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Encyclopedia > Brain computer interface

A brain-computer interface (BCI) or direct neural interface is literally a direct technological interface between a brain and a computer not requiring any motor output from the user. That is, neural impulses in the brain are intercepted and used to control an electronic device. This is a rather broad, ill-defined term used to describe many versions of conventional and theoretical interfaces. For purposes of this term, the word 'brain' is understood to imply the physical brain of an organic life form and 'computer' is understood to imply a mechanical/technological processing/computational device. These semantic notations are crucial in the contemplation of a direct brain-computer interface, as there is great debate in the philosophy of mind regarding the reduction of consciousness and mind to the physical qualities of the brain. Because of cortical plasticity, the brain is likely to adapt during learning to operate a BCI. In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... A computer is a device or machine for processing information from data according to a program — a compiled list of instructions. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is an assembly of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life. ... Philosophy of mind is the philosophical study of the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, and consciousness. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectivel // holaMedia:Example. ... Brain plasticity refers to the changes that occur in the organisation of the brain, and in particular changes that occur to the location of specific information processing functions, as a result of the effect of experience. ...

Contents


Neuroprosthetics

Main article: neuroprosthetics

Simple brain-computer interfaces already exist in the form of neuroprosthetics, with a great deal of neuroscience, robotics, and computer science research currently dedicated to furthering these technologies. Recent achievements demonstrate that it is currently possible to implement crude brain-computer interfaces (brain dishes) that allow in vitro neuronal clusters to directly control computers. Laboratories led by investigators Andrew Schwartz (U. Pittsburgh), Richard Andersen (Caltech), Miguel Nicolelis (Duke), and John Donoghue (Brown University) have all successfully used a variety of algorithms, including the vector sum of motor cortical neuron spiking, to record directly from the cortex of monkeys - as a BCI. This design allowed a monkey to navigate a computer cursor on screen, as well as command a robotic arm to perform simple tasks, simply by thinking about moving the cursor, without any motor output from the monkey. Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, that is, neural interfaces with artifical components. ... Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, that is, neural interfaces with artifical components. ... Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with robot. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Computer Science Open Directory Project: Computer Science Downloadable Science and Computer Science books Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Belief that title science in computer science is inappropriate Categories: Computer science ... Brain imaging is a fairly recent discipline within medicine and neuroscience. ... Brain dish is a direct mind-computer interface in the form of a small cluster of neurons in a petrie dish and have wired themselves to electrodes. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... Miguel Nicolelis, MD, PhD, is a Brazilian scientist best known for his pioneering work in reading monkey thought. He implanted electrode arrays into the monkey brain that were able to detect monkeys motor intent and thus able to control reaching and grasping movements performed by a robotic arm. ... John Donoghue is a neurobiologist at Brown University and cofounder of Cyberkinetics. ... A vector in physics and engineering typically refers to a quantity that has close relationship to the spatial coordinates, informally described as an object with a magnitude and a direction. The word vector is also now used for more general concepts (see also vector and generalizations below), but in this... // Early work on motor cortex function Back in the 1940s, Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield wanted to know which bits of epileptics brains he could suck out without them noticing. ... ...


BCI for reach and grasp in monkeys

Nicolelis' BCI
Nicolelis' BCI

Neuroscientists Miguel Nicolelis, Jose Carmena, Mikhail Lebedev, Roy Crist and David Santuccii, biomedical engineers Joseph O'Doherty and Craig Henriquez, and neurosurgeons Dragan Dimitrov and Parag Patil published a PLoS Biology article describing the first implementation of a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping in rhesus monkeys (Carmena, J.M., Lebedev, M.A., Crist, R.E., O’Doherty, J.E., Santucci, D.M., Dimitrov, D.F., Patil, P.G., Henriquez, C.S., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2003) Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. PLoS Biology, 1: 193-208.) The scientists from Duke University implanted several cortical areas in the monkeys with multielectrode arrays and used the recorded neuronal signals to control reaching and grasping performed by a robot. The robot was actually invisible to the monkeys (direct interaction with the robot still needs to be demonstrated), and the feedback of the robot reachning and grasping movements was provided by a visual display. Interestingly, the monkeys could remain silent and still continue to operate the robotic actuator. This is an important study demonstrating feasibility of limb prostheses directly controlled by brain activity. Image File history File links This file is adapted from figure A from the following article: Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Crist RE, ODoherty JE, Santucci DM, Dimitrov DF, Patil PG, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. ... Image File history File links This file is adapted from figure A from the following article: Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Crist RE, ODoherty JE, Santucci DM, Dimitrov DF, Patil PG, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. ... Miguel Nicolelis, MD, PhD, is a Brazilian scientist best known for his pioneering work in reading monkey thought. He implanted electrode arrays into the monkey brain that were able to detect monkeys motor intent and thus able to control reaching and grasping movements performed by a robotic arm. ... Mikhail A. Lebedev (Михаил Альбертович Лебедев) is a Russian-born (1963) Neuroscientist known for his neurophysiological studies of cerebral cortex. ... Joseph ODoherty is a biomedical engineer at Duke University working in the field of brain-computer interface. ... PLoS Biology is a scientific journal covering the full spectrum of the biological sciences it began operation on October 13, 2003. ... A brain-computer interface (BCI) or direct neural interface is literally a direct technological interface between a brain and a computer not requiring any motor output from the user. ... Duke Chapel Duke University is a private university in Durham, North Carolina. ... A humanoid robot playing the trumpet In practical usage, a robot is an autonomous or semi-autonomous device which performs its tasks either by direct human control, partial control with human supervision, or completely autonomously. ...


References to articles from Miguel Nicolelis laboratory Miguel Nicolelis, MD, PhD, is a Brazilian scientist best known for his pioneering work in reading monkey thought. He implanted electrode arrays into the monkey brain that were able to detect monkeys motor intent and thus able to control reaching and grasping movements performed by a robotic arm. ...

  • Lebedev, M.A., Carmena, J.M., O’Doherty, J.E., Zacksenhouse, M., Henriquez, C.S., Principe, J.C., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2005) Cortical ensemble adaptation to represent actuators controlled by a brain machine interface. J. Neurosci. 25: 4681-4693.
  • Santucci, D.M., Kralik, J.D., Lebedev , M.A., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2005) Frontal and parietal cortical ensembles predict single-trial muscle activity during reaching movements. Eur. J. Neurosci., 22: 1529-1540.
  • Carmena, J.M., Lebedev, M.A., Crist, R.E., O’Doherty, J.E., Santucci, D.M., Dimitrov, D.F., Patil, P.G., Henriquez, C.S., Nicolelis, M.A.L. (2003) Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates. PLoS Biology, 1: 193-208.
  • Nicolelis MA (2003) Brain-machine interfaces to restore motor function and probe neural circuits. Nat Rev Neurosci. 4: 417-422.
  • Wessberg J, Stambaugh CR, Kralik JD, Beck PD, Laubach M, Chapin JK, Kim J, Biggs SJ, Srinivasan MA, Nicolelis MA. (2000) Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates. Nature 16: 361-365.

Human BCI research

There have also been experiments in humans utilizing modern invasive and non-invasive brain imaging technologies as interfaces. The most commonly studied potential interface for humans has been electroencephalography (EEG), mainly due to its fine temporal resolution, ease of use, portability, and cost of set-up. However practical use of EEG as a BCI requires a great deal of user training and is highly susceptible to noise. In 2004 scientists of the Fraunhofer Society utilized neural networks to shift the learning phase from the user to the computer and thus recorded noticeable results within 30 minutes of training. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and even functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have both been used successfully as rudimentary BCIs, in the latter case allowing two users being scanned in real-time to play Pong against one another by altering their haemodynamic response through various biofeedback techniques. The term non-invasive in medicine has two meanings: A medical procedure which does not penetrate or break the skin or a body cavity, i. ... Brain imaging is a fairly recent discipline within medicine and neuroscience. ... Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp, or in the special cases on the cortex. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer, with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science, as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science. ... Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the measurement of the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain, usually conducted externally, using extremely sensitive devices such as SQUIDs. ... Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure the hemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... PONG, an adaptation of table tennis to the video screen, was the first commercially successful video game and is widely regarded as ushering in the video game era. ... Neurons, like all other cells, require energy to function. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Practical BCIs

There has been great success in using cochlear implants in humans as a treatment for non-congenital deafness. There is also promising research in vision science indicating retinal implants may some day prove to be similarly successful in treating non-congenital blindness. Outside the realm of treatment, there has also been success in reconstructing an individual's view of a visual scene from the electrical impulses recorded from that person's visual cortex. One purpose of motor neuroprosthetics would be to restore independent control of the body and assistive devices to individuals with paralysis due to a variety of causes including spinal cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, certain cerebellar disorders and certain types of stroke. Cochlear implants are hearing devices that can help people with certain kinds of hearing impairment or who are entirely deaf. ... This article is about hearing impairment in the patholocial sense. ... A science dedicated to the interdisciplinary study of visual perception and the visual system. ... The visual cortex is the general term applied to both the primary visual cortex (also known as V1) and the visual association area (V2, V3, V4, V5). ...


Theme in fiction

Direct neural interface devices were the prominent feature of the popular Matrix film series, wherein humanity was enslaved by artificially intelligent robots in a virtual world piped directly into people's brains. These interfaces are an extremely common element of cyberpunk fiction, often characterised as "control of hardware at speed of thought". In the meme wars novels of John Barnes, direct mind-computer interface permits the emergence of a hegemonic collective mind called One True. The Matrix is a film first released in the USA on March 31, 1999, written and directed by the Wachowski brothers (Andy and Larry). ... (Redirected from Robots) For other uses, see Robot (disambiguation). ... A virtual world is a computer-simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact with via avatars. ... Berlins Sony Center in Potsdamer Platz reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... John Barnes, (born 1957) is a prolific science fiction author, whose stories often explore questions of individual moral responsibility within a larger social context. ... One True is the hegemonic software program that takes control of individual human minds and entire human societies in John Barnes two Meme Wars novels Candle and The Sky So Big and Black. ...


Brain-computer interfacing is a particularly notable feature of:

Neuromancer (ISBN 0006480411) by William Gibson, is considered to be the first proper cyberpunk novel, and won the Nebula Award, the Philip K. Dick Memorial Award and Hugo Award after being published in 1984. ... William Gibson is generally credited with the invention of the Science Fiction genre known as cyberpunk, as well as coining the term cyberspace. ... This article is about the fictional society. ... Iain Menzies Banks (born on February 16, 1954 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland) writes mainstream novels as Iain Banks and science fiction as Iain M. Banks. ... Gridlinked is Neal Ashers first novel. ... Neal Asher (b. ... Altered Carbon (2002) is a hardboiled science fiction novel by Richard Morgan (his first). ... Richard Morgan (b. ... Greg Egan (born August 20, 1961) is an Australian (Perth-based) computer programmer and science fiction author. ... Neon Genesis Evangelion (Japanese: 新世紀エヴァンゲリオン Shin Seiki Evangerion) is an anime television series, begun in 1995, directed and written by Hideaki Anno, and produced by Gainax. ... Celia S. Friedman (born January 12, 1957) is a writer of science fiction. ... Charles Stross at Worldcon 2005 in Glasgow Charles David George Stross (born Leeds, October 18, 1964) is a writer based in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... An exocortex (speculative) is an external information processing system that augments, in a subtle and seamless fashion via a brain-computer interface, the brains biological high-level cognitive processes. ... Motoko Kusanagi in the movie Ghost in the Shell (1995) Ghost in the Shell (攻殻機動隊, Kōkaku Kidōtai, Mobile Armoured Riot Police), is a Japanese science fiction manga created by Masamune Shirow. ... A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime (アニメ) is Japanese animation, sometimes referred to in the Western world by the portmanteau Japanimation. ...

See also

Brain plasticity refers to the changes that occur in the organisation of the brain, and in particular changes that occur to the location of specific information processing functions, as a result of the effect of experience. ... An exocortex (speculative) is an external information processing system that augments, in a subtle and seamless fashion via a brain-computer interface, the brains biological high-level cognitive processes. ... In transhumanism and science fiction, mind transfer (also referred to as mind uploading or mind downloading, depending on ones point of reference), or whole body emulation refers to the hypothetical transfer of a human mind, body, and environment to an artificial substrate. ... A method of attempting to retrieve information from the brain (such as passwords, locations, etc. ... A whole-body transplant, or brain transplant, moves the brain of one being into the body of another. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... L Mikhail Lebedev N Miguel Nicolelis O Joseph ODoherty ...

References

  • R.T.Mihran, F.S.Barnes, H.Wachtel: Temporally-Specific Modification of Myelinated Axon Excitability in vitro Following A Single Ultrasound Pulse, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, Vol.16, No.3, pp.297-309, 1990
  • J.Edrich and T.Zhang: Ultrasonically Focused Neuromagnetic Stimulation, Proceeding of the Annual Conference on Engeneering in Medicine and Biology, v15. pt3, pp.1253-1254,1993
  • D.Dalecki, S.Z.Child, C.H.Raemanand E.Carlstensen: Tactile perception of ultrasound, Journal of acoustical society of America, pp3165-3170,1995
  • L.R.Gavrilov, E.M.Tsirulnikov, I.AB.I.Davies :Application of Focused Ultrasound for The Stimulation of Neural Structures, Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology,Vol.22,No2, pp.179-192,1996
  • Ginsberg, K.S., J.C. Lin, S. Murphy, and M.F. Lin, Microwave Effect On Input Resistance And Action Potential Firing Of Snail Neurons, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 39, pp. 1011-1021, 1992.
  • Lin, J.C. and Charles C. Thomas, Microwave Auditory Effects And Applications, Publisher, Springfield, IL 1978, 221 pp.
  • Guy, A.W. and J.C. Lin and F.A. Harris, The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Evoked Tactile and Auditory CNS Responses in Cats, International Microwave Symp., Ottawa, Canada, May 1972.
  • Taylor, E.M., A.W. Guy, B. Ashleman and J.C. Lin, Microwave Effects on Central Nervous System Attributed to Thermal Factors, IEEE G-MTT Int. Microwave Symp., Univ. of Colo., Boulder, CO, June 1973.
  • Guy, A.W., E.M. Taylor, B. Ashleman and J.C. Lin, Microwave Interaction with the Auditory Systems of Humans and Cats, IEEE G-MTT Int. Microwave Symp., Univ. of Colo., Boulder, CO, June 1973.
  • Guy, A.W., C.K. Chou, J.C. Lin and D. Christensen, Microwave Induced Acoustic Effects in Mammalian Auditory Systems and Physical Materials, N.Y. Acad. Sci. Conf. Biol. Effects of Nonionizing Radiation, New York, Feb. 1974.
  • Caldwell, L.R., J.C. Lin and A.W. Guy, Behavioral Changes of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation, IEEE S-MTT International Symp., Atlanta, GA, June 1974.
  • Lin, J.C. and J. Salinger, Microwave Measurement of Respiration, IEEE S-MTT International Microwave Symp., Palo Alto, CA, May 1975.
  • Lin, J.C. and C.K. Lam, A Theoretical Study of Microwave Generated Auditory Phenomena in Mammalian Cranial Structures, USNC/URSI - Biological Effects Series, Boulder, CO, Oct. 1975.
  • Wu, C.L. and J.C. Lin, Interaction of Modulated Electromagnetic Fields with Nervous Structures, USNC/URSI - Biological Effects Series, Boulder, CO, Oct. 1975.
  • Lin, J.C., Predicted Frequency and Threshold of Microwave-Induced Auditory Sensation, USNC/URSI - Biological Effects Series, Amherst, MA, Oct. 1976.
  • Lin, J.C., E. Dawe and J. Majcherek, A Noninvasive Microwave Apnea Detector, San Diego Biomedical Symp., San Diego, CA, Feb 1977.
  • Lin, J.C., R.J. Meltzer and F.K. Redding, Microwave Evoked Potentials in Cats, San Diego Biomedical Symposium, San Diego, CA, Feb. 1978.
  • Lin, J.C., R.J. Meltzer and F.K. Redding, Characteristics of Microwave Auditory Effects: Theory and Experiments, URSI Open Symp. on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, Helsinki, Finland, August 1978.
  • Nefcy, P.M. and J.C. Lin, A Model for Auditory Evoked Potentials, Annual Conf. on Engg. in Medicine and Biology, Atlanta, Georgia, Oct. 1978.
  • Arber, S.L., J.C. Lin, Microwave Effects on Helix Asperse Neurons, Fourth Ann. Mtg. Bioelectromagnetics Soc., Los Angeles, CA, June 1982.
  • Lin, J.C., S.L. Arber, Response of Snail Nerve Cells to Noise Modulated Microwave Field, Fourth Ann. Mtg. Bioelectromagnetic Soc., Los Angeles, CA, 1982.
  • Arber, S.L. and J.C. Lin, Role of External Calcium in Microwave-Induced Snail Neuron Response, Fifth Ann. Scientific Session Bioelectromagnetic Soc., Boulder, CO, June 1983.
  • Neilly, J.P., V. Kriho, S.L. Arber and J.C. Lin, Ultrastructural Studies of Microwave Irradiated Snail Nerve Cells, Fifth Ann. Scientific Session Bioelectromagnetics Soc., Boulder, CO, June 1983.
  • Ma, Y.C., J.C. Lin, W.D. O'Neill and S. Arber, Real Time Processing of Neuronal Response to Microwave, IEEE Engg. Medicine Biol. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, September 1984.
  • Popovic, M.A., K.H. Chan and J.C. Lin, Microprocessor Based Non-Contact Heart Rate/Respiration Monitor, IEEE Eng. Medicine Biol. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, September 1984.
  • Lin, J.C., Electromagnetic Interaction with Nervous System Structure and Function, IEEE Engg. in Biology Conf., Chicago, IL, September 1985.
  • Lin, J.C., J.L. Su and Y. Wang, Measurement of Microwave-Induced Thermoelastic Pressure Wave Propagation in Cat Brains, Ann. Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetic Society, Madison, WI June 1986.
  • Lin, J.C. W.D. O'Neill, A. Field and K. Ginsburg, Pulsed High Power Microwave Effects on Spontaneous Firing Activities of Snail Neurons, BEMS Ninth Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon, June 1987.
  • Ginsburg, K., J.C. Lin and W.D. O'Neill, Microwave Effects on Spiking Statistics of Single Neurons, BEMS Ninth Annual Meeting Program, Portland, Oregon, June 1987.

External links

  • International BCI platform
  • An article about a non-invasive device that allows crude vision without use of the eyes
  • Non-invasive BCI for seeing through the ears
  • Article regarding Nicolelis' work on BCIs in monkeys
  • Article about a rat brain in a dish flying a flight simulator
  • Article about fMRI Pong
  • PDF file from Dr. Yang Dan's website on her work reconstructing natural scenes from LGN impulses
  • Lymnaea stagnalis and the development of neuroelectronic technologies
  • Constraining the connectivity of neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays with microfluidic techniques: A step towards neuron-based functional chips.
General subfields and scientists in Cybernetics
K1 Ergodic theory, Polycontexturality, Second order cybernetics
K2 Catastrophe theory, Connectionism, Control theory, Decision theory, Game theory, Information theory, Semiotics, Synergetics, Systems theory
K3 Biological cybernetics, Biomedical cybernetics, Biorobotics, Computational neuroscience, Homeostasis, Medical cybernetics, Neuro cybernetics, Sociocybernetics
Cyberneticians William Ross Ashby, Claude Bernard, Valentin Braitenberg, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, George S. Chandy, Joseph J. DiStefano III, Heinz von Foerster, Charles François, Jay Forrester, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Francis Heylighen, Erich von Holst, Stuart Kauffman, Niklas Luhmann, Warren McCulloch, Humberto Maturana, Horst Mittelstaedt, Talcott Parsons, Walter Pitts, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Robert Trappl, Valentin Turchin, Francisco Varela, Frederic Vester, John N. Warfield, Kevin Warwick, Norbert Wiener

 
 

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