversy presents materials that will illumine the history of the concept, provide examples of materials that have fueled public debate as it has periodically raged over the past quarter-of-a-century, explore the scientific evidence that is pertinent to the debate, and offer an extended bibliography.
Brainwashing and the Cults: The Rise and Fall of a Theory.
"Liar, Liar": Brainwashing, CESNUR and APA by Massimo Introvigne.
Brainwashing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4526 words)
Brainwashing or thought reform is the application of coercive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people for political purposes.
The term brainwashing is a relatively new term in the English language.
Another factor is, that brainwashing theories have been discussed in the court, where the experts had to pronounce their views before the jury in simpler terms than those used in academic publications and where the issue had to be presented rather fl and white to make a point in the case.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m